Commercial Agriculture In India
- It uses high yielding variety seeds for cultivation.
- In addition, it also adds chemical fertilizers and pesticides to the cultivated plantations.
- This method of farming generally results in high productivity.
- It varies from one place to another. For example, Punjab and Odisha may have different commercial farming practices.
- Punjab, Haryana, Odisha, and Karnataka are known for commercial farming.
- This product is mainly for selling in the market and not for personal consumption.
- Excellent transportation facilities are required to propagate this farming practice.
- Processing industries play a major role in its development.
Technological And Institutional Reforms
Agriculture provides a livelihood for more than 60% of its population, so this sector needs some serious technical and institutional reforms. The Green Revolution and the White Revolution were some of the reforms initiated by people to improve agriculture.
Some Initiatives taken by the Government are:
- Schemes introduced by Government such as Kissan Credit Card , Personal Accident Insurance Scheme .
- Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on the radio and television were introduced.
- The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
What Benefits Will I Gain If I Learn About Agriculture
Everyone who eats or wears clothing can benefit from learning about agriculture and understanding exactly where many of the products you buy come from. Often, people push for it to become a bigger part of public school education for children in elementary, middle, and high school so that they’ll have a better understanding of where their food comes from and how it’s part of the much bigger picture that is modern society. Those who study agriculture often have a better relationship with food, a stronger connection to the natural world, and a greater appreciation for people around the world. Studying agriculture can also open up many job opportunities across a number of career fields.â
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Green Revolution In India
The Green Revolution denotes a boon for Indian agriculture. A transition in the traditional agricultural practices, it refers to a period during the 1960s when Indian introduced the effective usage of high yielding variety seeds.
This technology raised the standard of Indian agriculture and modernized the level of farming and related activities.
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used in addition to HYV seeds under this agricultural process. This revolution positively impacted the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat.
In short, this agricultural technique led to a massive increase of food cultivation in the country.
How Did Agriculture Begin
Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.
Contribution Of Agriculture To The National Economy Employment And Output
- In 2010-11 about 52% of the total workforce was employed by the farm sector.
- The share of agriculture in the GDP is declining.
- Indian Council of Agricultural Research , agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. are a few of the initiatives introduced by the government to improve Indian agriculture.
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Table : Types Of Rainfed Production Systems And Regions
|System||Characteristics and Examples|
|Rain-fed agriculture: highlands||Low productivity, small-scale subsistence agriculture a variety of crops on small plots plus few animals.|
|Rain-fed agriculture: dry tropics||Drought-resistant cereals such as maize, sorghum, and millet. Livestock often consists of goats and sheep, especially in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Africa, and in India. Cattle are more widespread in southern Africa and Latin America.|
|Rain-fed agriculture: humid tropics||Mainly root crops, bananas, sugar cane, and notably soybean in Latin America and Asia. Maize is the most important cereal. Sheep and goats are often raised by more impoverished farmers while cattle are held by wealthier ones.|
|Rain-fed agriculture: subtropics||Wheat , fruits , and oil crops . Cattle are the most dominant livestock. Goats are also essential in the southern Mediterranean, while pigs are dominant in China and sheep in Australia.|
|Rain-fed agriculture: temperate||Principal crops include wheat, maize, barley, rapeseed, sugar beet, and potatoes. In the industrialized countries of Western Europe, the United States and Canada, this agricultural system is highly productive and often combined with intensive, penned livestock .|
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Food Crops Other Than Grains
Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12% of the total cropped area of India. Main oil-seeds produced in India are:
- Groundnut: is a Kharif crop and accounts for half of the major oilseeds produced in India. Gujarat is the largest producer of groundnuts.
- Mustard: is a rabi crop.
- Sesamum : is a Kharif crop in the north and rabi crop in south India.
- Castor seeds: It is grown as both Rabi and Kharif crop.
- Linseed: is a rabi crop.
Population And Food Production
Recall that English economist Thomas Malthus proposed that the world rate of population growth was far outrunning the development of food supplies. Malthus proposed that the human population was growing exponentially, while food production was growing linearly. Below is an example:
- Today 1 person, 1 unit of food
- 25 years from now 2 persons, two units of food
- 50 years from now 4 persons, three units of food
- 75 years from now 8 persons, four units of food
- 100 years from now 16 persons, five units of food
Others discredit Malthus because his hypothesis is based on the world supply of resources being fixed rather than flexible and expanding. Technology may enable societies to be more efficient with scarce resources or allow for the use of new resources that were once not feasible. Some believe population growth is not a bad thing either. A large population could stimulate economic growth and, therefore, the production of food.
So even with a global community of 7 billion, food production has grown faster than the global rate of natural increase. Better growing techniques, higher-yielding, and genetically modified seeds, and better cultivation of more land have helped expand food supplies globally. However, many have noted that food production has started to slow and level off. Without new technology breakthroughs in food production, the food supply will not keep up with population growth.
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Compatible With The Following Exam Boards
- Agriculture involves rearing of animals and crop cultivation
- Agriculture aims at providing enough, healthy food to feed the population worldwide
- Different types of agricultural activities are practiced in different regions across the world
- Factors such as climate affect the type of agricultural activity a farmer can practice
- Types of agricultural activities include subsistence farming, nomadic herding, commercial plantation, livestock rearing, etc.
Agriculture involves plants and animals breeding and land cultivation to offer fiber, food and medicine. It also provides other products necessary for life enhancement and sustenance. During the sedentary human civilization, agriculture was a critical aspect of development. Domesticated plant and animal species were farmed for food surpluses to sustain people living in cities.
Agricultural science is the study of agriculture, a field whose history dates back thousands of years. People began planting grains about 11,500 years ago prior to their domestication. On the other hand, wild grains were gathered over 105,000 years ago. However, sheep, pigs and cattle were first domesticated more than 10,000 years ago.
Crops have their origin in about 11 regions across the world. Within the previous century, large-scale monoculture has driven the growth of industrial agriculture and thus its domination of agricultural output. However, more than 2 billion people worldwide rely on subsistence agriculture for sustenance.
The Second Agricultural Revolution
In the seventeenth century, a second agricultural revolution took place which increased the efficiency of production as well as distribution, which allowed more people to move to the cities as the industrial revolution got underway. The eighteenth century’s European colonies became sources of raw agricultural and mineral products for the industrializing nations.
Now, many of the countries which were once colonies of Europe, especially those in Central America, are still heavily involved in the same types of agricultural production as they were hundreds of years ago. Farming in the twentieth century has become highly technological in more developed nations with geographical technologies like GIS, GPS, and remote sensing while less developed nations continue with practices which are similar to those developed after the first agricultural revolution, thousands of years ago.
How Endowments Accumulations And Choice Determine The Geography Of Agricultural Productivity In Ecuador
|A. World Bank Economic Review|
|dc.description.abstract||Spatial disparity in incomes and productivity is apparent across and within countries. Most studies of the determinants of such differences focus on cross-country comparisons or location choice among firms. Less studied are the large differences in agricultural productivity within countries related to concentrations of rural poverty. For policy, understanding the determinants of this geography of agricultural productivity is important, because strategies to reduce poverty often feature components designed to boost regional agricultural incomes. Census and endowment data for Ecuador are used to estimate a model of endogenous technology choice to explain large regional differences in agricultural output and factor productivity. A composite-error estimation technique is used to separate systemic determinants from idiosyncratic differences. Simulations are employed to explore policy avenues. The findings suggest a differentiation between the types of policies that promote growth in agriculture generally and those that are more likely to assist the rural poor.||en|
Plantation Agriculture In India
- It is usually preferred for cultivating coffee, cocoa, soybeans, sugarcane, bananas, apples, oranges, grapes, coconuts, and vegetables.
- Britishers introduced this agricultural method in the 19th century.
- Mostly grown in tropical areas such as the Himalayan belts, the Nilgiri hills, Cardamom, and Annamalai hills.
- Generally, the produce of plantation agriculture in India is exported to foreign countries.
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How Did Geography Play A Part In The Development Of Man
Answer: In development geography, geographers study spatial patterns in development. They try to find by what characteristics they can measure development by looking at economic, political and social factors. They seek to understand both the geographical causes and consequences of varying development.
Animal And Human Health
Farmers, industry and governments have worked together over the past two decades to improve conditionsfor livestock. For example, Canadian egg farmers are phasing out the use of small cages for their hens. Evolving regulations from agencies such as Health Canada have playeda role in many of these changes. In recent years, for example, farmers, industry groups and government have changed practices to reduce antibiotic use. This is because overuse of antibiotics in livestock farming threatens human health.
A style of agriculture called extensive farming can create healthy conditions for farm animals while minimizing pollution. Extensive farming involves the minimal use of resourcessuch as crop protection products, labour and machinery. Animals typically have more space than they do on large industrial farms where the style of farming is considered intensive. Intensive farming relies heavily on resources to maximize the yieldof a crop or productivity per animal. It requires more investment in the farm, but it typically uses less land to produce the same amount of food.
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Terrace Cultivation In India
- Generally practiced on terraced mountain slopes and hill ranges.
- In this, terraces are converted into small patches of cultivable lands due to a shortage of big lands for farming on hilly terrains.
- The problem of soil erosion is minutely monitored in the case of terrace farming.
- Effective in maximizing arable land regions.
- A labor-intensive method of agriculture.
- Reduces water loss and soil erosion.
- An excellent method for cultivating water-intensive crops such as paddy and rice.
- May lead to water saturation in case of heavy rainfall.
- It is an expensive method of agriculture in India.
- Soil leaching may reduce the quality of the soil.
How Did Farming And Agriculture Lead To The Development Of Civilizations
When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.
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Intensive Agriculture In India
- In this, farmers use a massive amount of fertilizers and pesticides to carry out their farming activities.
- The mechanized and modern agricultural techniques are mandatory for intensive farming in India.
- The Intensive Agriculture Development Program was launched in 1961 by the Indian government.
- The objective of IADP was to furnish a loan over the provision of seeds and fertilizers to farmers.
- The Ford Foundation also insisted on the central government in this program.
- Areas of Thanjavur, West Godavari, Aligarh, Raipur, Ludhiana, Pali, and western Shahabad were included in this program.
Land And Water Issues
Land transformation, the use of land to yield goods and services, is the most substantial way humans alter the Earth’s ecosystems, and is the driving force causing biodiversity loss. Estimates of the amount of land transformed by humans vary from 39 to 50%. Land degradation, the long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, is estimated to be occurring on 24% of land worldwide, with cropland overrepresented. Land management is the driving factor behind degradation 1.5 billion people rely upon the degrading land. Degradation can be through deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, acidification, or salinization.
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Making Sense Of Land Use
Geographers are concerned with understanding why things happen in geographical spaces. Johann Heinrich von Thünen was a farmer on the north German plain, and he developed the foundation of rural land use theory. Because he was a keen observer of the landscape around him, he noticed that similar plots of land in different locations were often used for very different purposes. He concluded that these differences in land use between plots with similar physical characteristics might be the result of differences in location relative to the market. Thus, he went about trying to determine the role that distance from markets plays in creating rural land-use patterns. He was interested in finding laws that govern the interactions between agricultural prices, distance, and land use as farmers sought to make the greatest profit possible.
The second ring, von Thünen believed, would be dedicated to the production and harvest of forest products. This was because, in the early 19th century, people used wood for building, cooking, and heating. Wood is bulky and heavy and therefore difficult to transport. Still, it is not nearly as perishable as milk or fresh vegetables. For those reasons, von Thünen reasoned that wood producers would bid more for the second ring of land around the market center than all other producers of food and fiber, except for those engaged in the production of milk and fresh vegetables.
Mcq Questions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture With Answers
We have compiled the NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture with Answers Pdf free download covering the entire syllabus. Practice MCQ Questions for Class 10 Geography with Answers on a daily basis and score well in exams. Refer to the Agriculture Class 10 MCQs Questions with Answers here along with a detailed explanation.
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What Are Typical Careers That Use Agriculture
About 17% of the workforce is involved in agriculture in some form, making it the largest employer in the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. When most people think of ag careers, they think of becoming a farmer, but there are dozens of career opportunities. Many people with agriculture degrees enter the business world with jobs as marketers, salespeople, financial analysts, loan officers, e-commerce specialists, and forest product managers for large agricultural companies. If you prefer more of a scientific career, studying agriculture could lead to becoming a veterinarian, a food scientist, a biologist, an irrigation engineer, an animal scientist, an agronomist, or a biological engineer. If you want to become an educator, you can teach agriculture or environmental or animal sciences at the high school or college levels. You can also work in government as a plant or animal inspector or an outdoor recreation manager.â