Techniques Used In Geography
Maps have been the key tool in geography. Cartography, which has been a classical tool in geography, has now received modern approaches through the use of computer-based geographical information systems , geographical analysis, remote sensing, Qualitative and quantitative techniques among many others.
Importance Of Geography And Geology
Geography and geology give us the understanding of the substances on Earth, the structure, history, and the processes acting on our planet. Human beings rely entirely on the resources found on the Earth’s surface and below it. It helps us to understand how to interact and utilize the resources found on our planet as well as how to care for our world, the flora, and the fauna. It also helps humanity to understand natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc. so that they can protect themselves from any such events in the future.
Content: Geography Vs Geology
|A science which deals with the description of areal differentiation of the surface of Earth.||A scientific discipline which studies the Earth and its past and anticipates future implications.|
|Discusses||How human culture influences the natural environment? How different regions have an impact on the people living there?||How the Earth is made? What it is composed of? How did it transform over the years?|
|Subject Matter||It records the area of land forms, length of mountain ranges and coastal lines, forms of water sources and its location, human activities, etc.||It researches about the surface of land, rocks and its types, energy sources and its sustainability, climatic changes, the impact of development on the environment, etc.|
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Difference Between Geography And Geology
The main difference between geography and geology is that geography is mostly dealing with the physical overall shapes of the land. Geology is a science that is interested in how the land got into the shape it did.
Geology is mostly about what the ground is made up of from a natural perspective. What kind of rocks it contains and how those rocks or layers of rocks got there.
Geography is mostly dealing with mapping the extent of landforms, how far rivers are, how long mountain ranges are, how long the coast line is. This is often from the perspective of people or culture.
The geology of Australia showing the various rock types present. image: wikipedia
The geography of Australia. image: wikipedia
The ending of the word also is an indication of the differences between geography and geology. _graphy means to draw or record. In other words, ‘to draw the land’ and _ology meaning ‘to find knowledge of the land’
What Does A Geologist Do
Geologists work to understand the history of our planet. The better they can understand Earths history, the better they can foresee how events and processes of the past might influence the future. Here are some examples:
Geologists study Earth processes: Many processes such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions can be hazardous to people. Geologists work to understand these processes well enough to avoid building important structures where they might be damaged. If geologists can prepare maps of areas that have flooded in the past, they can prepare maps of areas that might be flooded in the future. These maps can be used to guide the development of communities and determine where flood protection or flood insurance is needed.
Geologists study Earth materials: People use Earth materials every day. They use oil that is produced from wells, metals that are produced from mines, and water that has been drawn from streams or from underground. Geologists conduct studies that locate rocks that contain important metals, plan the mines that produce them and the methods used to remove the metals from the rocks. They do similar work to locate and produce oil, natural gas, and groundwater.
Geoscience Careers: Why a career in the Earth sciences is important. Geological Society of America.
|Volcanic Hazards Map|
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Examples Of Geology In A Sentence
geologygeology PEOPLE.comgeology Essencegeology Dallas Newsgeology BostonGlobe.comgeology Scientific Americangeology Popular Sciencegeology chicagotribune.comgeology NBC News
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘geology.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
Worked Example Rivers: Asking The Right Questions Geographic Thinking
Rivers are a feature in the landscape, but they are also a system with processes that change them over time. Furthermore, billions of people depend on rivers, but rivers can also wreak havoc on populations, an economy, even politics.
What are rivers?
A river is a ___ that ___s
What are the main features of a river?
Where are rivers found?
Where are rivers located relative to mountainsand plains?
What is the absolute location of a specific river? Its source? Its mouth?
What are the features of this location?
3. Why are rivers found there?
What processes create rivers?
How does precipitation, gradient, rock type, soils and vegetation impact rivers?
What are the affects of erosion and deposition on rivers and how does they vary along the course of a river?
What patterns do rivers create?
How do rivers and their features change from source to mouth?
How do those patterns change over time?
4. How are rivers important?
In what ways do people depend on rivers?
How are rivers a part of culture?
What economic benefits do we rely on?
In social and economic terms, what are the costs of rivers flooding or drying up?
What are the environmental benefits of rivers in communities?
What issues arise from our use of rivers?
How do we govern the water in international rivers?
How can we best manage rivers to provide a range of benefits?
Using Geographical Thinking:
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Main Differences Between Geography And Geology
Towards A New Definition Ofgeography
Geographers examine physical and human features, processes and systems and how they interact with the environment at local, regional, and global scales and assess them using the four concepts of Geographical Thinking:
Spatial Significanceis about where a feature is located, its actual and relative location, and why it is important there i.e. What unique natural and human features are present and how might they interact?
Patterns & Trends: A pattern is a characteristic or feature that repeats over space: within and between places or regions. Low latitudes are warm and wet high latitudes are cold and dry. This is a pattern. Rivers form distinct and predictable drainage patterns depending on the rock and soil of a region. A trend is when a characteristic or feature changes over time, such as the population growth Canada has experienced since colonization. But a trend can also be a change over space for example as you hike uphill, the temperature gradually becomes colder.
Interrelationships: Similar to a relationship between two people, in geography interrelationships are the interactions that occur between and among natural and human geographic features and processes. For example, the type of agricultural crop planted by farmers depends on the soil, precipitation, and temperature of the region. And, where there are mountains and snow, you will find ski resorts.
This ArcGIS StoryMap provides an excellent example of how Geographic Thinking works, in the Canadian Context.
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Timescale Of The Earth
The following five timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon. Therefore, the second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon. In a similar way, the most recent era is expanded in the third timeline, the most recent period is expanded in the fourth timeline, and the most recent epoch is expanded in the fifth timeline.
Millions of Years Thousands of years
How Can You Become A Geologist
If you are a pre-college student, you can prepare to become a geologist by doing well in all of your courses. Science courses are especially important, but math, writing, and other disciplines are used by every geologist during every working day.
If you are considering college or graduate school, there are many universities that offer courses or programs in geology. Visit the website of a school that offers a geology degree, get in touch with the geology department, let them know you are interested, and make arrangements to visit the campus. Don’t be hesitant. Good schools and professors want to be contacted by interested students.
|More General Geology|
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Connecting With Space And Place
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Read More…
Hydrology And Environmental Issues
Geology and geological principles can be applied to various environmental problems such as stream restoration, the restoration of brownfields, and the understanding of the interaction between natural habitat and the geological environment. Groundwater hydrology, or hydrogeology, is used to locate groundwater, which can often provide a ready supply of uncontaminated water and is especially important in arid regions, and to monitor the spread of contaminants in groundwater wells.
Geologists also obtain data through stratigraphy, boreholes, core samples, and ice cores. Ice cores and sediment cores are used for paleoclimate reconstructions, which tell geologists about past and present temperature, precipitation, and sea level across the globe. These datasets are our primary source of information on global climate change outside of instrumental data.
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About Geography And Geology
As a leading interdisciplinary department of geography and geology, we study the dynamics of physical and human environments and the relationships that shape them. We emphasize excellence in learning and teaching, geospatial science and technology, professional service, and research from local to global scales. Mission Statement Fall 2011
The Department of Geography and Geology encompasses a wide range of subdisciplines that deal with the most important issues facing humans and Planet Earth. Our faculty and staff are on the cutting edge of studies that range from humans and the environment, climate change, sustainability, Earth processes and materials that affect humans to deep Earth processes and resource development.
Students who study from our department are well prepared to enter the workforce as professional geographers or geologists, or to further their education at graduate school. We offer separate degrees in geography and in geology, as students with these degrees will have the full curriculum to be professionals in these respective fields. There is, however, considerable overlap in the two disciplines, particularly with physical geography and geology that make us natural partners.
All of our faculty are actively engaged in their field and are among the finest professors and instructors anywhere. Our department was ranked as the top in the state for geography by universities.com.
We look forward to seeing you!
Main Difference Geology Vs Geography
Geology and Geography are two fields that study Earth in a scientific view point. Geology is the study of physical structure and substance of the Earth, their history, and the processes which act on them. Geography is the study of the physical features of the Earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources and political and economic activities. The main difference between geology and geography is that geology studies the structure and formation of earth whereas geography deals with the topography of Earth.
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What Is Earth System Science
- Understand the planet by studying its individual components, including the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
- Investigate interactions among the components.
- Focus on individual components of the Earth system that produce complex planetary-scale phenomena, such as climate change.
- Interact with faculty and fellow students in a friendly environment.
- Learn relevant dynamic interactions of chemical, physical and biological processes that extend over spatial scales from microns to the size of planetary orbits, and over time scales of milliseconds to billions of years.
- Think logically and creatively to develop good problem-solving skills.
- Learn how to collect and interpret data accurately, and to visualize all four dimensions.
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Answer: Apartheid It was the name given to the system of racial discrimination that was practised in South Africa. The blacks were not given the same rights as the white and were often ill-treated. The blacks were forced to do menial work while all the good opportunities were given to the white population.
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Famous People Who Studied Geology
Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, is perhaps one of the most famous examples of people who studied geology.
Other well-known figures who studied geology include Marie Tharp, the American geologist and oceanographic cartographer, who created the first scientific map of the ocean floor with fellow geologists Bruce Heezen and Vladimir Abazarov. The Samotlor oilfield, one of the worlds largest oilfields, was discovered by Abazarov.
Other holders of geology degrees include Argentine palaeontologist Jose Bonaparte, who discovered dinosaurs in South America Mary Buckland, the English marine biologist, scientific illustrator and palaeontologist M. S. Krishnan, the Indian geologist and author of Geology of India and Burma Fred Longstaffe, provost of the University of Western Ontario and Ellen Louise Mertz, the Danish engineering geologist.
Why Study Geoscience At Uaf And In Alaska
- For students interested in geosciences, Alaska is one of the most exciting natural laboratories on Earth.
- Alaska saw the worlds largest volcanic eruption and second largest earthquake during the last century.
- Together with western Canada, Alaska contains the largest ice mass outside of Antarctica and Greenland.
- Global change is warming Alaska and causing dramatic changes to permafrost, glaciers, and sea ice.
- Alaska is an area of active exploration for and discovery of mineral and energy resources such as oil and rare earth minerals.
- Our program emphasizes field experience with classes like the geology field camp in which students practice geological mapping in remote mountains.
- Our research spans the globe with faculty work at research sites like Japan, Russia, Antarctica. One even studies the geology of Mars.
Our classes allow you to explore
Geological Development Of An Area
The geology of an area changes through time as rock units are deposited and inserted, and deformational processes change their shapes and locations.
Rock units are first emplaced either by deposition onto the surface or intrusion into the overlying rock. Deposition can occur when sediments settle onto the surface of the Earth and later lithify into sedimentary rock, or when as volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava flows blanket the surface. Igneous intrusions such as batholiths, laccoliths, dikes, and sills, push upwards into the overlying rock, and crystallize as they intrude.
After the initial sequence of rocks has been deposited, the rock units can be deformed and/or metamorphosed. Deformation typically occurs as a result of horizontal shortening, horizontal extension, or side-to-side motion. These structural regimes broadly relate to convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, and transform boundaries, respectively, between tectonic plates.
What Can I Do With My Geology Degree
Opportunities for interesting and rewarding careers abound for students with degrees in geology. The American Geological Institute reports that there are about 120,000 geoscientists currently working in the United States. Moreover, a survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates that the number of active geoscientists and hydrogeologists is expected to increase by about 18% by 2018, a pace that exceeds that average for all occupations.
According to the BLS survey, the median annual wages of geoscientists of all types in May 2008 was $79,160 . Median wages are generally higher in the oil and gas industry and for those employed by the Federal Government , whereas jobs in state government agencies generally pay less than the overall average . The National Association of Colleges and Employers reports that average starting salary for college graduates with bachelor’s degrees in geoscience was $40,786 in 2007.
Students on a structural geology field exercise to Baraboo, Wisconsin and at Van Hise Rock
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