Global Transport And Change Within Cities
Transport systems have long provided one cornerstone in the structure of a metropolitan area as seaports stimulated commercial zones nearby and rail stations generated passenger and freight-handling facilities. Today, the airport is the key focus of movement of people into and out of a city. At the same time airfreight has increased, so that the warehouses and storage facilities that once surrounded the seaport have been replicated around airports. In addition, the construction of hotels and business parks has made the airport a new commercial center in a number of cities.
The relocation of transport facilities to suburban and even distant fringe locations has contributed to the spread of urban development in large metropolitan areas. That outcome reflects the power of logistical systems to connect producers to one another and to consumers, which in effect has spread the benefit of some agglomeration economies across the whole of a metropolitan area rather than being available just at its core. In effect, some suburban or fringe sites are now effective locations for many businesses, even those serving global markets.
B.R. Gurjar, … S. Bhattacharya, in, 2017
Models Of Transport Development
In the reconstruction of a region or a nation, transport systems invariably play a vital role. The growth and development of transportation provides a medium, contributing to the progress of agriculture, industry, commerce, administration, defence, education, health or any other community activity. Many of the regional characteristics that are influencing the layout of the existing transformational system are the creation of their antecedent transformational features.
The present-day transport network has evolved out of the past framework because as trail evolves successfully into the pioneer dirt road, then into the improved farm road and finally, into the present day paved highways with heavy motor traffic. Many factors are involved in the development of a transport system. The present-day transport system of a country or a region cannot be explained by one factor alone. In fact, services of interrelated factors are responsible for the development of transport system as depicted in Figure 3.1.
White and Senior , in their book entitled, Transport Geography considered five basic factors, which influence the growth and development of transport systems and the ways in which changes take place.
1. The historical factor this involves the location and pattern of systems, technological development, and institutional development and settlement, and land-use patterns.
The following table indicates examples of some of these factors:
Models of Transport Development:
Overcoming The Physical Environment
Rapid technological developments have enabled transportation to overcome the physical environment. Before the industrial revolution, most road paths were adapted to topography. Since then, efforts have been made for paving roads, bridging rivers and cutting pathways over mountain passes. Engineering techniques in terms of arches and vaults used in Byzantine and Gothic church constructions in the twelfth century permitted building bridges across wider streams or deep river valleys. Road building thus has been at the core of technological efforts to overcome the environment since they are the support for local and even long-distance travel.
From the efforts to mechanize road transport modes to the development of integrated multilane highways, road building has transformed the environment. Innovations in maritime transport can be found around the world. The earliest developments came in the transformation of waterways for transportation purposes through the development of canal locks coping with adverse natural gradients. Further improvements in navigation came with the cutting of artificial waterways. Some of the earliest examples can be found in the Martesana canals of Lombardy , the Dutch canals , the canal de Briare in France , or the Grand Canal of China .
- Polar Shipping Routes
- The Development of Polar Air Routes
- Site of the Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok Terminal
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Important International Transport Systems
Transport systems, which are operated at the global scale, are the expansion of the need for links between both individual nations and trading blocs, and have complex spatial networks. Many changes have encouraged movements on the international scale since the mid-twentieth century. Technological advances have provided us with high-capacity jet airlines, ships which carry over millions of tonnes of goods over thousands of kilometres, and movements at the global scale are now within the reach of ever-increasing numbers of people and commercial enterprises. The rapid expansion of transnational manufacturing companies in particular has also been responsible for much of the increase in international traffic.
Almost all long distance travel is now by air and the expansion of tourism has produced a demand for many additional schedule and charter service. Although international transport has several facets, which needs detailed analysis, but the present article considers the international movement of freight and passengers at various scales and by different modes, that too in the form of an introduction.
1. International Air Transport:
Latterly, however, the aviation industry, buoyed by increased profits resulting from the global economic upturn of the mid-1990s, remains bullish about long-term growth trends, despite concerns about fuel supplies and costs, shortages of airport capacity in many key markets, and the negative environmental impacts of air transport.
Waterways In West Bengal
- The Government of India has declared the entire stretch of Ganges between Haldia and Allahabad as National Waterway .
- The 560 km Haldia Farakka stretch of NW1 in West Bengal will be developed as a part of the multimodal system for cargo tariff from Nepal, Bhutan, North Bengal & North Eastern States.;
- The Kolkata Port Trust manages the Kolkata and the Haldia docks.
- There is passenger service to Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and cargo ship service to ports in India and abroad, operated by the Shipping Corporation of India.
- The ferry is a principal mode of transport in the southern part of the state, especially in the Sundarbans area.
- Kolkata is the only city in India to have trams as a mode of transport and these are operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company.
Transport System in West Bengal Free PDF Download Link Below
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Airways In West Bengal
- Kolkata is well connected to the rest of India and all other prime locations of the world by the Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport.
- There is another airport at Bagdogra, which links Siliguri with the important destinations within the country.
- The importance of Bagdogra airport has increased with Siliguri becoming the gateway to the North Eastern States and a vital trade and logistics hub for the entire region.
Some of the important airports in West Bengal are as follows:
Kolkata:;;Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport
- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport is the only international airport in Kolkata.
- It was inaugurated in 1924 and since then, it has served as the international terminal for all the North-eastern states of India.
Behala Airport, Balurghat Airport, Cooch Behar Airport, Bagdogra Airport
- Bagdogra Airport is a domestic airport in Bagdogra city, which is about 14 km from the city of Siliguri.
- The airport had earlier served as a base for the Air Force of India. After the Air Force shifted its base to Hasimara, in the Dooars region of North Bengal, the airport was allowed to run domestic flights.
- Bagdogra Airport serves as an important base for those who desire to access the northeastern states of India.
- Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport developed by Bengal Aerotropolis Projects Limited. West Bengals second-largest airport.)
Important Measures Of Transport Networks
Network analysis is an important aspect of transport geography because it involves the description of the disposition of nodes and their relationships and line or linkage of distribution. It gives measures of accessibility and connectivity and also allows comparisons to be made between regional networks within a country and between other countries.
As Fitzgerald has said, variations in the characteristics of networks may be considered to reflect certain spatial aspects of the socio-economic system.
The details of important measures of transport networks are given here for proper understanding and application of these measures for:
The connectivity of networks;
The centrality within networks;
The spread and diameter of networks; and
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Transportation And The Spatial Structure
The concepts of;site and situation are fundamental to geography and transportation. While the site refers to the geographical characteristics of a specific location, its situation concerns its relationships regarding other locations. For instance, a port site relates to attribute such as the suitability of its harbor. In contrast, a port situation relates to its connectivity with its foreland and hinterland . Thus, all locations are relative to one another, but the situation is not a constant attribute as transportation developments change accessibility levels, and thus the relations between locations. The development of a location reflects the cumulative relationships between transport infrastructure, economic activities, and the built environment.
- Site and Situation
- The Spatial Structure and Transportation
The following factors are particularly important in shaping the;spatial structure:
Many contemporary transportation networks are inherited from the past, notably transport infrastructures. Even if since the industrial revolution, new technologies have revolutionized transportation in terms of speed, capacity, and efficiency, the spatial structure of many networks has not much changed. Two major factors can explain this inertia in the spatial structure of some transportation networks:
- Transportation Networks and Geographical Specialization
- Transportation Networks and Geographical Concentration
Travel Demand And Alternative Modes Of Travel
Transport-systems planners use mathematical theories about choice in modeling travel demand, and psychological variables add to what is otherwise offered by economic models. Because choices are often grounded in perceptions and subjective valuations, psychological research methods help to ascertain the relationship between travel time and the desirability of travel-mode options or goodness-of-fit with personal needs. Travel time, cost of alternative modes, availability of mass transit, activity plans, work demands, and personal preferences are weighed by the traveler in making transportation choices.
Psychological theory has been applied to change travel behavior, such as using reinforcement theory to boost transit-ridership. Transit use has been promoted by offering cash and travel prizes through lottery-type drawings, as well as distributing value coupons and tokens with bulk purchases of transit passes or dispensing them to people on boarding a bus. Similarly, inducements for ridesharing have been given by providing special lanes on congested freeways for multiple-occupancy vehicles. Such schemes are more effective when the special lane has been added to the road, as opposed to when an existing lane has been converted. Other efforts to reduce solo driving have involved the provision of priority parking facilities and/or reduced parking rates for carpools and vanpools.
Raymond W. Novaco, in, 2015
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The Purpose Of Transportation
The unique purpose of transportation is to overcome space, which is shaped by a variety of human and physical;constraints such as distance, time, administrative divisions, and topography. Jointly, they confer friction to any movement, commonly known as the friction of distance .;In an ideal world, transportation would come at no effort in terms of cost and time and unlimited capacity and spatial reach. Under such circumstances, geography would not matter. However, geography can be a significant constraint to transport in the real world since it trades space for time and money and can only be partially circumscribed. The extent to which this is done has a cost that varies significantly according to factors such as the length of the trip, the capacity of modes and infrastructures, and the nature of what is being transported. Transport geography can be understood from a series of;eight core principles:
Connectivity And Its Measurement:
The connectivity of a network may be defined as the degree of completeness of the links between nodes . When a network is abstracted as a set of edges that are related to set of vertices , a fundamental question is the degree to which all pairs of vertices are interconnected.
The degree of connection between all vertices is defined as the connectivity of the networks . The greater the degree of connectivity within a transportation network, the more efficient with that system be. Kansky has studied the structure of transportation networks, developed several descriptive indices for measuring the connectivity of networks, i.e., beta, gamma, alpha indices and cyclomatic number.
Beta Index :
The beta index is a very simple measure of connectivity, which can be found by dividing the total number of arcs in a network by the total number of nodes, thus:
= arcs/ nodes
The beta index ranges from 0.0 for networks, which consist just of nodes with no arcs, through 1.0 and greater where networks are well connected.
Some characteristics of P index are:
value for tree types of structures and disconnected networks would always be less than 1. It would take zero values when there are no edges in the network
value for any network structure with one circuit would always be equal to 1.
value exceeds 1 for a complicated network structure having more than one circuit.
Alpha Index :
= actual circuit/ maximum circuits
= e-+1/ 2-5
Gamma Index :
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A Holistic And Collaborative Approach Should Be Taken
ITS design must be approached as a whole instead of individual parts. A system engineering approach is needed. All stakeholders must work together to solve the needs and values of each party. There are many interconnected parts that are not always visible. It is important to work through each layer of the design. It is important to take a crossdiscipline collaboration between design, technology, and business. We must consider the wider context of the system. It is important to investigate carefully how ITS fits into the overall transportation network and the likes of the citizens who use it. The overall system must provide values for all the parties concerned. The author concurs with Rowland and Charlier that UX design starts with understanding the users. To understand users, we must understand which technologies are suitable for the system, the right business model to use and the service ecosystem.
Kevin O’Connor, Kurt Fuellhart, in, 2020
Oil Tanker Pilot Training
Canals have been used as to transport goods over water since ancient times. Although overland and air transportation have largely overshadowed canal shipping routes, they remain an important part of transportation infrastructures around the world. Here a cargo pilot trains maneuvering a model of an oil tanker in a canal in Port Revel, France.
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Human Modification of the Environment
For thousands of years, humans have modified the physical environment by clearing land for agriculture or damming streams to store and divert water. As we industrialized, we built factories and power plants. While these modifications directly impact the local environment, they also impact environments farther away due to the interconnectivity of Earths systems. For example, when a dam is built, less water flows downstream. This impacts the communities and wildlife located downstream who might depend on that water.Use these resources to teach your students how humans modify the physical environment and the compounding impacts those changes have.
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Gallbladder And Cholesterol Transport Systems
Another ABC subfamily, ABCA, also plays a role in cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease, in which reverse cholesterol efflux is defective and cholesterol cannot be mobilized from peripheral sites for processing by the liver . Dog GBEC express Abca1 on the basolateral surface . Consistent with an Abca1-mediated efflux mechanism, dog GBEC preloaded with -cholesterol or -choline excrete cholesterol or phospholipids, respectively, to the basolateral media in the presence of a lipid acceptor and a cAMP analog . Lee et al. suggested that ABCA1 could function to dispose of the excess cholesterol that enters GBEC since GBEC are exposed for long periods of time to the highest concentrations of cholesterol found in vivo. One pathway by which cholesterol could enter GBEC is the scavenger receptor class B type I , a cell-surface receptor that binds a wide variety of lipoprotein classes and transfers predominantly cholesteryl esters into the cell membrane . Apical SR-BI is found in human, mouse, and dog GBEC . Thus, GBEC are capable of vectorial transport of cholesterol from bile to blood; further investigation of the regulation of this pathway should provide insight into mechanisms of gallstone formation.
Ansar Khan, … Yupeng Weng, in, 2021
Socio And Technoeconomic Aspects Of Its
ITS are exploited by policymakers at a national level for increasing safety, efficiency, and sustainability in transport. The services are provided at three levels. First, the technology is provided and controlled by the central and local governments . Then, private companies and local governments develop services in which the central government has limited control . Finally, part of the data that are created with this process is shared anonymously as open data, in order to support more services to be developed.
In order to guarantee the longevity and sustainability of ITS solutions is important to study all the social and technological aspects that can be affected. A technoeconomic study on the technical and financial ability of ITS to reduce CO2 emissions concluded that: the European wide highways can accommodate AHS by devoting one lane for vehicle platooning, CVO systems can have only indirect capacity benefits by reducing the travel time via proper commercial fleet management, (3 the social acceptance for DAS technologies can be negatively influenced from the fear of drivers to lose vehicles control or the fear of pedestrians and passengers to ride driverless cars, the stress that emerges from the short distances between platooning vehicles and the fear for data privacy breaches.
George Dimitrakopoulos, … Iraklis Varlamis, in, 2020
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