Muammar Gaddafi Was Libyas Longest
Muammar Gaddafi seized power in 1969 and ruled Libya for 42 years. As a result, he became one of the longest-serving African and world national heads of state. Gaddafi was famously known for being a dictatorial leader. However, he also served his country well by improving its health services to the level of being among the best in Africa. He also increased Libyas rate of literacy from only 25% before his reign to 87%. His reign ended in 2011 when he was toppled from the government. The militia tracked him down in his hometown where he had sought refuge and assassinated him. At the time of Gaddafis death, his net worth was US$ 200 billion.
Phoenician And Greek Libya
The Phoenicians were some of the first to establish coastal trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre developed commercial relations with the various Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials. By the 5th century BCE, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, Carthage, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea , Libdah and Sabratha. These cities were in an area that was later called Tripolis, or “Three Cities”, from which Libya’s modern capital Tripoli takes its name.
In 630 BCE, the Ancient Greeks colonized Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as Cyrenaica: Barce Euhesperides Taucheira Balagrae and Apollonia , the port of Cyrene. Together with Cyrene, they were known as the Pentapolis . Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the Greek world, and was famous for its medical school, learned academies, and architecture. The Greeks of the Pentapolis resisted encroachments by the Ancient Egyptians from the East, as well as by the Carthaginians from the West.
Tourism Travel And Recreation
Tourists are attracted to Libya’s climate, extensive beaches, and magnificent Greek and Roman ruins. However, tourist facilities are not widely available, because tourism has been discouraged during the tenure of Qadhafi. It suffered a further blow with the 1992 imposition of UN sanctions related to the bombing of a Pan Am jet over Lockerbie, Scotland UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 when Libya resolved this case.
All visitors, except Arab nationals, need a valid passport and visa. Visitors must register at the nearest police station within three days of arrival to avoid problems either during their stay or when departing. In 2003, Libya had 957,896 foreign visitors. Of these visitors, 44% came from Egypt. There were 12,405 hotel rooms with 20,967 beds and an occupancy rate of 45%.
According to the US Department of State, the 2005 estimated cost of staying in Tripoli was $344.
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Consular Information Sheetjanuary 9 2004
Country Description: Officially known as the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Libya has a developing economy. Islamic ideals and beliefs provide the conservative foundation of the country’s customs, laws, and practices. Tourist facilities are not widely available.
Entry Requirements: Passports and visas are required. On December 11, 1981, U.S. passports ceased to be valid for travel to, in, or through Libya and may not be used for that purpose without a special validation. Please see paragraphs below on Passport Validation and U.S. Treasury Economic Sanctions. Visa applications and inquiries must be made through a Libyan Embassy in a third country. Under certain circumstances such as a family visit or business meeting, a person may apply for a visa at the Libyan Mission to the in . The land borders with Egypt and Tunisia are subject to periodic closures even to travelers having valid Libyan visas. Short-term closures of other land borders occur with little notice. Within three days of arrival, visitors must register at the police station closest to where they are residing or they may encounter problems during their stay or upon departure.
For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor the Department’s Internet website at http://travel.state.gov where the current Worldwide Caution Public Announcement, Travel Warnings, including the Travel Warning for Libya, and Public Announcements can be found.
The Land And Its People
The fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has a total area of nearly 680,000 square miles. It is surrounded by ALGERIA and TUNISIA on the west, CHAD and NIGER on the south, and EGYPT and SUDAN on the east. Most of the population lives in the northern region along the coast. The remainder of the country lies in the SAHARA DESERT.
A series of ridges known as the Jebel run along the southern edge of the region of Tripolitania. South of the Jebel is Fezzan, mostly barren desert broken up by oases. In eastern Libya, Cyrenaica rises in a series of ridges along the coast and extends into the desert in the south. The vast majority of Libyans are Muslim Arabs and about 5 percent are BERBERS, an indigenous people of the region. A large number of immigrant workers employed by Libyan businesses live in the country.
To increase the size of the workforce, the government has encouraged Libyans to have large families. As a result much of the population is very young. The two largest cities, Tripoli and Benghazi, are on the Mediterranean. Most of the people in rural areas live near oases where they can obtain water to irrigate their farms.
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Interesting Facts About Libya
Libya is a predominantly Islamic nation located in northern Africa. It is surrounded by six countries namely Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, Chad, Egypt, and Niger. The states capital, as well as the largest city, is Tripoli. Libya has a population of approximately 7.2 million. Acclaimed as the 4th largest country in Africa by land area, Libya possesses many unique features as outlined below
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What Is Berberska Naselja U Libiji
Iako i danas u Libiji postoje izdvojena berberska naselja, te ovi narodi i dalje ive u podruju od atlantske obale Afrike sve do oaze Siva u Egiptu, jnihov broj se znatno smanjio zbog klimatskih promjena i irenja pustinje.
What is the physical geography of Libya?
As observed on the physical map of Libya, most of the countrys terrain is barren and features flat to undulating plains, plateaus, and depressions.Several highlands dot the landscape, but there are almost no true mountain ranges, except for the Tibesti Massif along its border with Chad.
Infrastructure Power And Communications
Libya has a good infrastructure thanks to its development projects since the 1970s. Its fossil-fuel generators produced electricity at the rate of 16.92 billion kilowatt hours in 1998, which was well above consumption . There are large-scale plans for their expansionwhich will prepare Libya for increasing consumptionvalued at about US$6 billion.
Libya’s land communication system is confined to an extensive road network estimated at 83,200 kilometers in 1996 of which 47,590 kilometers are paved. They provide adequate access to most of its major rural and urban areas. There is no train service, but there are plans for building north-south and east-west railway lines.
|aData are from , World Telecommunication Development Report 1999 and are per 1,000 people.
|bData are from Software Consortium and are per 10,000 people.
|. World Development Indicators 2000.
The state-owned General Post and Telecommunications Company dominates the Libyan telecommunications system. It provides fixed telephone services a private company in which the GPTC has a 20 percent stake provides services. There are at least 318,000 fixed telephone lines and 20,000 cellular telephones in use.
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Libya And Its Regions
- Jacqueline Passon &
Dept. of Physical Geography, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Dr. Jacqueline Passon & Dr. Klaus Braun
Whereas a more natural landscape-based characterisation of Libya results in a, broadly speaking, fertile and liveable north and a sparse and hostile south, the distribution of the population and the spatial differences in human activity indicate further distinctions. Those include, in particular, the ones between west and east. This leads to a three-way split of Libya into the regions of Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east and Fezzan in the south, which can be understood as a result of the specific historical conditions in these regions.
With respect to designations used for these regions, it can be seen that even their names reflect somehow the historical development with its long-lasting series of discovery and colonisation. Whereas Tripolitania and Cyrenaica are denominations which are derived from Roman provinces, the name Fezzan is said to come from the Tuaregs word Taffsania which means the edge of the hill. Others, however, believe that the name is derived from the Roman word Phasania or Phazania, which may mean the country of the pheasants and had been used at the time of the Islamic conquest.
Transition And The Second Civil War
After the First Civil War, the National Transitional Council has been responsible for the transition of the administration of the governing of Libya. The “liberation” of Libya was celebrated on 23 October 2011. Then Jibril announced that consultations were under way to form an interim government within one month, followed by elections for a constitutional assembly within eight months and parliamentary and presidential elections to be held within a year after that. He stepped down as expected the same day and was succeeded by Ali Tarhouni.
After the fall of Gaddhafi, Libya has been faced with internal struggles. A protest started against the new regime of NTC. The loyalists of Gaddhafi rebelled and fought with the new Libyan army.
Because the Constitutional Declaration allowed a multi-party system, the political parties, like Democratic Party, Party of Reform and Development, National Gathering for Freedom, Justice and Development appeared. The Islamist movement started. To stop it, the CNT government denied power to parties based on religion, tribal and ethnic bases.
On 30 March 2014 General National Congress voted to replace itself with new House of Representatives.
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Support For Rebel And Paramilitary Groups
The government of Libya has also received enormous criticism and trade restrictions for allegedly providing numerous armed rebel groups with weapons, explosives, and combat training. The ideologies of some of these organizations have varied greatly. Though most seem to be nationalist, with some having a socialist ideology, while others hold a more conservative and Islamic fundamentalist ideology.
Paramilitaries supported by Libya past and present include:
In 1988, Libya was found to be in the process of constructing a chemical weapons plant at Rabta, a plant which is now the largest such facility in the Third World. As of January 2002, Libya was constructing another chemical weapons production facility at Tarhunah. Citing Libya’s support for terrorism and its past regional aggressions, the United States voiced concern over this development. In cooperation with like-minded countries, the United States has since sought to bring a halt to the foreign technical assistance deemed essential to the completion of this facility.
Libya’s relationship with the former Soviet Union involved massive Libyan arms purchases from the Soviet bloc and the presence of thousands of east bloc advisers. Libya’s useand heavy lossof Soviet-supplied weaponry in its war with Chad was a notable breach of an apparent Soviet-Libyan understanding not to use the weapons for activities inconsistent with Soviet objectives. As a result, Soviet-Libyan relations reached a nadir in mid-1987.
Uprising And The First Civil War
After popular movements overturned the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt, its immediate neighbors to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale revolt beginning on 17 February 2011. By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. In the early hours of 21 February 2011, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, oldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, spoke on Libyan television of his fears that the country would fragment and be replaced by “15 Islamic fundamentalist emirates” if the uprising engulfed the entire state. He admitted that “mistakes had been made” in quelling recent protests and announced plans for a constitutional convention, but warned that the country’s economic wealth and recent prosperity was at risk and warned of “rivers of blood” if the protests continued.
On 27 February 2011, the National Transitional Council was established under the stewardship of Mustafa Abdul Jalil, Gaddafi’s former justice minister, to administer the areas of Libya under rebel control. This marked the first serious effort to organize the broad-based opposition to the Gaddafi regime. While the council was based in Benghazi, it claimed Tripoli as its capital.Hafiz Ghoga, a human rights lawyer, later assumed the role of spokesman for the council. On 10 March 2011, France became the first state to officially recognise the council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people.
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Colonel Gaddafi In Power
For the first seven years following the revolution, Colonel Gaddafi and twelve fellow army officers, the Revolutionary Command Council, began a complete overhaul of Libya’s political system, society, and economy. In 1977, Qaddafi convened a General People’s Congress to proclaim the establishment of “people’s power,” change the country’s name to the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and to give primary authority in the GPC, at least theoretically. Today, the official name of the country of Libya is Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma.
Gaddafi remained the de facto chief of state and secretary general of the GPC until 1980, when he gave up his office. He continued to control all aspects of the Libyan government through direct appeals to the masses, a pervasive security apparatus, and powerful revolutionary committees. Although he held no formal office, Gaddafi exercised absolute power with the assistance of a small group of trusted advisers, who included relatives from his home base in the Surt region, which lies between the rival provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica.
What Is The Geography Of Libya
Libya is almost entirely covered by the Libyan Desert, a flat plateau thats part of the Sahara, the worlds largest hot desert. Libya is so dry that no permanent rivers flow through its boundaries. Water may flow beneath the ground and occasionally seep aboveground into dry streambeds called wadis.
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Achaemenid And Ptolemaic Libya
In 525 BCE the Persian army of Cambyses II overran Cyrenaica, which for the next two centuries remained under Persian or Egyptian rule. Alexander was greeted by the Greeks when he entered Cyrenaica in 331 BCE, and Eastern Libya again fell under the control of the Greeks, this time as part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Later, a federation of the Pentapolis was formed that was customarily ruled by a king drawn from the Ptolemaic royal house.
The decline of the Roman Empire saw the classical cities fall into ruin, a process hastened by the Vandals‘ destructive sweep though North Africa in the 5th century. The region’s prosperity had shrunk under Vandal domination, and the old Roman political and social order, disrupted by the Vandals, could not be restored. In outlying areas neglected by the Vandals, the inhabitants had sought the protection of tribal chieftains and, having grown accustomed to their autonomy, resisted re-assimilation into the imperial system.
The Libyan Desert Is Known For Going For Decades Without Rain
The Libyan Desert comprises the eastern and northern parts of the Sahara Desert. Ideally, it is the part of the Sahara Desert found in the state of Libya. The Libyan Desert is known for being the harshest, driest, and most remote region of the Sahara. With day temperatures of up to 50 degrees Celsius, this region may go for decades without rain.
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Urbanism Architecture And The Use Of Space
Libyan towns are characterized by a strict distinction between public and private use of space. The streets, cafés, mosques, and shops are a man’s world, while the domestic compound is the woman’s world. The gardens, usually worked by families, are sanctuaries, not to be entered by strangers. The compact nature of fortified residential centers gives them a distinctive character. Streets are narrow and twisting. In some areas, kin groups, looking to extend the space available to developing extended families, have joined houses at the second-story level over the street to extend living quarters. This bridging effect produces long canopied cul-de-sacs, where kin groups may convert public to private space by gating the residential quarter. Whole communities may extend this concept of the privacy of space to the reception of strangers.
In tented societies, spatial use and the distinction between public and private spaces are similar to that observed in the towns. Pastoral society has less of a problem defining public space. Bedouin camps consist of closely-related kin, and the physical distance between family groups in the same tribal section reinforces privacy. For most of the year, Bedouin camps spread across the countryside with groups separated from each other by several miles. Camps consist of discreet domestic units residing in tents that are placed in a single line.