Friday, September 22, 2023

# What Is Newton’s First Law Of Physics

## Science Experiment: Newton’s First Law Of Motion

Newton’s First Law | Force & Motion | Physics | FuseSchool

07/13/2021 |Science Experiments

Physicists study matter – all of the “stuff” in the universe and how that “stuff” moves. One of the most famous physicists of all time was Sir Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac is most famous for explaining gravity, a concept we are so familiar with now it seems obvious to us. He is also famous for explaining how stuff moves in his Three Laws of Motion. Today we are going to look at Newton’s First Law of Motion called Inertia. This law states that a still object will stay still unless a force pushes or pulls it. A moving object will stay moving unless a force pushes or pulls it.

Gravity and friction are forces that constantly push and pull the “stuff” on earth. So, when we roll a ball, it slowly comes to a stop. On the moon, where there is less gravity and friction, “stuff” floats, and keeps floating. Try one of the experiments below to see Newton’s first law of motion in action.

## Newton’s Laws Of Motion

While Newtons laws of motion may seem obvious to us today, they were considered revolutionary centuries ago. The three laws of motion help us understand how objects behave when standing still, when moving and when forces act upon them. This article describes Sir Newtons three laws and a summary of what they mean.

## Forces On A Submarine

The submarine above has both vertical forces and horizontal forces acting on it. The horizontal forces will not affect its vertical movement and the vertical forces will not affect its horizontal movement.

The horizontal forces are equal in size and opposite in direction. They are balanced, so the horizontal resultant force is zero. This means that there is no horizontal acceleration. The vertical forces are equal in size and opposite in direction. They are balanced, so the vertical resultant force is also zero. This means that there is no resultant vertical acceleration.

The submarine will continue with the same motion, either remaining stationary or moving at a constant speed. If the submarine is moving, it is impossible to tell which direction it is moving from the forces alone, only that it will continue in the same direction at the same speed.

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## Examples Of Newtons First Law

Sir. Issac Newton proposed three laws in 1867 that describe the relationship between force and motion. These laws set up the basis for classical physics. Newtons first law of motion explains the impact of force on the state of motion of an object. Newtons first law is also known as the law of inertia. In this article, we discuss 20 examples of newtons first law of motion.

## Real Life Examples Of Newtons First Law

Now we will show some examples newtons first law of motion examples in everyday life:

• The electric fan continues to move for a period after the electricity is turned off.
• When the bus stops suddenly, people fall forward.
• If an index card is placed on top of a glass with a penny on top of it, the index card can be quickly removed while the penny falls straight into the glass, as the penny is demonstrating inertia.
• If an index card is placed on top of a glass with a penny on top of it, the index card can be quickly removed while the penny falls straight into the glass, as the penny is demonstrating inertia.
• If a ball is on a slanted surface and you let go, gravity will make it roll down the slope. It has inertia, and if there is a level area at the bottom of the slope, it will continue moving.
• If you are on a train and the train is moving at a constant speed, a toy tossed into the air will go straight up and then come down. This is because the toy has inertia like the train and you.
• If you jump from a car or bus that is moving, your body is still moving in the direction of the vehicle. When your feet hit the ground, the grounds act on your feet and they stop moving. You will fall because the upper part of your body didnt stop, and you will fall in the direction you were moving.

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## Newton’s Second Law Of Productivity

Second Law of Motion: F=ma. The vector sum of the forces on an object is equal to the mass of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector of the object.

Let’s break down this equation, F=ma, and how it can apply to productivity.

There is one important thing to note in this equation. The force, F, is a vector. Vectors involve both magnitude and direction . In other words, if you want to get an object accelerating in a particular direction, then the size of the force you apply and the direction of that force will both make a difference.

Guess what? It’s the same story for getting things done in your life.

If you want to be productive, it’s not merely about how hard you work , it’s also about where that work is applied . This is true of big life decisions and small daily decisions.

For example, you could apply the same skill set in different directions and get very different results.

To put it simply, you only have a certain amount of force to provide to your work and where you place that force is just as important as how hard you work.

## What Does Newton’s First Law Of Motion State

As stated in the Physics tutorial “What Causes the Motion? The Meaning of Force”, forces are the only factors that cause motion. Therefore, all the three Newton’s Laws we will discuss in the next tutorials deal with forces, despite being called “Newton’s Laws of Motion“.

In the abovementioned tutorial, it was also stated that when an object is at rest, it means there is an equilibrium of forces acting on it. For example, a book resting on a table is under the effect of two opposite forces:

• Gravitational force, Fg, which causes the object to weigh on the table and
• Normal force, N, which is a kind of resistive force produced by the table against any possible deformation caused by the book’s weight.
• These two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Look at the figure below:

Therefore, it is obvious that when the resultant force acting on an object at rest is zero, the object will continue to remain at rest.

On the other hand, when we discussed the concept of terminal velocity in the Physics tutorial “Types of Forces II. Resistive Forces . Terminal Velocity”, we stated that starting from the moment when the sum of resistive forces become equal to the moving force , the object will move at constant velocity, whose magnitude is equal to the last velocity before the equilibrium was established. We called this constant velocity as “terminal velocity”.

Combining the statements , and , we obtain the definition of Newton’s First Law of Motion. It states that:

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## Newton’s Third Law Of Productivity 4

Third Law of Motion: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.

We all have an average speed that we tend to perform at in life. Your typical levels of productivity and efficiency are often a balance of the productive and unproductive forces in your life a lot like Newton’s equal and opposite forces.

There are productive forces in our lives like focus, positivity, and motivation. There are also unproductive forces like stress, lack of sleep, and trying to juggle too many tasks at once.

If we want to become more effective and more productive, then we have two choices.

The first option is to add more productive force. This is the power through it option. We gut it out, drink another cup of coffee, and work harder. This is why people take drugs that help them focus or watch a motivational video to pump themselves up. It’s all an effort to increase your productive force and overpower the unproductive forces we face.

Obviously, you can only do this for so long before you burn out, but for a brief moment the power through it strategy can work well.

The second option is to eliminate the opposing forces. Simplify your life, learn how to say no, change your environment, reduce the number of responsibilities that you take on, and otherwise eliminate the forces that are holding you back.

## Origins And Purpose Of Newton’s Laws Of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion | Forces and Motion | Physics | Don’t Memorise

Sir Isaac Newton was a British physicist who, in many respects, can be viewed as the greatest physicist of all time. Though there were some predecessors of note, such as Archimedes, Copernicus, and Galileo, it was Newton who truly exemplified the method of scientific inquiry that would be adopted throughout the ages.

For nearly a century, Aristotle’s description of the physical universe had proven to be inadequate to describe the nature of movement . Newton tackled the problem and came up with three general rules about the movement of objects which have been dubbed as “Newton’s three laws of motion.”

In 1687, Newton introduced the three laws in his book “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” , which is generally referred to as the “Principia.” This is where he also introduced his theory of universal gravitation, thus laying the entire foundation of classical mechanics in one volume.

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## Newton’s Third Law Of Motion

To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts.

We represent the Third Law by looking at two bodies, A and B, that are interacting. We define FA as the force applied to body A by body B, and FA as the force applied to body B by body A. These forces will be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. In mathematical terms, it is expressed as:

FB = – FA

FA + FB = 0

This is not the same thing as having a net force of zero, however. If you apply a force to an empty shoebox sitting on a table, the shoebox applies an equal force back on you. This doesn’t sound right at first you’re obviously pushing on the box, and it is obviously not pushing on you. Remember that according to the Second Law, force and acceleration are related but they aren’t identical!

Because your mass is much larger than the mass of the shoebox, the force you exert causes it to accelerate away from you. The force it exerts on you wouldn’t cause much acceleration at all.

Not only that, but while it’s pushing on the tip of your finger, your finger, in turn, pushes back into your body, and the rest of your body pushes back against the finger, and your body pushes on the chair or floor , all of which keeps your body from moving and allows you to keep your finger moving to continue the force. There’s nothing pushing back on the shoebox to stop it from moving.

## Explanation Of Newtons First Law

Newtons first law of motion describes two cases.

• Suppose you have placed an object on a table or on the floor. Now, if no external force is applied on the body it will remain there at rest forever. But if we apply a sufficient force on it, the according to the Newtons first law of motion the object at rest will begin to move.
• In the second case, let the same object is now moving as we have applied an external force and released it. Now the force is not acting, but the object is moving due to that initial force. Here, Newtons 1st law says that this moving object will be moving with the same velocity along the same straight path forever. Its velocity will neither increase nor decrease until an external force is applied.
• Now, you may say that when ever we through an object along the floor it stops after some distance. So, this is violating Newtons first law of motion. But this is not true. Because, according to Newtons law, that object will be in motion with same velocity and direction if no external force acts on it. But here the air resistance and the friction force between the object and the floor are acting on this object. These forces are opposing its motion and that is why it stops after some distance.

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## Newtons First Law Of Motion

Newtons first law of motion implies that things cannot start, stop, or change direction all by themselves, and it requires some force from the outside to cause such a change. This property of massive bodies to resist changes in their state of motion is called inertia. The first law of motion is also known as the law of inertia.

Newtons 1st law states that a body at rest or uniform motion will continue to be at rest or uniform motion until and unless a net external force acts on it.

The crucial point here is that if there is no net force resulting from unbalanced forces acting on an object, the object will maintain a constant velocity. If that velocity is zero, then the object remains at rest. And if an additional external force is applied, the velocity will change because of the force.

Read More:Newtons First Law of Motion

## Praxilabs Virtual Labs In Mechanical Physics

PraxiLabs virtual science labs enable you to conduct various laboratory experiments in physics, chemistry, and biology online anytime and anywhere.

Create your free account and try the virtual labs in mechanics that explain Newtons laws of motion and newtons first law of motion examples in everyday life.

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## Real Life Applications Of Newtons First Law Of Motion

1- Car Air Bags

The function of the air bag is to inflate in an accident and prevent the drivers head from hitting the windshield. When a car with an airbag is exposed to an accident, the sudden slowdown in its speed leads to the operation of an electrical switch, and this starts a chemical reaction that produces a gaseous substance that works to fill the air bag and protect the drivers head.

2- Baseball Is at Rest

It needs external force to move, gets thrown, or is hit. The distance the ball travels depends on the amount of force that acts on it.

3-The motion of a ball falling through the atmosphere or a model rocket launched into the atmosphere.

4- The Liftoff of a Rocket from the Launch Pad.

Just prior to engine ignition, the velocity of the rocket is zero and the rocket is at rest. If the rocket is sitting on its fins, the weight of the rocket is balanced by the reaction of the earth to the weight. There is no net force on the object, and the rocket would remain at rest indefinitely.

When the engine is ignited, the thrust of the engine creates an additional force opposed to the weight. When the thrust is greater than the weight, there is a net external force equal to the thrust minus the weight, and the rocket begins to rise. The velocity of the rocket increases from zero to some positive value under the acceleration produced by the net external force.

5- A Kite Flying through the Air

## Newtons First Law Of Motion Examples

• Passengers swinging in a turning bus
• A rock at rest
• the revolution of planets in a solar system
• Revolution of electrons in an atom
• The reaction force from the ground
• Rockets escaping the Earths gravity
• Earthquake

Let us discuss each of the examples and see how they are consistent with Newtons first law of motion.

Passengers swinging in a turning bus: Whenever a bus turns sharply we could feel ourselves moving in the opposite direction. This is in accordance with newtons first law which states that a body moving in a straight line continues to move in a straight line unless acted by an external force. So your body is trying to move in the original direction but the force of the bus is moving you in the other direction. This is called inertia of direction.

A rock at rest: A rock that is lying on the ground will continue to so for thousands of years unless it is pushed by nature or by some force. It wont be floating around in different places.

An astronaut moving continually in space: In outer space, there is no force of gravity. So an object in motion continues to be in motion because there is no external force to stop its motion. Astronauts are able to fly due to this reason which is in accordance with newtons first law.

The change of direction of a baseball: In a game of baseball, a baseball is hit by a bat. The muscular force is transfer to the ball via the bat which changes the direction and speed of motion of the ball.

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## The Meaning Of Inertia

One of the conclusions drawn by observing the Newton’s First Law of Motion, is that all objects tend to preserve their previous state of motion. This property is known as Inertia. Thus, we say an object is very inert if we have difficulty in changing its actual state of motion. Let’s illustrate this point with some examples.

• An avalanche is very dangerous as it takes away everything on its way during its downhill motion. Therefore, we say an avalanche is very inert as it is quite impossible to stop it. Indeed, may people have died when an avalanche has taken them away when moving at snowy mountains.
• It is very easy to make a balloon move and also to stop it when it is moving. Therefore, we say the balloon is not very inert.
• When you are standing inside a bus and it immediately stops, your equilibrium is distorted as for few seconds you move in the previous direction of bus motion. This occurs because your body possesses some inertia and therefore, it tends to preserve its previous state of motion. The same thing occurs when the bus starts moving immediately. In this case, your body goes backward as it tries to stay at rest as it was before.
• From the above examples, it is clear that inertia is a quantity related to the mass of objects. Thus, greater the mass of an object, higher its inertia, i.e. the tendency to preserve the previous state of motion.