Reconstruction And Jim Crow Era
After the Civil War, the South was devastated in terms of infrastructure and economy. Because of states’ reluctance to grant voting rights to freedmen, Congress instituted Reconstruction governments. It established military districts and governors to rule over the South until new governments could be established. Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy were temporarily disenfranchised. Rebuilding was difficult as people grappled with the effects of a new labor economy of a free market in the midst of a widespread agricultural depression. In addition, limited infrastructure the South had was mostly destroyed by the war. At the same time, the North was rapidly industrializing. To avoid the social effects of the war, most of the Southern states initially passed black codes. During Reconstruction, these were mostly legally nullified by federal law and anti-Confederate legislatures, which existed for a short time during Reconstruction.
Presidents From The South
The South produced nine of the country’s first twelve Presidents. After Zachary Taylor won the presidential election of 1848, no Southern politician was elected president until Woodrow Wilson in 1912. Andrew Johnson who was vice president in 1865, became president after the death of Abraham Lincoln. Out of the last eleven U.S. presidents, six have Southern region ties: Lyndon B. Johnson , Jimmy Carter ” rel=”nofollow”> Georgia 197781), George H. W. Bush , Bill Clinton , George W. Bush , and Joe Biden . Johnson was a native of Texas, while Carter is from Georgia, and Clinton from Arkansas. While George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush began their political careers in Texas, they were both born in New England and have their ancestral roots in that region. Similarly, while Joe Biden was born in Pennsylvania, he grew up largely in Delaware and spent his entire political career there.
Economy From 1880s Through 1930s
Great Migration Houston: Where Seventeen Railroads Meet the Sea
At the end of the 19th century, white Democrats in the South had created state constitutions that were hostile to industry and business development, with anti-industrial laws extensive from the time new constitutions were adopted in the 1890s. Banks were few and small there was little access to credit. Traditional agriculture persisted across the region. Especially in Alabama and Florida, rural minorities held control in many state legislatures long after population had shifted to industrializing cities, and legislators resisted business and modernizing interests: Alabama refused to redistrict between 1901 and 1972, long after major population and economic shifts to cities. For decades Birmingham generated the majority of revenue for the state, for instance, but received little back in services or infrastructure.
Business interests were ignored by the Southern Democrat ruling class. Nonetheless, major new industries started developing in cities such as Atlanta, GA Birmingham, AL and Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston, Texas. Growth began occurring at a geometric rate. Birmingham became a major steel producer and mining town, with major population growth in the early decades of the 20th century.
Read Also: Does Kamala Harris Have Children Of Her Own
Congress Ends Segregation And Guarantees Voting Rights
Since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, black people have gone on to hold many offices within the Southern states. Black people have been elected or appointed as mayors or police chiefs in the cities of Atlanta, Baltimore, Birmingham, Charlotte, Columbia, Dover, Houston, Jackson, Jacksonville, Memphis, Montgomery, Nashville, New Orleans, Raleigh, Richmond, and Washington. They have also gone on to serve in both the U.S. Congress and state legislatures of Southern states.
South America And Oceania
- Chile: Chile is mostly on the South American mainland and includes the Oceanian islands of Easter Island and Isla Salas y Gómez Island. Those and the outlying South American Juan Fernández Islands and Desventuradas Islands are part of the Valparaíso Region.
- Ecuador: Ecuador contains the Galápagos Islands, which, depending on the definition, either lie in South America or are considered part of the Oceanian islands.
Recommended Reading: Who Are Paris Jackson’s Biological Parents
Europe And North America
- Denmark: As a constituent part of the Danish Realm, Greenland is a non-sovereign country within the Kingdom of Denmark. Fully located on the North American tectonic plate, and close to the mainland, Greenland is considered to be geographically a part of North America. Although it is politically associated with Europe and internationally represented by a European state , it is autonomous. Historically and ethnically, its native population is of North American tradition, although it also shares cultural links with other native peoples bordering the Arctic Sea in Northern Europe and Asia , as well as in North America . Greenland was part of Danish territory and within the territory of the European Union, but voted for more autonomy and is now excluded from the EU.
List Of Transcontinental Countries
|This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.|
Contiguous transcontinental countries are states that have one continuous or immediately-adjacent piece of territory that spans a continental boundary, most commonly the line that separates Europe and Asia . By contrast, non-contiguous transcontinental countries are those states that have portions of territory that are separated from one another either by a body of water or by other countries . Most non-contiguous transcontinental countries are countries with dependent territories like Denmark with Greenland, but can be countries that have fully integrated former dependent territories in their central states like France with its overseas regions.
Listed further below, separately, are countries with distant non-contiguous parts on separate continents.
Read Also: Movement Definition Geography
Europe North America South America Oceania Africa Asia And Antarctica
- United Kingdom: The United Kingdom, located in Northwestern Europe, possesses the ‘dependent territories‘ of Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are located in North America. The Falkland Islands are located in South America. The South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are associated with South America but straddle the plate boundary with and are closer to Antarctica. The Pitcairn Islands are located in Oceania. The islands of Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha are located in Africa. The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are located in Asia, and the British Indian Ocean Territory is located in the center of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia . The British Antarctic Territory is located in Antarctica. The United Kingdom is the only state in the world to possess territories in each continental region.
Europe North America And South America
- Netherlands: Though most of the Kingdom of the Netherlands’ landmass is in Europe, it also includes six island territories in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea: the Dutch Caribbean. Within the Lesser Antilles archipelago, three territories are in the Leeward Islands group and three in the Leeward Antilles group . Since the dissolution of the Dutch Antilles in 2010, the sovereignKingdom of the Netherlands has been administratively divided into four non-sovereign constituent “countries”: Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Netherlands the last of which includes the islands of Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba as “special municipalities”, making it a non-sovereign transcontinental constituent country within the Kingdom.
Don’t Miss: What Is The Molecular Geometry Of Ccl4
Antarctica And Other Continents
- Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, and the United Kingdom: These eight states have overseas island possessions in the Subantarctic region between 46°S and 60°S latitude. Subantarctic islands that are north of 60°S latitude but south of the Antarctic Convergence and that are recognized by international law as being full sovereign possessions of an administering state are: Bouvet Island , Heard Island and McDonald Islands , the Kerguelen Islands , and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands .
- Argentina, Australia, Chile, France,New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom: These seven states claim portions of the Antarctic mainland , as well as its associated islands south of 60°S latitude. Some, including Argentina and Chile, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. However, none of these claims are recognized by the United Nations and the international community. Since 1961, the Antarctic Treaty System has held in abeyance all land claims south of 60°S latitude, including Antarctica’s ice shelves and Antarctic islands.
Europe North America South America Oceania Africa And Antarctica
- France: Metropolitan France is located in Europe, while the five overseas departments and regions, five overseas collectivities, and one Sui generis collectivity are located in other continental regions. Guadeloupe, , Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon are located in North America, French Guiana is located in South America, Mayotte and Réunion are located in Africa, and French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and New Caledonia are located in Oceania. These 11 populated territories of overseas France are integral parts of France, as are the uninhabited Clipperton Island in North America and the uninhabited French Southern and Antarctic Lands, which include the claimed Adélie Land on the Antarctic mainland, the Crozet Islands and the Kerguelen Islands in the Antarctic region, Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands on the Australian Plate, and the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean. French sovereignty claim on Adélie Land is in abeyance under the Antarctic Treaty System. France has territory in each continental region except Asia.
Recommended Reading: Eoc Fsa Practice Test Algebra 2 Calculator Portion
Which Continent Does Russia Belong To
Russia is part of both Europe and Asia. In the 7 continent model in fact, it is not always clear where to place Russia. In the map pictured above Russia is divided into two parts along the Ural Mountains line, from the source of the Ural River down to the Greater Caucasus from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea . However, in the list of continents, we had to place Russia in one continent or the other, so we placed it in Europe, following the United Nations classification.
About 75% of the Russian population lives in the European continent. On the other hand, 75% of Russian territory is located in Asia.
Other Politicians And Political Movements
The South has produced various nationally known politicians and political movements. In 1948, a group of Democratic congressmen, led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, split from the Democrats in reaction to an anti-segregation speech given by Minneapolis mayor and future senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota. They founded the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party. During that year’s presidential election, the party ran Thurmond as its candidate and he carried four Deep South states.
In the 1968 Presidential election, Alabama Governor George C. Wallace ran for president on the American Independent Party ticket. Wallace ran a “law and order” campaign similar to that of Republican candidate, Richard Nixon. Nixon’s Southern Strategy of gaining electoral votes downplayed race issues and focused on culturally conservative values, such as family issues, patriotism, and cultural issues that appealed to Southern Baptists.
Sorry Europe Australia And Antarctica There Are Only Four Continents
Im preparing to teach a new class this spring, Geography of the World Economy. Im really looking forward to it.
In preparing my syllabus I find myself wanting to be able to share a coherent hierarchy and regional partition of Earths surface with my students who, as business majors and future competitors in an increasingly globalized economy, will likely need to be able to refer to various parts of the world to communicate plans and ideas. Unfortunately, I dont think a coherent system exists. So, as part of my course preparation I will try to contribute some thoughts along the same lines as my regional geography of the US.
The first challenge I want to take on is the definition of a continent. The word continent and its use in reference to large land masses comes from the Latin, terra continens, meaning continuous land. The definition is not based upon some sort of size threshold whereby extremely large islands, i.e., a land mass completely surrounded by water, can be considered continents. As such, Antarctica and Australia are enormous islands, not continents. Sorry, mates.and, uh, penguins. Its just geography, nothing personal.
So were left with two enormous, continuous and connected land masses. In the Western Hemisphere we have North America and South America connected by the very narrow Isthmus of Panama. And, in the Eastern Hemisphere, we have Europe and Asia connected to Africa at the very small Sinai Peninsula.
So, just five continents, right? No.
Mcq Questions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Human Geography: Nature And Scope With Answers
January 23, 2021 by Prasanna
Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Human Geography: Nature and Scope with Answers Pdf free download. MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers were prepared based on the latest exam pattern. We have provided Human Geography: Nature and Scope Class 12 Geography MCQs Questions with Answers to help students understand the concept very well.
You May Like: What Is Figure Ground Perception Psychology
South America And Latin America
South Americas landscape is dominated by the Andes Mountains on the west, which form the worlds longest mountain range. The Amazon rainforest is not only the largest, but also the most diverse rainforest in the world. It dominates the middle of the continent and is fed by the Amazon River, which has long been considered the second-longest river in the world but may actually be the longest. The rainforest is surrounded by highlands, and the dry coastal plains cover much of the west. Contrasting with the Amazon rainforest is the Atacama desert in Chile, the driest desert in the world. It is so dry that there are very few bacteria and fungi there.
Since Mexico and Central America are culturally more similar to South America, the entire region is here grouped as Latin America. Though the term Latin America generally refers to Spanish-speaking countries, the region is incredibly diverse, and many languages besides Spanish are spoken there. In Brazil, the dominant language is Portuguese, and countries like Argentina, Chile, and Venezuela have their own dialects of Spanish. There are many indigenous people groups that live throughout Latin America, such as descendants of the Maya, Aztecs, and Inca, and they still speak the indigenous languages of their ancestors.
Human Geography: Nature And Scope Class 12 Mcqs Questions With Answers
Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Question 1.Which one of the following statements does not describe Geography? An integrative discipline. Study of the inter-relationship between humans and environment. Subjected to dualism. Not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology.
Answer: Not relevant in the present time due to the development of technology.
Question 2.Which one of the following is not a source of geographical information? travellers accounts samples of rock materials from the moon ancient epics.
Answer: Ancient epics.
Question 3.Which one of the following is the most important factor in the interaction between people and the environment? human intelligence
Recommended Reading: What Are The Major Specialties In The Field Of Psychology
Economy From 1940s Through 20th Century
World War II marked a time of dramatic change within the South from an economic standpoint, as new industries and military bases were developed by the Federal government, providing much needed capital and infrastructure in many regions. People from all parts of the US came to the South for military training and work in the region’s many bases and new industries. During and after the war millions of hard-scrabble farmers, both white and black, left agriculture for other occupations and urban jobs.
Per capita income jumped 140% from 1940 to 1945, compared to 100% elsewhere in the United States. Southern income rose from 59% to 65%. Dewey Grantham says the war, “brought an abrupt departure from the South’s economic backwardness, poverty, and distinctive rural life, as the region moved perceptively closer to the mainstream of national economic and social life.”
What Are The 7 Continents Of The World
People tend to think of the seven continents in terms of large land portions. While this understanding is certainly helpful, there is much more to continents!
Think about, for example, how all continents have islands that are separate from the main land mass. The continent of Australia has islands like New Zealand and Papua New Guinea Europe has Iceland, Great Britain, Ireland, and Greenland and Asia is home to Sri Lanka, Japan, and the massive archipelagos of the Philippines and Indonesia. Even Antarctica has islands!
Consider also that Europe and Asia are part of the same land mass but are deemed to be two separate continents. This separation is because the cultures on one side of the land mass are substantially different from the cultures on the other side.
To best understand the seven continents, rather than merely thinking about land, think in terms of geographical features along with shared histories and cultures. Iceland and Greenland are far from mainland Europe, but they were both settled by Nordic peoples from Scandinavia therefore these areas still connect regarding a cultural ancestry with many Europeans. However, even though Greenland is governed by Denmark and was settled by Vikings, it is considered part of North America.
Most of the people in these countries speak Spanish , and the dominant religion is Catholicism. So are Mexico and Central America part of North America? This answer really depends on whether you ask a geographer or an anthropologist!
Also Check: Lesson 4.5 Practice A