## Physical Formulas For Quantities In Relativistic Dynamics

All the known quantities in classical mechanics get modified, when we switch over to relativistic mechanics which is based on the special theory of relativity. Here are formulas of quantities in relativistic dynamics.

Relativistic momentum p = m0v;where m0;is the rest mass of the particle.

Rest mass energy E = m0c2

Total Energy E = )

## Is An Atom An Empty Space

**The volume of an atom** is about **15 orders of magnitude****larger** than the volume of a nucleus. For **uranium atom**, the **Van der Waals radius** is about **186 pm = 1.86 ×1010 m**. The Van der Waals radius, rw, of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom. ;Assuming spherical shape, the uranium atom have volume of about ;**26.9 ×1030 m3**. But this huge space is occupied primarily;by electrons, because the **nucleus** occupies only about **1721×1045 m3**;of space. These electrons together weigh only a fraction of entire atom.

It may seem, that the space and in fact the matter is **empty**, **but it is not**. Due to the **quantum nature of electrons**, the electrons are not point particles, they are smeared out over the whole atom. The classical description cannot be used to describe things on the atomic scale. On the atomic scale, physicists have found that quantum mechanics describes things very well on that scale. Particle locations in quantum mechanics are not at an exact position, they are described by a **probability density function**. Therefore the space in an atom is not empty, but it is filled by a probability density function of electrons .

## Volume Calculator And Tools Dedicated To Specific Shapes

We’ve decided to make this volume calculator a simple tool which covers the five most popular 3D shapes. However, not every volume equation and shape type may be implemented here, as it will make the calculator overloaded and unintuitive. So if you’re looking for a specific shape, check out the calculators dedicated to volumes of chosen shapes:

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## What Is Specific Volume

**Specific volume** is an** intensive variable**, whereas volume is an extensive variable. The standard unit for specific volume in the SI system is cubic meters per kilogram . The standard unit in the English system is cubic feet per pound mass .

The density of a substance is the reciprocal of its** specific volume** .

** = m/V = 1/**

**Density** is defined as the **mass per unit volume**. It is also an **intensive property**, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:

** = m/V**

**nucleons****densest material****metal osmium**** dwarf stars****neutron stars**

**List of densest materials:**

It must be noted, plutonium is a man-made isotope and is created from uranium in nuclear reactors. But, In fact, scientists have found trace amounts of naturally-occurring plutonium.

The density of Hassium is followed by **Meitnerium** , which has an estimated density of** 37.4 x 103 kg/m3**.

**density****specific volume****changed****pressure****temperature****pressure always increases****density****liquids****solids****compressibility****Compressibility**

## How To Calculate Volume Volume Formulas

There is no simple answer to this question, as it depends on the shape of the object in question. Here are the formulas for some of the most common shapes:

Cube = s³, where *s* is the length of the side.

Sphere = r³, where *r* is the radius.

Cylinder = r²h, where *r* is the radius and *h* is the height.

Cone = r²h, where *r* is the radius and *h* is the height.

Rectangular solid = lwh, where *l* is the length, *w* is the width and *h* is the height .

Pyramid = Ah where *A* is a base area and *h* is the height. For a pyramid with a regular base, other equation may be used as well: Pyramid = * h * side_length² * cot, where *n* is a number of sides of the base for a regular polygon.

Prism = Ah, where *A* is a base area and *h* is the height. For a right triangular prism, the equation can be easily derived, as well as for a right rectangular prism, which is apparently the same shape as a box.

Shape | |
---|---|

Right Rectangular Prism | V = lwh |

V = 4r³/3 |

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## Momentum Force And Impulse

Formulas for momentum, impulse and force concerning a particle moving in 3 dimensions are as follows :

- Momentum is the product of mass and velocity of a body. Momentum is calculate using the formula: P = m x v
- Force can defined as something which causes a change in momentum of a body. Force is given by the celebrated newtons law of motion: F = m x a
- Impulse is a large force applied in a very short time period. The strike of a hammer is an impulse. Impulse is given by I = m

## How Do I Use The Volume Calculator

Let’s look at the example of how to use this volume calculator:

**Select the 3D shape type**. If you can’t find the shape you want to calculate the volume of, choose other special dedicated calculators . In this example, let’s assume you want to calculate the volume of a cylinder.

**Choose the right section of the volume calculator**. In our case, it’s the part titled *Cylinder volume*.

**Type given data into proper boxes**. Our cylinder has a radius of 1 ft and a height of 3 ft. You can change the units by a simple click on the unit name.

**Here you go! The volume of a chosen shape is displayed**. In our case, it’s 9.42478 cu ft.

If you want to check how much that is in US barrels unit, just click on the unit name and choose barrels from the drop-down list. Our cylinder has a capacity of ~2.24 oil barrels.

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## Radioactivity And Nuclear Energy

It was quickly noted after the discovery of radioactivity in 1897, that the total energy due to radioactive processes is about one *million times* greater than that involved in any known molecular change, raising the question of where the energy comes from. After eliminating the idea of absorption and emission of some sort of Lesagian ether particles, the existence of a huge amount of latent energy, stored within matter, was proposed by New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford and British radiochemist Frederick Soddy in 1903. Rutherford also suggested that this internal energy is stored within normal matter as well. He went on to speculate in 1904: “If it were ever found possible to control at will the rate of disintegration of the radio-elements, an enormous amount of energy could be obtained from a small quantity of matter.”

## Physics Formulas For Class 9 Physics Formulas List

The volume of a sphere is the integral of an infinite number of infinitesimally small circular disks of thickness dx.

**Physics formula volume**.

The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows.

I mean honestly we do not know.

The driver steps on the gas and the car accelerates forward.

Volume is a basic physical quantityvolume is a derived quantity and it expresses the three dimensional extent of an objectvolume is often quantified numerically using the si derived unit the cubic metrefor example the volume inside a sphere that is the volume of a ball is derived to be v 43pr 3 where r is the radius of the sphere.

So volume of cylinder area of circle height of cylinder pir2h volume of cube area of square height of cube a2a a3.

Pressure is depth dependent not volume dependent so there is a reason that water seeks its own level.

Physics is the most fundamental of all sciences.

What was the cars acceleration.

The surface area of the circular disk is.

Physics is filled with equations and formulas that deal with angular motion carnot engines fluids forces moments of inertia linear motion simple harmonic motion thermodynamics and work and energy.

Restating this as energy equation the energy per unit volume in an ideal incompressible liquid is constant throughout its vessel.

List of data formulae and relationships data molar gas constant r 831 j mol 1k avogadro constant n.

You can even use this list for a quick revision before an exam.

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## What Is Density In Physics

**Density in Physics Definition:**1. Density of a substance is defined as the ratio of its mass to its volume.

2. Density is the mass per unit volume of any object. It is calculated by dividing the **mass** of an object by its **volume.**

We are giving a detailed and clear sheet on all;Physics Notes that are very useful to understand the Basic Physics Concepts.

## Volume Units And Conversion Table

Popular units of volume are:

**Metric volume units**

If you need to convert the units of volume, you can use our great volume converter. Another useful tool is our grams to cups calculator, which can help if you want to use a food recipe from a different country. Note that it’s not a simple conversion, but change from weight to volume unit that’s why you need to know the ingredient type .

Also, you can have a look at this neat volume unit conversion table to find out the conversion factor in a blink of an eye:

cubic inches |
---|

1 |

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## How To Calculate Volume Using Density

Density measure the amount of mass in a given volume of substance or how much material is in a given space. The density is constant for a substance at a given temperature since increasing the mass of a sample will increase the volume at a proportional rate. Density is calculated by dividing the mass of a substance by the volume . If the density of a substance is known, determining the mass of a sample will allow the volume to be calculated.

Determine the density of the substance. Many reference sources are available that give the density of different compounds. Commonly used references include the Merck Index and the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

Determine the mass of the substance using a balance. Either a triple-beam balance or electronic balance may be used. One method of measuring the mass is to zero the balance with the container for the sample on the balance. Then add the sample to the container and measure the mass of the container and sample. Alternatively, the mass may be determined by measuring the mass of the container and then the mass of the container with the substance. Subtract the mass of the container from the mass of the substance and container to calculate the mass of the substance .

#### Related Articles

## A Comprehensive List Of All The Physics Formulas

Learning physics is all about applying concepts to solve problems. This article provides a comprehensive physics formulas list, that will act as a ready reference, when you are solving physics problems. You can even use this list, for a quick revision before an exam.

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Learning physics is all about applying concepts to solve problems. This article provides a comprehensive physics formulas list, that will act as a ready reference, when you are solving physics problems. You can even use this list, for a quick revision before an exam.

Physics is the most fundamental of all sciences. It is also one of the toughest sciences to master. Learning physics is basically studying the fundamental laws that govern our universe. I would say that there is a lot more to ascertain than just remember and mug up the physics formulas. Try to understand what a formula says and means, and what physical relation it expounds. If you understand the physical concepts underlying those formulas, deriving them or remembering them is easy. This ScienceStruck article lists some physics formulas that you would need in solving basic physics problems.

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## Control Volume Control Volume Analysis

A **control volume** is a fixed region in space chosen for the thermodynamic study of mass and energy balances for flowing systems. The boundary of the **control volume** may be a real or imaginary **envelope**. The control surface is the boundary of the control volume.

A control volume analysis can be used for example to determine the rate of change of momentum for a fluid. In this analysis, we will consider a streamtube as we did for the Bernoulli equation. In this** control volume** any change in momentum of the fluid within a control volume is due to the action of external forces on the fluid within the volume.

See also: Momentum Formula

As can be seen from the picture the **control volume method** can be used to analyze the law of conservation of momentum in fluid. **Control volume** is an **imaginary surface** enclosing a volume of interest. The control volume can be fixed or moving, and it can be rigid or deformable. In order to determine all forces acting on the surfaces of the control volume we have to solve the conservation laws in this control volume.

## What Are 2 Ways To Measure Volume

Different Ways to Find Volume

- Solve for Volume by Space. All physical objects occupy space, and you can find the volume for some of them by measuring their physical dimensions.
- Solve for Volume by Density and Mass. Density is defined as an objects mass per a given unit of volume.
- Solve for Volume by Displacement.

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## How To Find Volume

The volume formula **depends on the shape of the object**. One of the most popular shapes is a rectangular prism, also known as a box, where you can simply **multiply length times width times height** to find its volume. Another common shape is a cylinder to find its volume, multiply the height of the cylinder by the area of its base . For other 3D shapes, check Omni’s Volume Calculator.

## Volume Of A Rectangular Solid

A rectangular solid is also called a rectangular prism or a cuboid.

In a rectangular solid, the length, width and height may be of different lengths.

The volume of the above rectangular solid would be the product of the length, width and height that is Volume of rectangular solid = *lwh*

**Worksheets And More Examples:**More examples about the surface area of cuboids

#### How To Find The Volume Of A Rectangular Prism Or Cuboid?

The formula for the volume of a cuboid is *l* × *w* × *h* = *lwh*, where *l* is the length, *w* is thewidth and *h* is the height of the rectangular prism. This video will give two examples of finding thevolume of a rectangular prism.

**Examples:**

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## Volume Of An Atom And Nucleus

**The atom** consist of a small but massive **nucleus** surrounded by a cloud of rapidly moving **electrons**. The nucleus is composed of **protons and ****neutrons**. Typical nuclear radii are of the order 1014 m. Assuming spherical shape, nuclear radii can be calculated according to following formula:

r = r0 . A1/3

where r0 = 1.2 x 10-15 m = 1.2 fm

If we use this approximation, we therefore expect the volume of the nucleus to be of the order of 4/3r3 or 7,23 ×1045 m3 for hydrogen nuclei or 1721×1045 m3 for 238U nuclei. These are volumes of nuclei and atomic nuclei contains of about **99.95%** of mass of atom.

## Table Of Common Specific Volume Values

Engineers and scientists typically refer to tables of specific volume values. These representative values are for standard temperature and pressure , which is a temperature of;0;°C and pressure of 1 atm.

Substance |
---|

1.24 |

Substances marked with an asterisk are not at STP.

Since materials aren’t always under standard conditions, there are also tables for materials that list specific volume values over a range of temperatures and pressures. You can find detailed tables for air and steam.

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## Momentum And Energy Transformations In Relativistic Mechanics

Consider the same two frames as in case of Lorentz coordinate transformations above. S is moving at a velocity v along the x-axis. Here again is the Lorentz factor. In S frame and in S frame are momentum components. Now we consider formulas for momentum and energy transformations for a particle, between these two reference frames in relativistic regime.

## Volume Of Coolant In Reactor Coolant System

In typical modern **pressurized water reactors** , the **Reactor Coolant System** , shown in the figure, consists of:

- each loop contains a
**main coolant pump**and a**steam generator**. - the system includes a
**pressurizer**and its auxiliary systems

All RCS components are located inside the containment building.

At normal operation, there is a compressed liquid water inside the reactor vessel, loops and steam generators. ;The pressure is maintained at approximately **16MPa**. At this pressure water boils at approximately **350°C** . ;Inlet temperature of the water is about** 290°C** . The water is heated in the reactor core to approximately** 325°C** as the water flows through the core. As it can be seen, the reactor contains;approximately 25°C subcooled coolant .This high pressure is maintained by the pressurizer, a separate vessel that is connected to the primary circuit and partially filled with water which is heated to the **saturation temperature** for the desired pressure by submerged **electrical heaters**. Temperature in the pressurizer can be maintained at 350 °C. At normal conditions, about **60%** of volume of pressurizer occupies the **compressed water** and about **40%** of volume occupies the **saturated steam**.

Volumes of typical PWR are in the following table.

**It is an illustrative example, following data do not correspond to any reactor design.**

where T is the change in temperature, V is the original volume, V is the change in volume, and **V** is the** coefficient of volume expansion**.

See also: Steam Tables

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