Instinct Theory Of Motivation
According to instinct theories, people are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so. An example of this in the animal world is seasonal migration. Animals do not learn to migrate to certain places at certain times each year; it is instead an inborn pattern of behavior. Instincts motivate some species to do this.
William James identified a list of human instincts that he believed were essential to survival, including fear, anger, love, shame, and modesty. The main problem with this theory is that it did not really explain behavior, it just described it. ;James presumed that we act on impulse, but that leaves out all the learning/conditioning that informs behavior.
Georgene Gaskill Eakes Mary Lermann Burke And Margaret A Hainsworth
- Theory of Chronic Sorrow
- Chronic sorrow is the presence of pervasive grief-related feelings that have been found to occur periodically throughout the lives of individuals with chronic health conditions, their family caregivers and the bereaved.
- This middle-range theory defines the aspect of chronic sorrow as a normal response to the ongoing disparity created by the loss.
Gladys L Husted And James H Husted
- Created the Symphonological Bioethical Theory
- Symphonology is a system of ethics based on the terms and preconditions of an agreement.
- Nursing cannot occur without both nurse and patient. A nurse takes no actions that are not interactions.
- Founded on the singular concept of human rights, the essential agreement of non-aggression among rational people forms the foundation of all human interaction.
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Psychosexual Development And Human Sexuality
Throughout the history of the human race, and even more so today, our own sexuality has become topic for hot debate. Questions of why people prefer on gender over the other, or why some people take pleasure in activities others consider strange. To understand how and why people display certain sexual tendencies it is important to look at how they developed and the type of history a person has. Despite popular belief, not all gay men have been sexually abused as children. Two key players in understanding…
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Motives Related To Attributions
Attributions are perceptions about the causes of success and failure. Suppose that you get a low mark on a test and are wondering what caused the low mark. You can construct various explanations formake various attributions aboutthis failure. Maybe you did not study very hard; maybe the test itself was difficult; maybe you were unlucky; maybe you just are not smart enough. Each explanation attributes the failure to a different factor. The explanations that you settle upon may reflect the truth accuratelyor then again, they may not. What is important about attributions is that they reflect personal beliefs about the sources or causes of success and failure. As such, they tend to affect motivation in various ways, depending on the nature of the attribution .
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What Is The Agency Theory
What is the agency theory?Agency Theory is defined the branch of financial economics that looks at conflicts of interest between people with different interests in the same assets. This most importantly means the conflicts between: * shareholders and managers of companies. * shareholders and bond holders.The fact:Agency theory is rarely, if ever, of direct relevance to portfolio investment decisions. It is used to by financial economists to model very important aspects of how capital…
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What Are Inputs And Outcomes
Inputs are the contributions people feel they are making to the environment. In the previous example, the persons hard work; loyalty to the organization; amount of time with the organization; and level of education, training, and skills may have been relevant inputs. Outcomes are the perceived rewards someone can receive from the situation. For the hourly wage employee in our example, the $10 an hour pay rate was a core outcome. There may also be other, more peripheral outcomes, such as acknowledgment or preferential treatment from a manager. In the prior example, however, the person may reason as follows: I have been working here for 6 months. I am loyal, and I perform well . I am paid $10 an hour for this . The new person does not have any experience here but will be paid $14 an hour. This situation is unfair.
We should emphasize that equity perceptions develop as a result of a subjective process. Different people may look at the same situation and perceive different levels of equity. For example, another person may look at the same scenario and decide that the situation is fair because the newcomer has computer skills and the company is paying extra for those skills.
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Hunger And Subsequent Eating Are The Result Of Complex Physiological Processes That Maintain Homeostasis
Extensions of drive theory take into account levels of arousal as potential motivators. As you recall from your study of learning, these theories assert that there is an optimal level of arousal that we all try to maintain . If we are underaroused, we become bored and will seek out some sort of stimulation. On the other hand, if we are overaroused, we will engage in behaviors to reduce our arousal . Most students have experienced this need to maintain optimal levels of arousal over the course of their academic career. Think about how much stress students experience toward the end of spring semester. They feel overwhelmed with seemingly endless exams, papers, and major assignments that must be completed on time. They probably yearn for the rest and relaxation that awaits them over the extended summer break. However, once they finish the semester, it doesnt take too long before they begin to feel bored. Generally, by the time the next semester is beginning in the fall, many students are quite happy to return to school. This is an example of how arousal theory works.
Criticisms Of Instinct Theory
While instinct theory could be used to explain some behaviors, critics felt that it had some significant limitations. Among these criticisms:
- Instincts cannot be readily observed or scientifically tested
- Instincts don’t explain all behaviors
- Just labeling something as instinct does nothing to explain why certain behaviors appear in certain instances but not in others
While there are criticisms of instinct theory, this does not mean that psychologists have given up on trying to understand how instincts can influence behavior.
Modern psychologists understand that while certain tendencies might be biologically programmed, individual experiences can also play a role in how responses are displayed.
For example, while we might be more biologically prepared to be afraid of a dangerous animal such as a snake or bear, we will never exhibit that fear if we are not exposed to those animals.
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Sexual Assault College Campuses
IntroductionSexual assault has become a norm on college campuses across the United States; so much so that college women are 3x more likely to be a victim of a sex crime Rainn . It does not have to be this way, their are clear ways sexual assault in a college setting can be prevented. Unfortunately, colleges and universities are not taking the right steps in developing programs and safe spaces for sexual assault victims and prevention. Sexual assault prevention on college campuses is especially…
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Mastery And Performance Goals
Mastery goals tend to be associated with the satisfaction of mastering somethingin other words, gaining control, proficiency, comprehensive knowledge, or sufficient skill in a given area .;Mastery goals are a form of intrinsic motivation and have been found to be more effective than performance goals at sustaining students interest in a subject. In one review of research about learning goals, for example, students with primarily mastery orientations toward a course they were taking not only tended to express greater interest in the course, but also continued to express interest well beyond the official end of the course and to enroll in further courses in the same subject .
Performance goals, on the other hand, are extrinsically motivated and can have both positive and negative effects. Students with performance goals often tend to get higher grades than those who primarily express mastery goals, and this advantage is often seen both in the short term and in the long term . However, there is evidence that performance-oriented students do not actually learn material as deeply or permanently as students who are more mastery-oriented .
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Incentive Theory And The Effects Of Extrinsic Motivation
Incentive theory is based on the idea that behavior is primarily extrinsically motivated. It argues that people are more motivated to perform activities if they receive a reward afterward, rather than simply because they enjoy the activities themselves.
There is controversy concerning how and for how long motivators change behavior. For instance, some data suggest that intrinsic motivation is diminished when extrinsic motivation is givena process known as the overjustification effect. If extrinsic incentives are used to stimulate behaviors that an individual already finds motivating , intrinsic motivation for that behavior may decrease over time. In those cases, extrinsic motivators can backfire: instead of serving as an incentive for the desired behavior, they undermine a previously held intrinsic motivation. This can lead to extinguishing the intrinsic motivation and creating a dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued performance .
Other studies provide evidence that the effectiveness of extrinsic motivators varies depending on factors like self-esteem, locus of control , self-efficacy , and neuroticism . For example, praise might have less effect on behavior for people with high self-esteem because they would not have the same need for approval that would make external praise reinforcing. On the other hand, someone who lacks confidence may work diligently for the sole purpose of seeking even a small amount of recognition.
Toward A Life Science: Beyond Reductionism To Coordinated Analyses
Robust advancements in methods have also been evident in a new synergism between biological and psychological inquiry. Methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging allow us to link brain processes with specifically activated motives and inhibitions, clarifying the mechanics behind behavioral dynamics . More accurate physiological models of cardiovascular functioning allow better gauging of effort, and thus the study of its dynamics and determinants . In the area of coping, assays of cortisone and other biologic indicators also allow us to better gauge human reactivity, stress resources, and estimate the likelihood of goal success as a function of different sources of motivation. Finally, studies of how the physiological effects of diet and activity impact mood and motivation show the import of biological factors on vitality and functioning.
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Applications In Game Design
Motivational models are central to game design, because without motivation, a player will not be interested in progressing further within a game. Several models for gameplay motivations have been proposed, including Richard Bartle’s. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of gameplay motivation that includes cooperation, competition, immersion and achievement. The motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend, which seeks to apply game-based motivation to business applications. In the end, game designers must know the needs and desires of their customers for their companies to flourish.
There have been various studies on the connection between motivation and games. One particular study was on Taiwanese adolescents and their drive of addiction to games. Two studies by the same people were conducted. The first study revealed that addicted players showed higher intrinsic than extrinsic motivation and more intrinsic motivation than the non-addicted players. It can then be said that addicted players, according to the studies findings, are more internally motivated to play games. They enjoy the reward of playing. There are studies that also show that motivation gives these players more to look for in the future such as long-lasting experience that they may keep later on in life.
Mcclellands Achievement Motivation Theory
McClelland took a different approach to conceptualize needs and argued that needs are developed and learned, and focused his research away from satisfaction. He was also adamant that only one dominant motive can be present in our behavior at a time. McClelland categorized the needs or motives into achievement, affiliation, and power and saw them as being influenced by either internal drivers or extrinsic factors.
Among all the prospects which man can have, the most comforting is, on the basis of his present moral condition, to look forward to something permanent and to further progress toward a still better prospect.
The drive for achievement arises out of the psychological need for competence and is defined as a striving for excellence against a standard that can originate from three sources of competition: the task itself, the competition with the self, and the competition against others.
High need for achievement can come from ones social environment and socialization influences, like parents who promote and value pursuit and standards of excellence, but it can also be developed throughout life as a need for personal growth towards complexity .
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Ob Toolbox: Be Effective In Your Use Of Discipline
As a manager, sometimes you may have to discipline an employee to eliminate unwanted behavior. Here are some tips to make this process more effective.
- Consider whether punishment is the most effective way to modify behavior. Sometimes catching people in the act of doing good things and praising or rewarding them is preferable to punishing negative behavior. Instead of criticizing them for being late, consider praising them when they are on time. Carrots may be more effective than sticks. You can also make the behavior extinct by removing any rewards that follow undesirable behavior.
- Be sure that the punishment fits the crime. If a punishment is too harsh, both the employee in question and coworkers who will learn about the punishment will feel it is unfair. Unfair punishment may not change unwanted behavior.
- Be consistent in your treatment of employees. Have disciplinary procedures and apply them in the same way to everyone. It is unfair to enforce a rule for one particular employee but then give others a free pass.
- Document the behavior in question. If an employee is going to be disciplined, the evidence must go beyond hearsay.
- Be timely with discipline. When a long period of time passes between behavior and punishment, it is less effective in reducing undesired behavior because the connection between the behavior and punishment is weaker.
Figure 5.12 Stages of Organizational Behavior Modification
Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs Is Illustrated Here In Some Versions Of The Pyramid Cognitive And Aesthetic Needs Are Also Included Between Esteem And Self
; ;At the base of the pyramid are all of the physiological needs that are necessary for survival. These are followed by basic needs for security and safety, the need to be loved and to have a sense of belonging, and the need to have self-worth and confidence. The top tier of the pyramid is self-actualization, which is a need that essentially equates to achieving ones full potential, and it can only be realized when needs lower on the pyramid have been met. To Maslow and humanistic theorists, self-actualization reflects the humanistic emphasis on positive aspects of human nature. Maslow suggested that this is an ongoing, life-long process and that only a small percentage of people actually achieve a self-actualized state .
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How To Motivate Yourself
Motivating yourself is the first step towards achieving much of anything. Self-motivation is unique to the individual, but when I need to motivate myself I typically do the following:
For more information on the repeatable steps you can use to self-motivate, check out my article on how to motivate yourself in eight key steps
What Is Instinct Theory
According to the instinct theory of motivation, all organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive. This theory suggests that instincts drive all behaviors. So, what exactly is instinct?
Instincts are goal-directed and innate patterns of behavior that are not the result of learning or experience.
For example, infants have an inborn;rooting reflex that helps them seek out a nipple and obtain nourishment, while birds have an innate need to migrate before winter. Both of these behaviors occur naturally and automatically. They do not need to be learned in order to be displayed.
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Study : Mueller & Dweck
If Prof. Dweck is right, our mindset has a big impact on how well we achieve our potentialin school and in many other areas of our lives . But where do these different mindsets come from?
There can be many reasons that a person comes to believe that intelligence is fixed or changeable, but one obvious influence on our way of thinking about ourselves is the messages we hear from adults as we grow up. Dweck and her then-graduate student Claudia Mueller wanted to see if they could influence the mindset of children, if only for a brief period of time, by giving different kinds of praise to the children. Their starting point was the unsurprising and well-established idea that praise is motivating. When we do something and receive praise, we are more likely to want to do that same thing again. But Mueller and Dweck wondered if all praise is equal. In particular, is it possible that certain types of praise that well-meaning parents and teachers often use could actually reduce a childs motivation to learn and that childs resiliency when he or she encounters challenges?
The researchers recruited 128 fifth graders to participate in their study. Before we go into the details of the first experiment, please get a feel for the task that the children had to perform.