Tuesday, November 29, 2022

How Does France’s Geography Affect Its Economy

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Location Size And Extent

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Situated in Western Europe, France is the second-largest country on the continent, with an area of 547,030 sq km . Comparatively, the area occupied by France is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Colorado. It extends 962 km ns and 950 km ew. France is bounded on the n by the North Sea and Belgium, on the ne by Luxembourg and Germany, on the e by Switzerland and Italy, on the s by the Mediterranean Sea, on the sw by Andorra and Spain, on the w by the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean, and on the nw by the English Channel, with a total boundary length of 6,316 km , of which 3,427 km is coastline.

France’s capital city, Paris, is located in the north central part of the country.

Native Population And Waves Of Immigration

France was the only country in Europe to which Jews immigrated insignificant numbers after World War ii. In 1945, there were some 180 000 Jews in France. The community was composed of established Jewish families and immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe and Mediterranean countries. In 25 years the Jewish population tripled. Between 1945 and 1951 many Displaced Persons passed through France, and some settled there. In 1951 there were 250 000 Jews in the country. Between 1954 and 1961, approximately 100,000 Jews moved to France from Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt , and Algeria. After the Bizerta incidents and the independence of Algeria , immigration increased. By 1963, almost the entire Jewish community of Algeria had moved to France. Moroccan and Tunisian Jews continued to arrive in the late 1960s with a last peak following the Six-Day War . French-speaking Jewry had undergone a new geographical distribution, diversification in occupations and social status, a change in community structure, and a fundamental reorientation in religious, ideological, and cultural trends.

Approximately 50% of the Jews who left North Africa settled in France, so that by 1968 the Sephardim were in the majority in the French Jewish community.

Revolutions Of 1830 And 1848

An economic slowdown led to a political crisis, which in 1829 prompted Charles to dissolve the chamber. New elections confirmed an anti-Royalist majority, which Charles chose to defy. On July 26, 1830, he ordered new elections, with fewer voters, and press restrictions. Protests led to three days of street fighting. Charles abdicated and Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans , was called to the throne as the last king of France. The kings power to issue ordinances was eliminated, and the franchise was extended. Riots by disappointed Republicans and poor urban workers disrupted the regime of Louis Philippe, known as the July Monarchy, but it became firmly established by 1835.

Industrial production accelerated rapidly after 1840, and the migration from the country to urban areas mounted. From 1833, every commune in France was required to maintain a primary school for boys, free to those who could not afford to pay. But Louis Philippe resisted pressure to extend of the suffrage, and an economic depression in 1846 and 1847 undermined the regimes support. In February 1848, a clash between troops and demonstrators turned into a revolution. Louis Philippe abdicated on February 24, and a group of Republican leaders proclaimed the Second French Republic.

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Economic And Political Situation

French Jews continued actively to support Israel.

The results of the Israeli elections of May 1977, which returned Menaem Begin, caused considerable dismay. Begin was considered the classical representative of the ultra-nationalism of the extreme right, so extreme and uncompromising that his coming to power was likely to bring about a new conflict in the Middle East. Daniel Mayer, a former Socialist minister and ex-president of the League of Human Rights, ceased to write his regular column in the Zionist periodical La Terre Retrouvée, which he had contributed for many years, on the grounds that from now on his socialist convictions would make it impossible for him to defend the Israeli cause under the new regime.

The visit of President Sadat to Jerusalem, however, and the Camp David agreement improved the image of Begin. Many French Jews, while expressing their sympathy with the State and concern for its survival, nevertheless criticize both the internal and foreign policies of the Israel government.

This modernization of the economy had a corollary in increased unemployment. At the end of 1992, the threshold of three million unemployed was reached. Jews, too, were affected by this calamity, and social cases and problems reappeared. Poverty was also found among the Jews in December 1992, Jewish social services launched an appeal called Tsedaka to collect funds to bring relief to 25,000 needy Jews.

[Doris Bensimon-Donath /

Economic Cultural And Social Position

Europe

In the economic sphere, the position of French Jewry continued to improve. After 1850, the number of Jews engaged in crafts increased considerably, and many Jews entered the technical professions. Few were attracted to agriculture. In the period before World War i Jewish painters and sculptors had made the Paris school famous . Among a brilliant galaxy, the names of *Pissaro, *Soutine, *Pascin, *Kisling, *Chagall, and *Modigliani are well known. Sarah *Bernhardt, who was eventually baptized, brought luster to the French theater. Outstanding in literature and philosophy were Adolphe *Franck, Salomon *Munk, Henri *Bergson, Emile *Durkheim, Lucien *Lévy-Bruhl, , and André *Maurois.

Purely Jewish studies were not abandoned. From 1880 the *Société des Etudes Juives regularly published a learned periodical, Revue des Etudes Juives, and was responsible for the publication of the classic works of Heinrich *Gross and T. *Reinach , and a modern translation of the works of Josephus. The French rabbinate published a magnificent translation of the Bible. On the other hand, talmudic studies in France ceased. The process of social assimilation continued, and in 1936 Léon *Blum became the first Jewish premier of France.

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Charlemagne And The Holy Roman Empire

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the seventh century. The name “Carolingian” itself comes from the Latin spelling of Charles Martel, Carolus Martelluswho defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732. The greatest Carolingian monarch was Charlemagne , a champion of Christianity and supporter of the papacy. Charlemagne fought the Slavs south of the Danube, annexed southern Germany, and subdued and converted pagan Saxons in the north-west. Charlemagne had himself crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800, an event which revived the Roman imperial tradition in the west, and set a precedent for the dependence of the emperors on papal approval.

He is often seen as the Father of Europe and is an iconic figure, instrumental in defining European identity. His was the first truly imperial power in the West since the fall of Rome.Latin was the official language of the court and the Church, although the West Franks in Gaul adopted the Latinate vernacular that became French. East Franks and other Germanic people spoke various languages that became German. Carolingian rulers encouraged missionary work among the Germans. Non-Frankish Germans, however, retained much pagan belief beneath their newly acquired faith.

Xenophobia: Being A Foreigner In France

France is a diverse country, this is due to its large geographic area and regional differences as well as being a consequence of immigration resulting from Frances colonial past. Despite this, attitudes to foreigners vary but in general, the French are not very tolerant of foreigners. For example, wearing of a full head covering veil in public is banned by law whether you are French or not the principle of French laïcité states that nobody can show their religion publicly. The reason for the banishment of the full head covering is security.

France has played an important role for centuries as a cultural centre and is noted for its cosmopolitan, civilised approach to life, combined with a great concern for style, fashion and appearance. Frances distinguished individuality is an important cultural characteristic that is encapsulated by the French passion for uniqueness and freedom of opinion, both in society and in business.

One aspect of French culture that has a major influence on business in France is the countrys attention to rules and regulations. The French have a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity, which, for those wishing to conduct business there , is significant in that they are reluctant to take risks.

  • The French style: Culture, politic, mentality and lifestyle

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Advertisers’ Influence On Editorial Policies & Ad Ratio

In 2000, publicity revenues for the press were 28 billion francs, a 10.2 percent increase over the 1999 revenues, roughly half the publicity revenue of all media combined. The press thus remains the main media support for publicity investments. In 2000, it attracted almost 42 percent of the media market, far ahead of television and radio . The publicity revenues come from commercial publicity for 80 percent and from classified for 20 percent. The main buyers of publicity were the magazine press , followed by the daily regional press , the specialized technical and professional press , the daily national press , and in last place the weekly regional press . 40 percent of the purchases of internet publicity space were destined to editorial sites .

Despite the predominance of print advertising, however, over the past 20 years, the printed press lost 13 percent of the publicity market, much of it to television. In 1980 the press received 60 percent of all publicity revenue and television 20 percent, but in 2000 it received only 47.3 percent of it , whereas television received 33.5 percent. The prolonged economic crisis and the competition from television, plus the fact thatalcohol and tobacco ads were curtailed, contributed to this decrease. In 2000, the turnover’s ratio between sales and publicity revenues was approximately 60 and 40 percent, respectively.

Fighting Against The Exportation Of Salafism And Islamism And Promote A Global And European Policy For Islam

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Saudi and Qatari are free to define their political and religious doctrines within their frontiers. However, the export of such ideology, through the funding of organizations, the training of foreign imams, and the production of a Salafist and Islamist literature must be stopped, by using media as a tool against those who spread it, if necessary . France is powerless on the economic front as it weighs virtually nothing in their exports. However, it has an important international audience and can impact these countries image. France must endorse a clear position regarding political Islam and Salafism . It must spread this discourse at a European level, for which radical Islam is also a political, security-based, and cultural problem . An open and demanding dialogue with the Saudi and the Qatari is essential.

  • Migrations and asylum: the urgency to co-manage

The migration question is at the heart of the public debate and has two main implications: the welcoming and assimilation of economic migrants and the welcoming and protection of asylum seekers. These two topics need to be distinguished to be managed efficiently and to oppose the idea that European frontiers are permeable. This idea feeds into resentment and the fear of others. France must nonetheless also be aligned with its discourse: one cannot defend human rights without welcoming war refugees. On the other hand, European solidarity cannot settle for a scattered management of migration flows.

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How Does Climate Affect The Economic Activity

Warmer temperatures, sea level rise and extreme weather will damage property and critical infrastructure, impact human health and productivity, and negatively affect sectors such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism.

What is the relationship between climate region and economic activities?

Climate change may have many economic impacts, including loss of crops, changes in water supply, increased incidence of natural disaster, and spikes in health care costs related to infectious diseases and temperature-related illnesses.

France Influences The Arab World But It Faces Competition The Arab World Influences France But France Is Almost Unaware Of It

The links between France and the Middle East and North Africa have an important structuring impact. The Arab world is present in France and France influences the Arab world. Around 6 million people in France have an identity relationship with countries in the region, and 1.2 million French people live there, among which most have two nationalities.Not only is the Arab world the main source of immigration in France, but it is also the first area of origin of foreign students in our country. On the other hand, Frances educational investment in the Arab world, where lives one Francophone in six, is massive . Our economic relationship is also very dense: it represents nearly 20% of Frances exchange of goods with countries outside the EU, that is, more than with China and almost as much as with the United States . We have major interests in strategic sectors . In the Middle East and North Africa, our diplomatic network is as developed as it is in other regions of the world and actors of our external security are incomparably involved.

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Frequently Asked Questions For Doing Business In France

Why should I consider doing business in France?

Not only is France one of the largest economies in Europe but is the 6th largest in the world. It boasts a large domestic market and is a major springboard to the rest of the European single market. Great infrastructure, highly developed telecommunications and technology, and access to one of the largest capital markets in the region.

What challenges should I consider when expanding to France?

While there are challenges to doing business in any foreign country, some of the common challenges of doing business in France include complexity in labor laws and higher cost of employment, differing business norms and language barriers, and a strict regulatory environment.

What is the corporate tax rate?

The current corporate tax rate in France is 33.3%

What are the business entity types available?

There are many entity types in France, the most commonly used are:

  • Société par actions simplifiée or Simplified joint-stock company
  • Société a responsabilité limitée or Limited liability company
  • Société anonyme or Public limited company

How long does it take to incorporate a business in France?

Depending on the entity and business type, it can take between 1 and 4 weeks.

Summary Of Press Laws In Force

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Press laws in force deal with the countless aspects of the media industry. There are laws for each aspect of the profession: publishers, journalists, distributors, and vendors. There are laws of the press and laws for the audiovisual industries, and now cyber laws. The main laws relating to the written press itself deal with the freedom of the press and editorial freedom, criminal offenses, collective labor contracts, copyright laws, and registration of newspapers and journalists. In addition to the laws there are scores of legislative acts providing for state regulation of the media. Those are subject to constant reorganization. In addition to national laws, France is subject to European Union laws and court decisions that have come into effect in the 1990s. The Law on the Information Society, for example, which was introduced in Parliament in June 2001, would be unthinkable outside of European Community law, especially in the areas of e-commerce, electronic signatures, and cyber criminality.

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Print Media Versus Electronic Media

In the 1980s, France was the first country to put a newspaper online by using a revolutionary system called Minitel. The publicity-free, pay-per-usage time service’s profitability, added to the large investments made in Minitel explain why France was slower than other European countries to adopt the Internet in the 1990s. In 1996, France had seven online daily newspapers out of the total 84 and 19 online magazines out of all 294 online. In October 1997 Les Echos became the first newspaper to offer an online version with part free news and part pay-per-article. With the new millennium, however, things began to change quickly. The increase in internet use can be measured by thenumber of visits to the site of Le Monde. In 2001 it had approximately a half million visits. In April, 2002, it had close to eight million visits, followed by Les Echos with 2.38 million visits, while the Groupe Nouvel Observateur had over one million visits, and L’Express and Le Monde Diplomatique around half a million visits. France reached the minimum profitability level of 10 percent of households having access to internet.

Rise And Decline Of Dirigisme

France embarked on an ambitious and very successful program of modernization under state coordination. This program of dirigisme, mostly implemented by governments between 1944 and 1983, involved the state control of certain industries such as transportation, energy and telecommunications as well as various incentives for private corporations to merge or engage in certain projects.

The 1981 election of president François Mitterrand saw a short-lived increase in governmental control of the economy, nationalizing many industries and private banks. This form of increased dirigisme, was criticized as early as 1982. By 1983, the government decided to renounce dirigisme and start an era of rigueur or corporation. As a result, the government largely retreated from economic intervention dirigisme has now essentially receded, though some of its traits remain. The French economy grew and changed under government direction and planning much more than in other European countries.

In June 2012, Hollande’s Socialist Party won an overall majority in the legislative elections, giving it the capability to amend the French Constitution and allowing immediate enactment of the promised reforms. French government bond interest rates fell 30% to record lows, less than 50 basis points above German government bond rates.

In July 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the French government issued 10-years bonds which had negative interest rates, for the first time in its history .

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