Thursday, June 16, 2022

What Is Migration In Geography

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A Short Definition For Migration Studies

Migration Geography (AP Human Geography)

The movement of groups and individuals from one place to another, involving a change of usual residence. Migration is usually distinguished from mobility in general by conventions of spatial and temporal scale. For example, by convention international migration requires crossing a national boundary for an actual or intended period of at least one year. Residential mobility, by contrast, may consist of a short-distance move between properties in the same city.

Typologies of migration differentiate between internal and international migration, and the two forms are usually studied separately. Looked at historically, however, the movement of people long predates nation-states homo sapiens left Africa some 150,000 years ago. Geographers are interested in inter-regional, rural-urban, and urban-rural movements, especially in societies with low birth and death rates where migration is often the major cause of population change . In 2008, about 3 per cent of Americans moved to another county, for example, and in China, it is estimated that there were 140 million migrants, mostly from rural to urban areas .

Castree, N., Kitchin, R., & Rogers, A. . “Migration.” In A Dictionary of Human Geography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2021

Why Is Migration Important

Migration boosts the working-age population. Migrants arrive with skills and contribute to human capital development of receiving countries. Migrants also contribute to technological progress. Understanding these impacts is important if our societies are to usefully debate the role of migration.

Anthropology: Elite Recruitment And Language Shift

Indo-European languages probably spread through language shifts. Small groups can change a larger cultural area, and elite male dominance by small groups may have led to a language shift in northern India.

David Anthony, in his “revised Steppe hypothesis” notes that the spread of the Indo-European languages probably did not happen through “chain-type folk migrations”, but by the introduction of these languages by ritual and political elites, which were emulated by large groups of people, a process which he calls “elite recruitment”.

According to Parpola, local elites joined “small but powerful groups” of Indo-European speaking migrants. These migrants had an attractive social system and good weapons, and luxury goods which marked their status and power. Joining these groups was attractive for local leaders, since it strengthened their position, and gave them additional advantages. These new members were further incorporated by matrimonial alliances.

According to Joseph Salmons, language shift is facilitated by “dislocation” of language communities, in which the elite is taken over. According to Salmons, this change is facilitated by “systematic changes in community structure”, in which a local community becomes incorporated in a larger social structure.

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What Are The Impacts Of Migration

  • Statistics – migration numbers and facts.
  • Why is this migration occurring?
  • What are the impacts on the country of origin and destination?
  • Is anything being done to address this migration?
  • What is the situation now?
  • www.thegeographeronline.netThe Geographer Online is an educational website aimed at providing geography teaching resources for all levels. Created and Developed by: Steven Heath

    Some Key Migrations Affecting The Geography Of Contemporary Regions:

    AP® Human Geography
    • Rural-Urban migration in developing economies resulting in rapid urbanisation.
    • Suburbanisation and Counter-urbanisation from the cities of mature economies leading to urban sprawl or diffusion of urban characteristics into the rural-urban fringe.
    • Refugee migrations from areas of conflict in the Middle East
    • Economic migrations between areas of highly contrasting economic situations
    • Tourism migrations as more people have disposable income to spend on travel and leisure.

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    Similarities Between Sanskrit Persian Greek

    In the 16th century, European visitors to India became aware of similarities between Indian and European languages and as early as 1653 Van Boxhorn had published a proposal for a proto-language for Germanic, Romance, Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Celtic and Iranian.

    In a memoir sent to the French Academy of Sciences in 1767 Gaston-Laurent Coeurdoux, a French Jesuit who spent all his life in India, had specifically demonstrated the existing analogy between Sanskrit and European languages.

    In 1786 William Jones, a judge in the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William, Calcutta, linguist, and classics scholar, on studying Sanskrit, postulated, in his Third Anniversary Discourse to the Asiatic Society, a proto-language uniting Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, Gothic and Celtic languages, but in many ways his work was less accurate than his predecessors’, as he erroneously included Egyptian, Japanese and Chinese in the Indo-European languages, while omitting Hindustani and Slavic:

    Jones concluded that all these languages originated from the same source.

    Renfrew: Models Of Linguistic Replacement

    Basu et al. refer to Renfrew, who described four models for “linguistic replacement”:

  • The demographic-subsistence model, exemplified by the process of agricultural dispersal, in which the incoming group has exploitive technologies which makes them dominant. It may lead to significant gene flow, and significant genetic changes in the population. But it may also lead to acculturalisation, in which case the technologies are taken over, but there is less change in the genetic composition of the population
  • The existence of extended trading systems which lead to the development of a lingua franca, in which case some gene flow is to be expected
  • The elite dominance model, in which “a relatively small but well-organized group take over the system”. Given the small size of the elite, its genetic influence may also be small, though “preferential access to marriage partners” may result in a relatively strong influence on the gene pool. Sexual asymmetry may also be of influence: incoming elites often consist mostly of males, who have no influence on the mitochondrial DNA of the gene pool, but may influence the Y chromosomes of the gene pool
  • System collapse, in which territorial boundaries are changed, and elite dominance may appear for a while.
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    Salmons: Systematic Changes In Community Structure

    Joseph Salmons notes that Anthony presents scarce concrete evidence or arguments. Salmons is critical about the notion of “prestige” as a central factor in the shift to Indo-European languages, referring to Milroy who notes that “prestige” is “a cover term for a variety of very distinct notions”. Instead, Milroy offers “arguments built around network structure”, though Salmons also notes that Anthony includes several of those arguments, “including political and technological advantages”. According to Salmons, the best model is offered by Fishman, who

    … understands shift in terms of geographical, social, and cultural “dislocation” of language communities. Social dislocation, to give the most relevant example, involves “siphoning off the talented, the enterprising, the imaginative and the creative” , and sounds strikingly like Anthony’s ‘recruitment’ scenario.

    Salmons himself argues that

    … systematic changes in community structure are what drive language shift, incorporating Milroy’s network structures as well. The heart of the view is the quintessential element of modernization, namely a shift from local community-internal organization to regional , extra-community organizations. Shift correlates with this move from pre-dominantly “horizontal” community structures to more “vertical” ones.

    Questions For The Future

    Cambridge IGCSE (9-1) Geography Revision – Migration

    The issue of global human populations is often controversial because there is no clear consensus on how to deal with it. What demographers do know is that there are over 7.3 billion people on the planet, but they are not evenly distributed around the world. One consistent global pattern is water nearly 80 percent of the worlds population lives near a large body of water.

    • Why do you think populations converge on large bodies of water?
    • What happens to populations when there is a shortage of water?

    There are a variety of ways that geographers and demographers study population dynamics and profiles, often representing this data in the form of diagrams, graphs, and, most importantly, maps. One way social scientists have tried to describe historical, current, and future population trends is with the Demographic Transition Model. The model attempts to explain how more developed countries progressed with their demographics compared to less developed countries today. Some argue that though the model predicts demographic trends in North America and Europe, the model does not accurately represent population trends in other regions of the world. Others say the model is too simplistic because of environmental and cultural factors.

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    What Is Migration Classification Of Migration Causes And Consequence Of Migration

    INTRODUCTION:-MobilityCirculationMomentMigration FUNCTION OF MIGRATION :- CLASSIFICATION OF MIGRATION : –Emigration:- Immigration : – Rural – Urban migration: – Urban – Rural migration: – Rural – Rural migration: – Urban – Urban migration: –MIGRATION VOLUME: –MIGRATION RATE:- CAUSES OF MIGRATION Pull factor:-Natural causes of migration:- Socio-cultural causes of migration:- Demographic causes of migration:- Political causes of migration:- CONSEQUENCE OF MIGRATION Demographic consequences:- Social consequences:- Environmental consequences:- Other consequences:-

    What Is The Main Type Of Intraregional Migration

    Internal migration can be divided into two types: Interregional migration is movement from one region of a country to another intraregional migration is movement within one region. Historically, the main type of interregional migration has been from rural to urban areas in search of jobs.

    What is the difference between interregional migration and intraregional migration?

    There are two types of internal migration. Interregional migration is the movement from one region of a country to another. The movement within the same region of the country is called intraregional migration.

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    Voluntary And Forced Migration

    Migration is usually divided into two categories: voluntary migration and forced migration.

    The distinction between involuntary and voluntary migration is difficult to make and partially subjective, as the motivators for migration are often correlated. The World Bank estimated that, as of 2010, 16.3 million or 7.6% of migrants qualified as refugees. This number grew to 19.5 million by 2014 . At levels of roughly 3 percent the share of migrants among the world population has remained remarkably constant over the last 5 decades.

    Has Geographys Contribution To Migration Studies Been Under

    Chapter 3 Key Issue 2

    The fourth and final question involves me riding a personal hobby-horse. As a phenomenon that unfolds across space migration is quintessentially geographical. Yet, I believe that geographers contributions to the study of migration have been consistently under-appreciated , and this impression is not allayed by reading the paper by Levy et al. . Why do I feel this way? In the past it might have been due to a collective sense of inferiority amongst geographers. Caught between the physical sciences on the one hand and the humanities and social sciences on the other, geography seemed to be a subject that was somehow lost on the academic playing field, where it was seen as a descriptive discipline of facts, figures and regional monographs. Certainly it lacked a critical edge. David Harvey and Doreen Massey did much to restore respect for geography, whilst the climate crisis and other pressing environmental issues created the need to reunite physical and human geography, and the physical and social sciences more broadly, to respond to these global challenges. Nowadays geographers studying migration can feel inspired by the words of Favell when he describes geography arguably the most exciting discipline in the social sciences.

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    United States After 1965

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    In the United States, the term ‘chain migration’ is used by advocates of limiting immigration, to partially explain the volume and national origins of legal immigration since 1965. U.S. citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents ” rel=”nofollow”> Green card” holders) may petition for visas for their immediate relatives including their children, spouses, parents, or siblings. Advocates of immigration restriction believe the family reunification policy is too permissive, leads to higher than expected levels of immigration, and what they consider the wrong type of immigrants. In its place, they favor increasing the number of immigrants with particular job skills. In practice, however, the wait times from when a family reunification petition is filed until the adult relative is able to enter the U.S. can be as long as 1520 years . This is a result of backlogs in obtaining a visa number and visa number quotas that only allow 226,000 family-based visas to be issued annually.

    There are four family-based preference levels, data valid as of June 2009:

  • Unmarried Sons and Daughters of Citizens: 23,400 plus any numbers not required for fourth preference.
  • Third: Married Sons and Daughters of Citizens: 23,400, plus any numbers not required by first and second preferences.
  • Arguments Against An Indian Origin Of Proto

    Diversity

    According to the linguistic center of gravity principle, the most likely point of origin of a language family is in the area of its greatest diversity. By this criterion, Northern India, home to only a single branch of the Indo-European language family , is an exceedingly unlikely candidate for the Indo-European homeland, compared to Central-Eastern Europe, for example, which is home to the Italic, Venetic, Illyrian, Albanian, Germanic, Baltic, Slavic, Thracian and Greek branches of Indo-European.

    Both mainstream Urheimat solutions locate the Proto-Indo-European homeland in the vicinity of the Black Sea.

    Dialectal variation

    This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts, without removing the technical details.

    The strong correspondence between the dialectal relationships of the Indo-European languages and their actual geographical arrangement in their earliest attested forms makes an Indian origin, as suggested by the Out of India Theory, unlikely.

    Substrate influence

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    Dual Labor Market Theory

    Dual labor market theory states that migration is mainly caused by pull factors in more developed countries. This theory assumes that the labor markets in these developed countries consist of two segments: the primary market, which requires high-skilled labor, and the secondary market, which is very labor-intensive requiring low-skilled workers. This theory assumes that migration from less developed countries into more developed countries is a result of a pull created by a need for labor in the developed countries in their secondary market. Migrant workers are needed to fill the lowest rung of the labor market because the native laborers do not want to do these jobs as they present a lack of mobility. This creates a need for migrant workers. Furthermore, the initial dearth in available labor pushes wages up, making migration even more enticing.

    Migration Based On Distance

    AP Human Geography – Causes of Migration

    Intra-building: Movement within a building

    Inter-building: Pedestrian patterns between a complex of buildings

    Local scale: Moving house to another within a town or city

    Regional scale: Migrating within a country from one county/state to another

    International scale: Migrating from one country to another

    Global scale: Migrating between distant continents

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    Chain Migration In American History

    Different groups of immigrants have employed chain migration among the different strategies used to enter, work, and live in the various republics of the Americas throughout their history. Social networks for migration are universal and not limited to specific nations, cultures, or crises. One group of immigrants to the British colonies in North America was African slaves brought over forcibly the circumstances of their migration do not fit the criteria of chain migration of free labor. Other groups, such as Germans fleeing chaos in Europe in the mid-1800s, Irish fleeing famine in Ireland in the same years, Eastern European Jews who emigrated from the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and Italians and Japanese escaping poverty and seeking better economic conditions in the same period, did use chain migration strategies extensively, with resulting “colonies” of immigrants from the same villages, towns, and cities settling in enclaves in such cities as Boston, New York, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Melbourne, Auckland and Havana from the mid-1800s through the mid-1900s.

    Central Asia: Formation Of Indo

    Indo-Iranian peoples are a grouping of ethnic groups consisting of the Indo-Aryan, Iranian and Nuristani peoples that is, speakers of Indo-Iranian languages.

    The Proto-Indo-Iranians are commonly identified with the Andronovo culture, that flourished c. 2000900 BCE in an area of the Eurasian Steppe that borders the Ural River on the west, the Tian Shan on the east. The older Sintashta culture , formerly included within the Andronovo culture, is now considered separately, but regarded as its predecessor, and accepted as part of the wider Andronovo horizon.

    The Indo-Aryan migration was part of the Indo-Iranian migrations from the Andronovo culture into Anatolia, Iran and South Asia.

    Sintashta-Petrovka culture

    The Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture or Sintashta-Arkaim culture, is a Bronze Agearchaeological culture of the northern Eurasian Steppe on the borders of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, dated to the period 22001800 BCE. The Sintashta culture is probably the archaeological manifestation of the Indo-Iranian language group.

    The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronzemetallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture.

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    A What Is Migration Key Terms

    Migration

    • International migration – Movement of people to another country
    • Forced migration – The migrant has no personal choice e.g. refugees moving due to a natural disaster, war or political persecution.
    • Voluntary migration – Migrants looking for a better quality of life or personal freedom e.g. better climate or to join relatives
    • Internal migration – Movement of people within a country
    • Rural-urban migration – Movement of people from countryside areas to towns or cities
    • Emigration – when someone leaves a country.
    • Immigration – when someone enters a country.
    • Economic migration – moving to find work or follow a particular career path
    • Social migration – moving somewhere for a better quality of life or to be closer to family or friends
    • Political migration – moving to escape political persecution or war
    • Environmental migration – causes of migration include natural disasters such as flooding

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