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Which Statement About Social Psychology Is Most Accurate

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Cognitive And Intrapersonal Social Psychology

Introduction to Social Psychology

Cognitive and intrapersonal social psychology originated with the work of experimental psychologists in Germany such as Wilhelm Wundt in the mid nineteenth century and focuses on understanding how internal processes affect an individuals ability to interact with others. The internal processes most studied in this perspective are cognitive and physiological . Each approach examines a different aspect of how interactions are affected by these internal processes. The underlying basis of the cognitive and intrapersonal approach centers on how individuals store information in the brain in the form of schemas. Schemas represent the way in which people identify objects in their environment by labeling them, which then allows the objects to be categorized. The use of schemas allows individuals to process billions of bits of information from the environment, which then enables them to easily engage in interactions. The more accurate individuals understanding of any given social situation, as determined by how well they label and categorize it based on information from the environment, the more successful and easy will be the interaction. The cognitive and physiological approaches in this perspective explore different aspects of the impact of schemas on interactions.

Informed Consent And Debriefing Safeguards

The potential negative effects of deception can be lessened when subjects give informed consent and are debriefed.
Informed consent involves providing research participants with as full as possible a description of the procedures to be followed prior to their decision to take part in a study.
Debriefing provides participants with a full explanation of the major aspects of the study, including its true goals and an explanation of the need for temporary deception.

Socialpsychology and social problems

Whereas social psychologists are often motivated by curiosity to study social behavior, they are also motivated by the desire to help resolve social problems.
Example: Social psychologists have contributed important insights to AIDS education and prevention, as well as terror management.

Bian And Cimpians Generic Critique

Bian and Cimpian step into this now large literature and simply declare it to be wrong. They do not review the evidence. They do not suggest the evidence is flawed or misinterpreted. Bian & Cimpian simple ignore the data. That sounds like a strong charge, but, if you think it is too strong, I request that you re-read their critique. The easiest way to maintain any cherished belief is to just ignore contrary data something that is distressingly common, not only in social psychology , but in medicine , astronomy , environmental engineering , and across the social sciences .

How, then, do Bian and Cimpian aspire to reach any conclusion about stereotype accuracy without grappling with the data? Their critique rests primarily on declaring that most stereotypes are generic beliefs, which renders them inherently inaccurate, so no empirical evidence of stereotype inaccuracy is even necessary. This is the first failure of this critique. They report no data assessing the prevalence of stereotypes as generic beliefs. An empirical question can never be resolved by declaration.

To address accuracy, research must somehow assess how well peoples stereotypes correspond with reality. The evidence that social psychologists typically review when emphasizing stereotype inaccuracy does not do this. Instead, that evidence typically demonstrates some sort of cognitive process, which is then presumed without testing for accuracy to lead to inaccuracy

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The Steps Followed In An Experiment:

Hypotheses may be based on theories or common sense observations or past research.
Experimental Strategy:
Test for differences between the two groups

Observed relationship

The independent variable is the amount of time that the people stare.
The dependent variable is the amount that people stutter.
The independent variable is the levels of temperature.
The level of aggression is the dependent variable.
A control condition is an experimental condition in which the variable expected to influence behavior is absent.

Which Of The Following Activities Constitutes Engagement In Research

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Options

A) Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct.B) The U.S. government is required to reveal publicly the identity of any person who commits misconduct.C) Funding agencies normally perform their own misconduct inquiry before the institution becomes involved.D) A central federal agency handles all cases of research misconduct.

The Correct Answer for the given question is Option A) Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct.

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History Of Social Psychology

Plato referred to the idea of the “crowd mind,” and concepts such as social loafing and social facilitation were introduced in the late 1800s. But it wasn’t until after World War II that research on social psychology began in earnest.

The horrors of the Holocaust led researchers to study social influence, conformity, and obedience. What could explain why people participated in such evil actions? Were people following orders and bowing to social pressure, or were there some other forces at work? By investigating these questions, social psychologists were able to gain a greater understanding of the power of societal forces such as authority, compliance, and obedience.

Social psychologist Stanley Milgram, for example, was able to demonstrate just how far people are willing to go to obey authority figures. In a series of now infamous experiments, Milgram and his colleagues ordered study participants to deliver what they believed was a potentially dangerous shock to another person.

In reality, the shocks were not real and the other individual was only pretending to be hurt by the electrical pulses. But 65% of those who took part in the study delivered the maximum level of shock simply because an authority figure told them to do so.

Thorndikes Law Of Effect

Edward Lee Thorndike was an American psychologist whose work on animal behavior and the learning process led to the law of effect. The law of effect states that responses that create a satisfying effect are more likely to occur again, while responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur.

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How Reliable Are Psychology Studies

A new study shows that the field suffers from a reproducibility problem, but the extent of the issue is still hard to nail down.

No one is entirely clear on how Brian Nosek pulled it off, including Nosek himself. Over the last three years, the psychologist from the University of Virginia persuaded some 270 of his peers to channel their free time into repeating 100 published psychological experiments to see if they could get the same results a second time around. There would be no glory, no empirical eurekas, no breaking of fresh ground. Instead, this initiativethe Reproducibility Projectwould be the first big systematic attempt to answer questions that have been vexing psychologists for years, if not decades. What proportion of results in their field are reliable?

A few signs hinted that the reliable proportion might be unnervingly small. Psychology has been recently rocked by several high-profile controversies, including: the publication of studies that documented impossible effects like precognition, failures to replicate the results of classic textbook experiments, and some prominent cases of outrightfraud.

They make for grim reading. Although 97 percent of the 100 studies originally reported statistically significant results, just 36 percent of the replications did.

Thats all in the future, though. For now? I will be having a drink, he says.

Research Methods In Social Psychology

LESSON -02 -Research Methods in Social Psychology

Kwantlen Polytechnic University

Social psychologists are interested in the waysthat other people affect thought, emotion, and behavior. To explore theseconcepts requires special research methods. Following a brief overview oftraditional research designs, this module introduces how complex experimentaldesigns, field experiments, naturalistic observation, experience samplingtechniques, survey research, subtle and nonconscious techniques such aspriming, and archival research and the use of big data may each be adapted toaddress social psychological questions. This module also discusses theimportance of obtaining a representative sample along with some ethicalconsiderations that social psychologists face.

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The History Of Social Psychology

The science of social psychology began when scientists first started to systematically and formally measure the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of human beings . The earliest social psychology experiments on group behavior were conducted before 1900 , and the first social psychology textbooks were published in 1908 . During the 1940s and 1950s, the social psychologists Kurt Lewin and Leon Festinger refined the experimental approach to studying behavior, creating social psychology as a rigorous scientific discipline. Lewin is sometimes known as the father of social psychology because he initially developed many of the important ideas of the discipline, including a focus on the dynamic interactions among people. In 1954, Festinger edited an influential book called Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences, in which he and other social psychologists stressed the need to measure variables and to use laboratory experiments to systematically test research hypotheses about social behavior. He also noted that it might be necessary in these experiments to deceive the participants about the true nature of the research.

The Way We Think About Others

Social cognition is a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations. It focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in our social interactions. The way we think about others plays a major role in how we think, feel, and interact with the world around us.

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Which Of The Following Is An Example Of An Unethical Sociological Research Practice

Options

A) Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct.B) The U.S. government is required to reveal publicly the identity of any person who commits misconduct.C) Funding agencies normally perform their own misconduct inquiry before the institution becomes involved.D) A central federal agency handles all cases of research misconduct.

The Correct Answer for the given question is Option A) Federal funding agencies typically rely on an institution to make the initial response to an allegation of research misconduct.

Whether Youre Still Considering Or Already Enrolled In An On

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Posted December 11, 2014 by

A pioneer of French cinema, filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard said, Art attracts us only by what it reveals of our most secret self.

Film as art is certainly no exception when it comes to capturing our minds and imaginations. Film provides a powerful medium for exploring what it means to be human, offering us a glimpse into human nature at its best, its worst and everywhere in between.

Perhaps thats why there is no shortage of films that explore the gamut of psychological topics making film a popular tool for teaching psychology.

  • The paranoia exhibited by Humphrey Bogarts Captain Queeg who unravels under stress in The Caine Mutiny.
  • The chilling descent into madness displayed by Jack Nicholson in The Shining.
  • The effect of one womans obsession on a man and his family in Fatal Attraction.
  • The moral dilemmas faced by the survivors of a torpedoed ship drifting at sea in Alfred Hitchcocks Lifeboat.

While there are hundreds of films that could be included on a list of movies that deal with psychology, here are a handful recommended by Saint Leo psychology faculty all must sees for students in online psychology degree programs.

What other films would you add to this list?

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Late 20th Century And Modernity

In the 1960s, there was growing interest in topics such as cognitive dissonance, , and aggression. By the 1970s, however, social psychology in America had reached a crisis, as heated debates emerged over issues such as ethical concerns about laboratory experimentation, whether attitude could actually predict behavior, and how much science could be done in a cultural context. This was also a time when situationism came to challenge the relevance of self and personality in psychology.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, social psychology reached a more mature level, especially in regard to theory and methodology. Now, careful ethical standards regulate research, and pluralistic and multicultural perspectives have emerged. Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, though attribution, social cognition, and the self-concept are perhaps the areas of greatest growth in recent years. Social psychologists have also maintained their applied interests with contributions in the social psychology of health, education, law, and the workplace.

Attitudes are also involved in several other areas of the discipline, such as conformity, interpersonal attraction, social perception, and prejudice.

Heuristics

Schemas

The ABCs of self are::53

The Question Of Representativeness

Along with our counterparts in the other areas of psychology, social psychologists have been guilty of largely recruiting samples of convenience from the thin slice of humanitystudentsfound at universities and colleges . This presents a problem when trying to assess the social mechanics of the public at large. Aside from being an overrepresentation of young, middle-class Caucasians, college students may also be more compliant and more susceptible to attitude change, have less stable personality traits and interpersonal relationships, and possess stronger cognitive skills than samples reflecting a wider range of age and experience . Put simply, these traditional samples may not be sufficiently representative of the broader population. Furthermore, considering that 96% of participants in psychology studies come from western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic countries , and that the majority of these are also psychology students, the question of non-representativeness becomes even more serious.

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Social Psychology Is A Science

Social psychologists attend to all levels of analysis buthistoricallythis branch of psychology has emphasized the higher levels of analysis. Researchers in this field are drawn to questions related to relationships, groups, and culture. This means that they frame their research hypotheses in these terms. Imagine for a moment that you are a social researcher. In your daily life, you notice that older men on average seem to talk about their feelings less than do younger men. You might want to explore your hypothesis by recording natural conversations between males of different ages. This would allow you to see if there was evidence supporting your original observation. It would also allow you to begin to sift through all the factors that might influence this phenomenon: What happens when an older man talks to a younger man? What happens when an older man talks to a stranger versus his best friend? What happens when two highly educated men interact versus two working class men? Exploring each of these questions focuses on interactions, behavior, and culture rather than on perceptions, hormones, or DNA.

Social Psychology Topics At A Glance

PSY 2510 Social Psychology: Self-Presentation

Early social psychologists concerned themselves with internal and external influences on individual behavior. British-born psychologist William McDougalls 1908 publication, An Introduction to Social Psychology, focused on human instinct as the driving force behind social interaction.

More topics crowded under the social psychology umbrella with the 1920s work of brothers Floyd Henry Allport and Gordon Willard Allport. The Allports are credited with applying rigorous scientific theory and experimentation techniques to social psychology research.

This dynamic duo also conducted important studies into the development of attitudes, religious beliefs, and many other topics.

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The Paradox Of Knowing

People appear to know other people better than they know themselves, at least when it comes to predicting future behaviour and achievement. Why? People display a rather accurate grasp of human nature in general, knowing how social behaviour is shaped by situational and internal constraints. They just exempt themselves from this understanding, thinking instead that their own actions are more a product of their agency, intentions, and free will a phenomenon we term misguided exceptionalism. How does this relate to cultural differences in self-insight? And are there areas of human life where people may still know themselves better than they know other people?

To know others is wisdom, to know ones self is enlightenment.Chinese philosopher Lao TzuFor the past twenty-odd years, the main discovery in my lab has been finding out just how unenlightened people are, at least in the terms that Lao Tzu put it. People appear to harbour many and frequent false beliefs about their own competence, character, place in the social world, and future . If knowing yourself is a task that many philosophers and social commentators from both Western and Eastern traditions have exhorted people to accomplish, it appears that very few are taking the advice seriously enough to succeed.

Misguided exceptionalism

David Dunning

The Accelerators First Challenge Was Testing An Influential Theory Of How We Judge Faces Around The World

This past January, the Psychological Science Accelerator published its first major findings in the journal Nature Human Behavior. The study put the influential theory for how we make snap judgments of peoples faces to a huge international test.

The theory is called the valence-dominance model, and it suggests we evaluate peoples faces on two broad dimensions: how dominant their face appears, and how generally negative or positive they seem. Most of the research done on this model has taken place in the US or Europe. So the accelerator simply wanted to know: Does this model explain how people all around the world judge the faces of others?

The final paper included more than 11,000 participants in 41 countries. And there are 241 co-authors listed on the paper.

The results? Broadly speaking, this influential model replicates around the world. But the accelerator also included a new type of analysis of the data, which reveals some slight fissures. Outside of Western context, this analysis finds, there may be a third dimension that emerges, Chartier says, suggesting an interesting way people around the world might vary in how they perceive faces. In other world regions, people just dont really seem to have good agreement about who looks dominant, Chartier says. Its a wrinkle that wouldnt have arisen if this collaboration had only been conducted in the United States or Europe.

But this conclusion wasnt reached without some tension.

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