What Causes High Concentrations Of So2
Coal-fired power plants remain one of the biggest sources of sulfur dioxide in the U.S., particularly in the eastern states. The plume from a coal-fired power plant touches down at ground level during high wind conditions or gets trapped by inversions in the atmosphere. High levels can happen during start-up, shutdown, upsets, and malfunctions of pollution control equipment.
Ports, smelters, and other sources of sulfur dioxide also cause high concentrations of emissions nearby.
People who live and work nearby these large sources get the highest exposure to SO2. After SO2 gets into the air, it changes chemically into sulfate particles, which can blow hundreds of miles away.
An Example: Acid Deposition
Sulfur dioxide, produced by burning fossil fuel, particularly coal, enters the atmosphere and is eventually deposited on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems via three routes: as tiny solid particles, washed from the air in rain or snow, or as droplets formed in clouds. Deposition often occurs hundreds of kilometers from the source. Dissolved in water, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid, resulting in what is frequently referred to as acid rain, but because there are three principal routes involved in its transfer to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, it is more correctly called acid deposition . Sulfur dioxide is not the only source of acidification oxides of nitrogen, again produced by burning fossil fuel, are also involved, but sulfur dioxide is the main agent of acidification in most ecosystems.
Bruce G. Miller, in, 2011
The Importance Of Ozone
From an environmental standpoint, ozone is a confusing molecule. In the troposphere, the region of the atmosphere from Earths surface up to about 6 miles, ozone is a pollutant that is a component of photochemical smog. But in the stratosphere, the region of the atmosphere from 6 to 31 miles, ozone absorbs potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation.
As the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences put it in its announcement of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Even though ozone occurs in such small quantities, it plays an exceptionally fundamental part in life on earth. This is because ozone, together with ordinary molecular oxygen , is able to absorb the major part of the suns ultraviolet radiation and therefore prevent this dangerous radiation from reaching the surface. Without a protective ozone layer in the atmosphere, animals and plants could not exist, at least not upon land.
Rowlands interest in the fate of CFCs in the atmosphere was sparked by a talk he heard at a conference in 1972. The speaker discussed results obtained by James Lovelock , a British scientist who had invented a highly sensitive way to measure trace gases. Lovelock had measured trichlorofluoromethane in the atmosphere in amounts that suggested that practically all of the CFC-11 ever manufactured was still present in the atmosphere.
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What Is The Meaning Of Ch4
Answer and Explanation: CH4 C H 4 is the chemical formula for a chemical compound. The C in the formula stands for the element carbon and the H stands for the element hydrogen. The 4 indicates that there are 4 hydrogen atoms for every carbon atom in the substance. CH4 C H 4 is known as methane.
From Research To Resistance
In 1976, the National Academies of Science issued a report affirming the destructive effects of CFCs on stratospheric ozone. Congressional hearings reached similar conclusions, and states and the federal government began exploring bans on the use of CFCs in aerosol cans. The chemical industry maintained that the data on CFCs and stratospheric ozone were inconclusive and didnt warrant drastic action. When Rowland lectured on CFCs, industry groups often released statements disputing his claims. As Molina recalls today, Sherry was an established and respected scientist who regularly gave talks all over the world. It seemed that, because of his focus on CFCs and ozone depletion, he started getting fewer invitations to speak. That bothered him.
Rowland and Molina and the other scientists trying to understand stratospheric chemistry faced serious and fundamental challenges. A significant number of chemical species were clearly involved in the interaction of CFCs and ozone in the stratosphere. Most are highly reactive and present in only trace amounts. Their chemistry was difficult to replicate in the laboratory.
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Widespread Use Of Cfcs
In the 1920s, refrigeration and air conditioning systems used compounds such as ammonia, chloromethane, propane and sulfur dioxide as refrigerants. Though effective, the compounds were toxic and flammable, and exposure to them could result in serious injury or death. A team of chemists at Frigidaire led by Thomas Midgely Jr. worked to develop nontoxic, nonflammable alternatives to the refrigerants.
The team focused their effort on compounds containing carbon and halogens such as fluorine and chlorine. Such compounds were known to be volatile and chemically inert, both important properties for the team studying their use in refrigeration. The first compound they developed was dichlorodifluoromethane, CCl2F2, which they dubbed Freon. Midgely would receive the Society of Chemical Industrys Perkin Medal for this research in 1937 in 1941, he was awarded the Priestley Medal, the American Chemical Societys highest award, for his contributions to chemistry.
Chlorofluoromethanes are being added to the environment in steadily increasing amounts. These compounds are chemically inert and may remain in the atmosphere for 40-150 years, and concentrations can be expected to reach 10 to 30 times present levels. Photodissociation of the chlorofluoromethanes in the stratosphere produces significant amounts of chlorine atoms, and leads to the destruction of atmospheric ozone.
F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario J. Molina, Nature, 1974
What Does ‘m’ Stand For In Chemistry
Which of the following gases is referred to as laughing gas?
Which is the second most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere?
Which of the following is a water soluble vitamin?
|A) Soil degradation due to marble mines||B) Cancer in human due to working in mines|
|C) Disease in animals due to marble mines||D) Corrosion of marble due to acid rain|
|A) Soil degradation due to marble mines|
|B) Cancer in human due to working in mines|
|C) Disease in animals due to marble mines|
|D) Corrosion of marble due to acid rain|
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What Are Fire Hazards And Extinguishing Media For Sulfur Dioxide
Flammable Properties: Does not burn.
Suitable Extinguishing Media: Not combustible. Use extinguishing agent suitable for surrounding fire.
Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical: Heat from fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside cylinders. Explosive rupture and a sudden release of large amounts of gas may result. Cylinder may rocket. Contact with some powdered metals may cause fires and explosions.
Pathophysiological Effect Of So2
Many research papers and excellent reviews have been published in recent years addressing the pathophysiological effect of SO2 . Here we give a brief summary to provide a background for readers to understand the therapeutic potential and future application of SO2.
Compared with the SO2’s therapeutic potential, the toxicity of SO2 is more widely accepted by the public and is likely to be attributed to SO2’s oxidative property. Meng has suggested that SO2 as a oxidative agent can cause lipid peroxidation and changes anti-oxidation status in multiple organs . Chronic exposure to SO2 was also found to promote atherosclerosis . Controversially, in atherosclerosis rats, a decreased level of plasma and aortic SO2 content, as well as AAT activity, was reported by Li et al. . Further, treatment of SO2 derivatives could diminish the size of atherosclerotic plaques in rat coronary artery. Under certain physiological or pathological conditions, the regulation of endogenous SO2 level may vary, resulting from or contributing to the formation of the pathological condition.
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What Does Co2 Stand For
What does CO2 mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: CO2.
What does CO2 mean?
- carbon dioxide, CO2, carbonic acid gas
- a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis
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The Chemistry Of Gases
Upon his return to the ministry at Mill Hill Chapel, Leeds, in 1767, Priestley began intensive experimental investigations into chemistry. Between 1772 and 1790, he published six volumes of Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air and more than a dozen articles in the Royal Societys Philosophical Transactionsdescribing his experiments on gases, or airs, as they were then called. British pneumatic chemists had previously identified three types of gases: air, carbon dioxide , and hydrogen . Priestley incorporated an explanation of the chemistry of these gases into the phlogiston theory, according to which combustible substances released phlogiston during burning.
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What Are The Health Effects Of Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollution
Sulfur dioxide causes a range of harmful effects on the lungs, as the EPA’s most recent review of the science concluded:
- Wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness and other problems, especially during exercise or physical activity.
- Continued exposure at high levels increases respiratory symptoms and reduces the ability of the lungs to function.
- Short exposures to peak levels of SO2 in the air can make it difficult for people with asthma to breathe when they are active outdoors.
- Rapid breathing during exercise helps SO2 reach the lower respiratory tract, as does breathing through the mouth.
- Increased risk of hospital admissions or emergency room visits, especially among children, older adults and people with asthma.2
What Is Hb On The Periodic Table
Subsequently, one may also ask, what is the element HB?
Hemoglobin is composed of four elements- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Similarly, what is period 4 on the periodic table? Period 4 includes the biologically essential elements potassium and calcium, and is the first period in the d-block with the lighter transition metals. Completing the fourth period are the post-transition metals zinc and gallium, the metalloids germanium and arsenic, and the nonmetals selenium, bromine, and krypton.
Considering this, what is Hg on the periodic table?
The symbol Hg that mercury is known by comes from its Greek name, hydrargyrum, which means “liquid silver” to reflect its shiny surface. The element is also known as quicksilver for its mobility.
What is the name of 119 Element?
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What Does N Mean For Concentration
NormalityNormality is defined as the number of mole equivalents per liter of solution:normality = number of mole equivalents/1 L of solution. Like molarity, normality relates the amount of solute to the total volume of solution however, normality is specifically used for acids and bases.Feb 14, 2020
What Is The American Conference Of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Recommended Exposure Limit For Sulfur Dioxide
ACGIHÃÂ® TLVÃÂ® – STEL : 0.25 ppm A4
Exposure Guideline Comments: TLVÃÂ® = Threshold Limit Value. STEL = Short-term Exposure Limit. C = Ceiling limit. A4 = Not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
NOTE: In many Canadian jurisdictions, the exposure limits are similar to the ACGIHÃÂ® TLVsÃÂ®. Since legislation varies by jurisdiction, contact your local jurisdiction for exact details. A list is available in the OSH Answers on Canadian Governmental Occupational Health & Safety Departments.
A list of which acts and regulations that cover exposure limits to chemical and biological agents is available on our website. Please note that while you can see the list of legislation for free, you will need a subscription to view the actual documentation.
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What Are The Stability And Reactivity Hazards Of Sulfur Dioxide
- Chemical Stability: Normally stable.
- Conditions to Avoid: Water, moisture or humidity.
- Incompatible Materials: Reacts violently with: halogens , strong bases . In the presence of water, corrosive to: aluminum alloys, carbon steel.
- Hazardous Decomposition Products: On reaction with water: sulfurous acid solution.
- Possibility of Hazardous Reactions: None known.
Products And Effects Of Combustion
Burning hydrocarbon fuels produces carbon dioxide. Incomplete combustion creates poisonous carbon monoxide. Some of the products from burning fuels dissolve in rain water to form acid rain.
contain sulfur impurities. When these fuels are burned, the sulfur is oxidised to form sulfur dioxide.
S + O2 SO2
This sulfur dioxide then dissolves in droplets of rainwater to form sulfurous acid.
SO2 + H2O H2SO3
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What Are The Sources Of So2 Emissions
Manmade sources in the U.S. emitted more than 6.4 million tons of sulfur dioxide in the most recent reports.1 The largest sources of sulfur dioxide emissions are electricity generation, industrial boilers, and other industrial processes such as petroleum refining and metal processing. Diesel engines are another major source, including old buses and trucks, locomotives, ships, and off-road diesel equipment.
Endogenous Production And Physiological Effects Of So2
SO2 can be produced endogenously through several pathways . In the AAT pathway, L-cysteine is first oxidized to L-cysteine sulfinate by cysteine dioxygenase . AAT then catalyzes the transamination between L-cysteine sulfinate and -ketoglutarate to form -sulfinylpyruvate. The spontaneous decomposition of the latter would yield SO2 and pyruvate . SO2 can also be produced from the oxidation of H2S, another metabolite of sulfur-containing amino acids. The oxidation could be directly through NADPH oxidase in activated neutrophils, or through oxidation by sulfide oxidase followed by thiosulfate sulfurtransferase or glutathione-dependent thiosulfate reductase . Zhang et al. have shown that the endogenous production of SO2 is closely related to endogenous H2S. Endogenous H2S can inhibit endothelial SO2 production through suppressing AAT activity, while impaired H2S production pathway would lead to upregulation of SO2 production . The excretion of SO2 is through hydration and oxidation by sulfite oxidase to sulfate followed by renal clearance to urine .
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What Does Sulfur Dioxide Mean
Sulfur dioxide is a toxic, invisible gas with a strong, irritating, and rotten smell. It is a chemical compound of sulfur and oxygen.
SO2 is released by volcanic activity or human activities involving motor vehicles and industrial processes that contain sulfur, fuel oil, or coal. It can cause serious health issues for humans and animals alike.
Main Difference So2 Vs So3
SO2 and SO3 are inorganic chemical compounds formed by the combination of sulfur atoms and oxygen atoms. SO2 stands for sulfur dioxide, and SO3 stands for sulfur trioxide. These are gaseous compounds. They have different chemical and physical properties. These compounds are called oxides of sulfur since they are formed from the reaction between sulfur and O2 molecules. The main difference between SO2 and SO3 is that SO2 has two oxygen atoms bonded to a sulfur atom whereas SO3 has three oxygen atoms bonded to a sulfur atom.
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Examples Of Sulfur Dioxide In A Sentence
sulfur dioxide NBC Newssulfur dioxideThe Christian Science Monitorsulfur dioxide chicagotribune.comsulfur dioxide NBC Newssulfur dioxide Forbessulfur dioxide Washington Postsulfur dioxide Smithsonian Magazinesulfur dioxide NBC News
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘sulfur dioxide.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
Why Is Ch4 Hydrophobic
Methane bonds are covalent because they share carbon and hydrogen valence electrons. The molecule is hydrophobic because CH4 is a nonpolar covalent bond which isnt affected by the polarity of water molecules. When a solute is dumped into water, water molecules are negativity charged and attracted to the solute.
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What Are Accidental Release Measures For Sulfur Dioxide
Personal Precautions: Use personal protective equipment as required. Increase ventilation to area or move leaking container to a well-ventilated and secure area.
Methods for Containment and Clean-up: Stop or reduce leak if safe to do so. Knock down gas with fog or fine water spray. The resulting sulfuric acid solutions are very corrosive and very toxic. Dike and recover contaminated water for appropriate disposal.
Other Information: Contact supplier, local fire and emergency services for help.
What Does Tetra Mean In Medical Terminology
Also know, what does the prefix tetra mean in chemistry?
We have a name that has numerical prefixes on both elements. Tri- means three, and tetra– means four, so the formula of this compound is Si 3N 4.
Additionally, what does the medical term Tachy mean? tachy– Combining form denoting rapid or abnormally rapid.
Subsequently, one may also ask, what does a prefix mean in medical terminology?
Prefix: A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. Pre meansbefore.Prefixes may also indicate a location, number, or time. Root: central part of a word. Suffix: The ending part of a word that modifies the meaning of the word.
Is Tetra 4 a chemical?
When naming molecular compounds prefixes are used to dictate the number of a given element present in the compound. mono- indicates one, di- indicates two, tri- is three, tetra– is four, penta- is five, and hexa- is six, hepta- is seven, octo- is eight, nona- is nine, and deca is ten.
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What Are The Most Important Things To Know About Sulfur Dioxide In An Emergency
Emergency Overview: Colourless gas. Suffocating odour. COMPRESSED GAS. Contains gas under pressure. May explode if heated. Will not burn. VERY TOXIC. Fatal if inhaled. Corrosive to the respiratory tract. A severe, short-term exposure may cause long-term respiratory effects ). CORROSIVE. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause frostbite. SUSPECT MUTAGEN. Suspected of causing genetic defects.