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How Did Northern European Geography And Technology Affect Each Other

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Description Of The Equatorial Climate

Geography’s Influence on World History, Society and Human Development

Rainforests are located in the equatorial climate region. They are hot and wet all year round this creates a humid climate.

The annual rainfall is high as it rains almost every day. The temperatures are constant all year round the temperature range is usually only a few degrees. There are no seasons.

The climate graph shows average rainfall and temperatures in Manaus, located in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The highest monthly rainfall is in March with over 300 mm and the lowest rainfall occurs in August with under 50 mm.

Temperatures vary little throughout the year. The highest monthly temperature is 29°C which occurs in September. The lowest monthly temperature is 26°C which occurs in December and January. The annual temperature range is 2°C.

Physical Divisions Of Europe

  • Gulfs and Bays

Western Upland

It is also known as the Northern Highlands, delineates the western edge of Europe and defines the physical landscape of Scandinavia , Finland, Iceland, Scotland, Ireland, the Brittany region of France, Spain, and Portugal.

These landforms are result of glaciations of hard rock in ancient times. Distinct physical features such as have been emerged with the recession of glaciers form the highland areas.

The famous Norwegian Fjords which are Lyse fjord, the Geiranger fjord.

  • A fjord is a long, deep, narrow body of water that reaches far inland. Fjords are often set in a U-shaped valley with steep walls of rock on either side.

North European Plain

It is the extensive low land spread along the bank of various mighty rivers such as Rhine, Weser, Elbe, Oder, and Vistula. These river valleys are favorable for growing seasonal crops.

It covers all most half of Europe. Bordered by Baltican White sea from north and Black and Azov from the south the plain is gradually narrowed down towards the west.

The northern part of the land is characterized by diversified glacial landforms such as Pipet Marshland, Valdai hills of western Russia, glacial lakes, etc.

Central Uplands or Plateau

These are the collection of distinctive landscapes of summits, steep slopes, valleys, and depression which stretches across central Europe.

Except for some river valleys such as the Rhine, Rhone, Elbe, and Danube river valleys all other areas of this division is sparsely populated.

What Are Two Primary Climates Of Europe

In Western Europe there are marine climates, Mediterranean climates, semiarid areas, highland and humid subtropical climates. In Southeast Europe, youll find mostly humid continental, semiarid and Mediterranean climates. In Northeast Europe, there are marine, subarctic, tundra and humid continental climates.

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Westward Settlement Patterns And European Immigration

The thirteen original colonies are often grouped into three regions, each with its own economic and cultural patterns. These three areasNew England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the Southare considered culture hearths, or places where culture formed and from which it spread. The three regions were source areas for westward migration, and migrants from these regions carried with them the cultural traditions of their culture hearths. New England was characterized by poor soils, subsistence agriculture, and fishing communities and was the birthplace of North Americas Industrial Revolution. Its largest city was Boston. Settlers from New England traveled west across New York State and into the upper Midwest and the Great Lakes region. The Mid-Atlantic region, focused on Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was known for its fertile soils, prosperous small-scale agriculture, and multinational population. Prosperous farming led to a vibrant economy and a robust network of towns and cities. People who wanted to migrate west from this region traveled down the Great Valley into the Appalachian Mountains and across the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky, or they crossed Pennsylvania and traveled west via the Ohio River valley. The heart of the South was Virginia, a region oriented around plantation agriculture. The South was overwhelmingly rural, and in time the bulk of its agricultural workforce consisted of slaves brought to the United States from Subsaharan Africa.

Discussion And Study Questions

Social Studies
  • Identify and locate the four main physical landforms of Europe. What are the main features of each?
  • How do these landforms and natural resources provide wealth, opportunities. and advantages to the European community?
  • Why is there a higher concentration of acid rain in northern Europe? How is acid rain affecting the environment?
  • What two rivers act to naturally divide Europe? Which rivers flow through Paris and London?
  • Track the flow of each of the two main rivers and identify the major cities that each flows through.
  • Where are the major mountain ranges of the Alpine region?
  • How does the Alpine region contribute to the economies of the countries of Europe?
  • Why do the countries of Western Europe have more moderate type C climates even though they are in the northern latitudes?
  • How does agricultural production vary with physical landforms or climate changes?
  • How are Europeans addressing the decline in the North Atlantic fishing industry?
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    The Republic Of Ireland

    The whole island of Ireland was under the control of the British Crown for centuries. In 1921 independence was gained from the British for all but Northern Ireland. This bitterly fought conflict has become well entrenched in Irish culture and literature. As an independent country separate from the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland has ascended the economic ladder to become a part of the global economic community. Because the climate is type C, there is adequate rainfall for crops and vegetation, and the green landscape gives it the title, The Emerald Isle. The island has few other natural resources. There are trees but no large forest reserves for commercial exploitation. Peat, which is an early version of coal, is cut from the bogs and burned as fuel.

    Ireland is not a large country. It is just a bit larger than the US state of West Virginia, with a population of about four million. There are no tall mountain ranges in Ireland. The soils are traditionally rocky with few nutrients. Before colonial times, the traditional food crops included such turnips and rutabagas. When the potato was imported from the Americas, it was well received in Ireland. The potato plant grew well and replaced traditional root crops as the main food source.

    European Physical Geography And Boundaries

    Europe? Wheres that? It might seem like a relatively easy question to answer, but looking at the map, the boundaries of Europe are harder to define than it might seem. Traditionally, the continent of Europe referred to the western extremity of the landmass known as Eurasia . Eurasia is a massive tectonic plate, so determining where exactly Europe ends and Asia begins is difficult. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean in the North, the Atlantic Ocean and its seas to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea to the south. Europes eastern boundary is typically given as the Ural Mountains, which run north to south from the Arctic Ocean down through Russia to Kazakhstan. The western portion of Russia, containing the cities of St. Petersburg and Moscow, is thus considered part of Europe while the eastern portion is considered part of Asia. Culturally and physiographically, Western Russia is strikingly similar to Eastern Europe. These two regions share a common history as well with Russian influence extending throughout this transition zone.

    This relative location provided efficient travel times between Europe and the rest of the world, which contributed to Europes historical dominance. When we consider globalization, the scale of the world is shrinking as the worlds people are becoming more interconnected. For Europe, however, the regions peoples have long been interconnected with overlapping histories, physical features, and resources.

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    How Did Europe Become Developed

    Early signs of the rebirth of civilization in western Europe began to appear in the 11th century as trade started again in Italy, leading to the economic and cultural growth of independent city-states such as Venice and Florence at the same time, nation-states began to take form in places such as France, England.

    European Society And Culture Since 1914

    Earth: Climate and Weather – National Geographic – 24hToday

    If it works, its obsolete. First reported in or about 1950, the saying neatly expressed that periods sense of the headlong speed at which technology was changing. But equally rapid change is the hallmark of many aspects of life since 1914, and nowhere has it been more apparent than in Europe. Photographs from 1914 preserve a period appearance ever more archaic: statesmen in frock coats and top hats early automobiles that fit their contemporary description as horseless carriages biplane flying machines with open cockpits long, voluminous bathing costumes. The young 20th century, its advent celebrated in such enterprises as The New Century Librarypocket editions of classics recently out of copyrightappears in such images more and more like a mere continuation of the century before.

    The 19th century had itself seen the culmination of the Industrial Revolution that had begun in the 18th, but the transformation wrought by steam power, steel, machine-made textiles, and rail communications was only the beginning. Still more rapid and spectacular changes came with further advances in science and technology: electricity, telegraphy and telephony, radio and television, subatomic physics, oil and petrochemicals, plastics, jet engines, computers, telematics, and bioengineering.

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    Why Is Water Important To The European Continent

    With climate change making water supply less predictable, it is extremely important that Europe uses water more efficiently for the benefit of all its users. With climate change making water supply less predictable, it is extremely important that Europe uses water more efficiently for the benefit of all its users.

    Geography In Civil Society In Northern Ireland

    54To Evans, geography was of the people and for the people and he anchored it within civic life. Geographers today make their contributions in many spheres : education at every level, social and physical planning, housing, economic development, transport, tourism and the development of heritage and environmental centres. They are also called upon to advise on, for example, social and environmental problems. It is worth noting, too, that Belfast City Council has recently funded the Royal Irish Academys forthcoming book on twentieth century Belfast, Enduring City : Belfast 1901-2001, which is both edited by and the work of geographers . It will be distributed to all schools and libraries in the city.

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    The Curse Of Geography: A View About The Process Of Wealth Creation And Distribution



    This paper presents an alternative view of why geography is a key determinant of the process of wealth creation and distribution of the countries. A new set of supporting evidence is also provided. The core ideas explored in the paper are: a) the exporting sector offers a picture of a country’s underlying process of wealth creation and distribution. Efficient producers and therefore exporters of manufactures, for example, have high incomes and low levels of inequality while exporters of crops and raw materials have low incomes and unequal income distributions b) the export mix of a country is largely determined by three fundamentals: resources, remoteness, and climate. Manufacturing, for example, likes cool climates, educated workforces, and locations close to high-wage marketplaces.

    Two are the suggested mechanisms linking geography to growth and inequality that are not present in the existing literature. First, because of high fixed costs, manufacturing requires operating the equipment at high pace for long hours, creating a distinct disadvantage for the tropics. Second, because the exchange of complex uncodifiable messages can only be done on a face-to-face basis, with the participants within a handshake of each other, the production of ideas and new products is firmly rooted where it has always been, in the economic centers of the globe. As a result, toys, apparel, and footwear are footloose. Machinery and pharmaceuticals are not.

    A Valuable Lesson In Political And Cultural Geography

    Columbian Exchange

    The name Yugoslavia, applied to the region along the Adriatic in 1929, means Land of the South Slavs. From 1918 to 1929, the region had been called the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Non-Slavic populations surround Yugoslavia. The regions core is mountainous. The Dinaric Alps, with the highest peak at just below nine thousand feet in elevation, run through the center of the Balkan Peninsula. The rugged mountains separate and isolate groups of Slavic people who, over time, have formed separate identities and consider themselves different from those on the other sides of the mountain ridges. Distinct subethnic divisions developed into the Slovenes, Macedonians, Bosnians, Montenegrins, Croats, and Serbs, with various additional groups. These differences led to conflict, division, and war when the breakup of former Yugoslavia began.

    Figure 2.34 The Balkan Peninsula and Former Yugoslavia

    Macedonia is officially called the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia because of a name conflict with Greece. Albania is an independent country and was never a part of Yugoslavia.

    Table 2.3 Status of States in Former Yugoslavia


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    Transitions Of Eastern Europe After The Cold War

    After World War II ended in 1945, Europe was divided into Western Europe and Eastern Europe by the Iron CurtainThe physical barrier in the form of walls, barbed wire, or land mines that divided Eastern Europe and Western Europe during the Cold War.. Eastern Europe fell under the influence of the Soviet Union, and the region was separated from the West. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, all the Soviet Republics bordering Eastern Europe declared independence from Russia and united with the rest of Europe. The transition Eastern Europe has experienced in the last few decades has not been easy however, most of the countries are now looking to Western Europe for trade and economic development. Cooperation continues between Eastern and Western Europe, and the European Union has emerged as the primary economic and political entity of Europe.

    Most Eastern European political borders resemble ethnic boundaries. Each of the regions once resembled nation-states. In principle, Romania is set apart for Romanians, Hungary for Hungarians, and so on. Few are true nation-states because of ethnic minorities located within their borders, but the countries held on to their common heritage throughout the Communist era. In most Eastern European countries, cultural forces have brought people together to publicly support the move to unite and hold onto a heritage that is as old as Europe itself.

    Figure 2.30 Reforms in Eastern Europe in the 1990s

    How Are The Landforms Of Europe Both An Advantage And Disadvantage

    A: The landforms of Europe are an advantage as these landforms affect the climate in their favor. However, the mountains and uplands, for example, may be viewed as walls because they separate groups of people. They also cause difficulties for people, goods, and ideas to move easily from one place to another.

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    How Did Northern Europe Geography And Technology Affect Each Other In The Course Of Europes History

    Northern European geography and technology influenced each other mainly by being in close contact, and also the fact that very often most of the region was under a single ruler. The fact the lot of time a single country had the power over the other ones, just made it easier for sharing technologies.

    Modern Culture And Literature

    Geography and Early Greece

    The Nordic countries have influenced many modern cultures. The Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen is sometimes called the father of modern drama. Ingmar Bergman, a Swedish director, influenced movies with his intensely personal films. Both men raised psychological issues in their work that remain important in modern life.

    Great Britain and Ireland have had their strongest artistic influence on world literature. Many people consider William Shakespeare the greatest playwright of all time. Nearly 400 years after his death, his works are still performed on stage and also adapted for movies. The English poet William Wordsworth popularized the use of everyday speech in poetry. English novelists of the 1800s, such as Charlotte Bronte, influenced later novels. The Irish novelist James Joyce shaped modern fiction by exploring techniques to portray human thought.

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    Special Section: Frances Home Front

    French governments have been challenged by the countrys high unemployment rates. In response to decades of high unemployment, the French government has, over time, introduced legislation to try to distribute available work more evenly among the population. Long periods of unemployment and underemployment put France at risk of developing a permanent underclass, along with the social ills, including crime and political unrest, that come with it. The unemployment rate continues to be higher for women, and women tend to have lower-paying jobs. Additionally, women are underrepresented in government. France has a significant immigrant population, which means that, as in many countries with newcomers, the settlement and integration of new arrivals is an issue. Some have blamed the high youth crime rate not just on unemployment but on governmental failure to fully integrate immigrants into French society.

    How Might The Climate Of Northern Europe Be Different Without The North Atlantic Drift

    The relatively warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift are responsible for moderating the climate of western Europe, so that winters are less cold than would otherwise be expected at its latitude. Without the warm North Atlantic Drift, the UK and other places in Europe would be as cold as Canada, at the same latitude.

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    Cooperation And Control In Europe

    Europes physical landforms, climate, and underlying resources have shaped the distribution of people across the region.When early humans began settling this region, they likely migrated through the Caucasus Mountains of Southwest Asia and across the Bosporus Strait from what is now Turkey into Greece. The Greeks provided much of the cultural and political foundations for modern European society. Greek ideals of democracy, humanism, and rationalism reemerged in Europe during the Age of Enlightenment. The Roman Empire followed the Greek Empire, pushing further into Europe and leaving its own marks on European society . Modern European architecture, governance, and even language can be traced back to the Roman Empires influence.

    The Romans vast European and Southwest Asian empire united the region under Christianity and created new networks of roads and trading ports. With the fall of the Roman Empire, however, tribal and ethnic allegiances reemerged and a number of invasions and migrations occurred. England, for example, was settled by the Germanic Anglo-Saxons, from which the name England or Angeln is derived, then by the Normans from present-day France.

    The map of Europe continues to evolve. In February 2019, for instance, the country formerly known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia officially changed its name to the Republic of North Macedonia, or just North Macedonia, resolving a long dispute with Greece.

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