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What Is Circadian Rhythm Psychology

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Why Is Circadian Rhythm Important

Circadian rhythm sleep phase disorders – VCE Psychology

Circadian rhythms have been critical throughout evolution, allowing animals to prepare for upcoming changes to their environment. Today, research is charting the harms of a disrupted circadian rhythm, such as sleep disorders, obesity, diabetes, depression, and bipolar disordernot to mention difficulties concentrating and staying productive.

What Is A Circadian Rhythm How Do Circadian Rhythms Work And How Do They Affect Sleep

Circadian rhythms are driven by your bodys internal master clockit controls things like your sleep/wake cycle, eating habits and digestion, and your body temperature. Usually it is synchronized with the day-night cycle This biological process helps produce the hormone melatonin in the evening, influencing you to feel sleepy, and slows that production in the morning when youre exposed to light, which allows you to wake up and be alert.

How Does Circadian Rhythm Affect Sleep

When people talk about circadian rhythm, its most often in the context of sleep. The sleep-wake cycle is one of the most clear and critical examples of the importance of circadian rhythms.

During the day, light exposure causes the master clock to send signals that generate alertness and help keep us awake and active. As night falls, the master clock initiates the production of melatonin, a hormone that promotes sleep, and then keeps transmitting signals that help us stay asleep through the night.

In this way, our circadian rhythm aligns our sleep and wakefulness with day and night to create a stable cycle of restorative rest that enables increased daytime activity.

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Airline Pilots And Cabin Crew

Due to the work nature of airline pilots, who often cross several time zones and regions of sunlight and darkness in one day, and spend many hours awake both day and night, they are often unable to maintain sleep patterns that correspond to the natural human circadian rhythm this situation can easily lead to fatigue. The NTSB cites this as contributing to many accidents, and has conducted several research studies in order to find methods of combating fatigue in pilots.

Disruption to rhythms usually has a negative effect. Many travelers have experienced the condition known as jet lag, with its associated symptoms of fatigue, disorientation and insomnia.

A number of other disorders, such as bipolar disorder and some sleep disorders such as delayed sleep phase disorder , are associated with irregular or pathological functioning of circadian rhythms.

Disruption to rhythms in the longer term is believed to have significant adverse health consequences for peripheral organs outside the brain, in particular in the development or exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. Blue LED lighting suppresses melatonin production five times more than the orange-yellow high-pressure sodium light a metal halide lamp, which is white light, suppresses melatonin at a rate more than three times greater than HPS. Depression symptoms from long term nighttime light exposure can be undone by returning to a normal cycle.

How Are Circadian Rhythms Related To Jet Lag

55 HD What Are Circadian Rhythms Psychology

Jet lag occurs when you travel over several time zones quickly, and your body is not aligned to the time of your new environment. Your circadian rhythm is attuned to the place where you left, and it has to readjust. This may result in feeling tired during the day or feeling wide awake at night.

You may experience other changes that impact your well-being until your circadian rhythm normalizes again. It may take a day or up to a week to feel acclimated to the new time zone. It typically takes a day for each hour you shift to regulate your sleep-wake cycle.You may even experience mild symptoms of jet lag when clocks fall backward or forward for daylight saving time. The disruption may not last too long, but your body may need a few days to adjust.

You may experience disruptions to your circadian rhythm, but you can get it back on track. Here are some tips for promoting a healthy 24-hour schedule:

  • Try to adhere to a routine each day.
  • Spend time outdoors when its light outside to boost your wakefulness.
  • Get enough daily exercise 20 or more minutes of aerobic exercise is generally recommended.
  • Sleep in an environment that promotes rest with proper lighting, a comfortable temperature, and a supportive mattress.
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine in the evenings.
  • Power down your screens well before bedtime and try engaging in an activity such as reading a book or meditating.
  • Dont nap late in the afternoon or evening.

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Circadian Rhythm And Memory Performance: No Time

Sergii Yaremenko, Melanie Sauerland, Lorraine Hope Circadian Rhythm and Memory Performance: No Time-Of-Day Effect on Face Recognition. Collabra: Psychology 4 January 2021 7 : 21939. doi:

The circadian rhythm regulates arousal and activity levels throughout the day and determines hours of optimal cognitive performance. Thus far, circadian fluctuations in face recognition performance received little attention in the research literature. The current experiment investigated the effects of time-of-day optimality on the ability to recognize faces and discriminate between the contexts in which where they were encountered. Morning- and evening-type participants encoded faces in a crime-related and a neutral context, either at their optimal or non-optimal time of day. Contrary to our hypotheses, neither face recognition nor source monitoring performance benefited from testing at optimal time of day. We discuss peculiarities of face processing that could account for the discrepancy of our findings with word recall and recognition literature.

Morning Larks And Night Owls

So-called ‘morning people’ prefer to get up with the sun and accomplish a great deal in the early hours of the day. ‘Night people,’ on the other hand, prefer to sleep in and consider themselves most productive during the evening hours.

Still, night owls often find themselves forced to become early risers due to work, school, and caretaking obligations, and it turns out that might be a good thing for a number of reasons. Research has shown that people who get up earlier than their late-sleeping peers are not only happier, but healthier.

One study found that people who stayed up later tended to have worse cardiac functioning including heart rate and blood pressure. Not only that, but they also suffered from poorer sleep and were less likely to be physically active.

While individual differences in your biological clock may influence whether you are a morning lark or a night owl, there are a few things you can do to shift your internal clock and start greeting the day a bit earlier.

A few things you can try include:

It can take a while to establish a new waking/sleeping routine. Stick to it, however, and you may soon reap the benefits of being a morning person.

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What Do Biological Rhythms Affect

The main biological rhythm most people are concerned with is the diurnal sleep-wake cycle. It is the most obvious cycle you deal with on a regular basis. It has a powerful impact on your health.

During the day as you experience light cues, your SNC sends signals of alertness to tell your body itâs time to be awake. As the sun sets, your SNC signals for the production of melatonin, a sleep hormone. Afterward, it continues signaling to your body to stay asleep.

Other than sleep, your biological rhythms influence important functions such as:

  • Urine production

Your biological rhythms are also tied to the regulation of blood sugar and cholesterol, risks associated with mental health that lead to depression, bipolar disorder, and neurodegenerative diseases. Biological rhythms also influence your immune system, DNA repair processes, and cancer treatment effectiveness.

Circadian Rhythm In Teens

The Sleep Wake Cycle: Circadian rhythm – Biological Psychology [AQA ALevel]

Teenagers experience a shift in their circadian rhythm known as sleep phase delay. Unlike in their childhood years with early bedtimes around 8 or 9 p.m., teenagers may not get tired until much later in the night.

Melatonin may not rise until closer to 10 or 11 p.m. or even later. That shift also results in a teenagers need to sleep later in the morning. Their peak sleepy hours at night are from 3 to 7 a.m. or maybe even later but they still need the same amount of sleep as children.

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Circadian Rhythm And Airline Pilots

Due to the work nature of airline pilots, who often traverse multiple timezones and regions of sunlight and darkness in one day, and spend many hours awake both day and night, they are often unable to maintain sleep patterns that correspond to the natural human circadian rhythm this situation can easily lead to fatigue. The NTSB cites this situation as a contributing factor to many accidents and has conducted multiple research studies in order to find methods of combating fatigue in pilots.

Am I A Morning Person Or A Night Person

A chronotype refers to when someone tends to be most alert during the day. Some are morning larks and others are night owls. Although research on chronotypes is still evolving, one recent survey suggests that there may be distinct afternoon and napper chronotypes as well, when alertness peaks in the afternoon or before and after 3pm.

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Circadian Infradian And Ultradian Rhythms

Have you ever noticed that you tend to do certain things at the same time every day? Maybe you wake up at the same time, always feel hungry around the same time, or fall asleep at the same time each night. You may even find yourself wanting to socialize or not at certain times of day! Are these just patterned choices that we make, or is there something biological going on?

What Are Circadian Rhythms

Infographic : Circadian Rhythm

Your circadian rhythm is your sleep-wake pattern over the course of a 24-hour day.

It helps control your daily schedule for sleep and wakefulness. Most living things have one. Circadian rhythm is influenced by light and dark, as well as other factors. Your brain receives signals based on your environment and activates certain hormones, alters your body temperature, and regulates your metabolism to keep you alert or draw you to sleep.

Some may experience disruptions to their circadian rhythm because of external factors or sleep disorders. Maintaining healthy habits can help you respond better to this natural rhythm of your body.

There are several components that make up your bodys circadian rhythm. It is one of four biological rhythms in the body.

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What Are The Symptoms Of A Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder

While symptoms for these disorders can vary, most cause excessive daytime sleepiness. Insomnia difficulty falling or staying asleep is another common issue associated with these disorders.

A formal diagnosis of a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder involves specific criteria including:

  • Chronic or recurring sleep disturbances due to alterations of the individuals internal circadian rhythm or misalignments between their circadian rhythm and their desired or required work or social schedule.
  • Insomnia symptoms and/or excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Clinically significant distress or impairments to the individuals mental, physical, social, occupational, or educational performance that can be attributed to their sleep disturbances.
  • As these criteria demonstrate, circadian rhythm sleep disorders can provoke significant health effects including problems in work or school as well as an elevated risk of vehicular or workplace accidents.

    What Are The 4 Circadian Rhythms

    There are four biological rhythms:

    • circadian rhythms: the 24-hour cycle that includes physiological and behavioral rhythms like sleeping.
    • diurnal rhythms: the circadian rhythm synced with day and night.
    • ultradian rhythms: biological rhythms with a shorter period and higher frequency than circadian rhythms.

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    Light And The Biological Clock

    Light resets the biological clock in accordance with the phase response curve . Depending on the timing, light can advance or delay the circadian rhythm. Both the PRC and the required illuminance vary from species to species, and lower light levels are required to reset the clocks in nocturnal rodents than in humans.

    What Can Disrupt Circadian Rhythm

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    Disruptions to circadian rhythm can occur over the short- or long-term. Experts have identified a number of types of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders based on their characteristics and causes.

    As this list demonstrates, there are diverse causes of circadian rhythm disorders. Some circadian disruptions are related to individual behavior, such as for travel or work, that puts sleep schedules out of whack with normal daylight exposure. Other disorders stem from an underlying issue that causes an inability to receive or process environmental cues that regulate the bodys master clock. In certain situations, genetic causes may be involved, or the cause may remain unknown.

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    Avoid Heavy Meals And Caffeine Later In The Day

    What you eat can impact how you sleep. Food and alcohol cause heartburn, and caffeine and nicotine are stimulants that can trigger your brain to keep your body active. Aim to give your body 12 to 14 hours without food to reset .

    Doing so means your liver wont be working as hard throughout the night. When your master clock triggers the release of melatonin, it also sends signals to the liver, telling it to stop creating enzymes to turn calories into energy and instead begin storing energy. The more food you put in your body before bed, the harder your liver works, and more food is stored than burned.

    Causes Of Circadian Rhythm

  • Lifestyle Change: People who change their exposure to daylight, shift the timing of their daily activities, and strategically schedule naps may be able to manage better with some circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
  • Bright light therapy: This therapy synchronizes the biological clock by exposing the eyes to low-intensity, bright light for short periods of time at specific times of day.
  • Sleep hygiene: These guidelines assist patients in developing healthy sleeping patterns.
  • Medications: To encourage sleep, a hypnotic may be taken, whereas to stimulate wakefulness, a stimulant may be prescribed.
  • Melatonin: Some circadian rhythm sleep problems may be alleviated by taking melatonin at specific times and amounts.
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    How Your Body ‘keeps Time’

    A tiny cluster of approximately 20,000 neurons in the hypothalamus controls your bodys many circadian rhythms. Known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus , this master control center is responsible for acting as your bodys internal pacemaker.

    While the exact mechanisms for how this process works are unclear, environmental cues are important. Sunlight, controlling your daily sleep-wake schedule, is perhaps the most apparent one.

    As sunlight decreases at the close of the day, the visual system sends signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Next, the SCN sends signals to the pineal gland to increase production of the hormone melatonin. This hormone increase helps reduce activity and makes you feel increasingly sleepy.

    What Are The Types Of Biological Rhythm Disorders

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    Disorders may develop when natural biological rhythms are disturbed. These disorders include:

    • sleep disorders: The body is wired to sleep at night. Disruptions in the bodys natural rhythms can lead to affected sleep, including insomnia.
    • jet lag: A disruption in circadian rhythms when traveling across time zones or overnight.
    • mood disorders: Lack of exposure to sunlight can lead to conditions like depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder .
    • shift work disorders: When a person works outside the typical work day it causes changes in typical circadian rhythms.

    Biological rhythm disorders can affect a persons health and feelings of well-being. Some of the effects include:

    Why do you need seven to eight hours of sleep? »

    Some of the worlds most significant human errors have happened during night shift work. These include the Chernobyl disaster and the Three Mile Island accident. Also, most single-driver accidents occur in the time before dawn, according to Cornell University.

    From a brain and body perspective, our bodies are made to sleep at night. This is why we dont have adaptations like night vision and an enhanced sense of smell and hearing like nocturnal animals do.

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    Limit Nightly Screen Use

    Weve discussed the effects of morning light on your circadian rhythm, and light in the evening works the same way. Household light, from both lamps and blue light emitted from laptops, smartphones and tablets, can trick your brain into thinking its still daytime, causing it to suppress melatonin production. Bright light wakes up your brain, Dr. Schwartz says.

    Start dimming lights about two hours before bedtime and resist scrolling through social media in bed. If you work a night shift or need to use screens in the evenings, you can wear glasses that block blue light or install a blue light filter app on your device.

    Maintaining a regular circadian rhythm is crucial for healthy sleep. If daytime drowsiness is interfering with your daily activities, you may have a sleep disorder. Schedule an appointment with the INTEGRIS Sleep Disorders Center of Oklahoma to discuss your symptoms and find a treatment plan to help you sleep better.

    What Does Circadian Rhythm Affect Besides Sleep

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    While the sleep-wake cycle is one of the most prominent circadian rhythms, these 24-hour internal clocks play a vital role in virtually all systems of the body.

    Research continues to uncover details about circadian rhythms, but evidence has connected them to metabolism and weight through the regulation of blood sugar and cholesterol. Circadian rhythms influence mental health as well, including the risk of psychiatric illnesses like depression and bipolar disorder as well as the potential for neurodegenerative diseases like dementia.

    There are indications that circadian rhythms have an important influence on the immune system as well as processes of DNA repair that are involved in preventing cancer. Early-stage research indicates that circadian cycles can influence the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs and that new medications may be able to harness biological clocks to kill cancer cells.

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