Plant Form And Function
The plant body is made up of organs that can be organized into two major organ systems: a root system and a shoot system. The root system anchors the plants into place. The roots themselves absorb water and minerals and store photosynthetic products. The shoot system is composed of stem, leaves, and flowers. The stems hold and orient the leaves to the sun, which allow the leaves to conduct photosynthesis. The flowers are shoots that have been modified for reproduction. Shoots are composed of phytomers, which are functional units that consist of a node carrying one or more leaves, internode, and one or more buds.
Plant nutrition and transport
Plant development is regulated by environmental cues and the plant’s own receptors, hormones, and genome. Morever, they have several characteristics that allow them to obtain resources for growth and reproduction such as meristems, post-embryonic organ formation, and differential growth.
In addition to light, plants can respond to other types of stimuli. For instance, plants can sense the direction of gravity to orient themselves correctly. They can respond to mechanical stimulation.
How Do You Know If A Study Has External Validity
If your research is applicable to other experiments, settings, people, and times, then external validity is high. If the research cannot be replicated in other situations, external validity is low. It’s important to know that your research is effective and that it is effective in other situations.
Why Is Soap Amphiphilic
Due to their opposite polarity, water by itself cannot penetrate grease or oil. Soap molecules are amphipathic and thus have both properties of non-polar and polar at opposite ends of the molecule. The oil is a pure hydrocarbon so it is non-polar. The non-polar hydrocarbon tail of the soap dissolves into the oil.
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What Are The Main Components Of Homeostasis
Homeostasis involves three components- the receptor, the control centre, and the effector. The receptor receives information on the changing environment, and the control centre processes the information received by the receptor. And the effector responds to the commands of the control centre by enhancing or opposing the stimulus.
Does Plaster Of Paris Catch Fire
PLASTER OF PARIS is non-flammable and non-combustible. Has generally low chemical reactivity but can act as an oxidizing agent under extreme conditions. Decomposes at high temperature to generate toxic oxides of sulfur. Reacts exothermically but slowly with moisture in the air or water to form gypsum CaSO4.
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Where Do Biology Graduates Work
Biology graduates can hold a wide range of jobs, some of which may require additional education. A person with a degree in biology could work in agriculture, health care, biotechnology, education, environmental conservation, research, forensic science, policy, science communication, and many other areas.
biology, study of living things and their vital processes. The field deals with all the physicochemical aspects of life. The modern tendency toward cross-disciplinary research and the unification of scientific knowledge and investigation from different fields has resulted in significant overlap of the field of biology with other scientific disciplines. Modern principles of other fieldschemistry, medicine, and physics, for exampleare integrated with those of biology in areas such as biochemistry, biomedicine, and biophysics.
Biology is subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study, though all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles. Thus, while it is custom to separate the study of plants from that of animals , and the study of the structure of organisms from that of function , all living things share in common certain biological phenomenafor example, various means of reproduction, cell division, and the transmission of genetic material.
How Does The Skin Help In Maintaining Homeostasis
If the external temperature is high, the body tries to keep cool by producing sweat. Also, blood vessels near the skin surface dilate. This helps in decreasing body temperature. Conversely, if the external temperature is cold, the blood vessels constrict and retain body heat. Thus, the skin maintains homeostasis.
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Function Of Carrier Protein
Carrier proteins are some of the most common proteins in the world, and some of the most important to sustaining life. A cells ability to perform the functions of life depends on its ability to maintain a difference between the intracellular and extracellular environment.
Thats where carrier proteins come in.
Within our own bodies, the action of all of our nerve cells is powered by the sodium-potassium gradient that is created by the sodium-potassium pump. This carrier protein binds to ions of sodium on one side of the membrane, and ions of potassium on the other side. Then the carrier protein binds with ATP, and uses the energy of ATP to pump these ions across the cell membrane in opposite directions.
It is ultimately this sodium-potassium gradient that allows our nerve cells to fire, which is what allows us to move, think, perceive the world around us, and even keep our hearts beating.
Carrier proteins which transport protons across the mitochondrial membrane to create a concentration gradient there are also responsible for the creation of most of the ATP made by eukaryotic cells. The mitochondria use the enzyme ATP synthase to turn the energy of that concentration gradient into the energy of ATP.
Some of the common purposes served by carrier proteins include:
The Basic Principles Of Modern Biology
Four principles unify modern biology, according to the book “Managing Science” :
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The Dynamics Of Chance In The Development Of Complex Systems
Most fundamentally, chance refers to mere possibility. Whateveris impossible has no chance . For anything thatis possible, the chance that it will happendepends on the context. Within a given context, some possibilities may be afforded a betterchance than others. Following arguments articulated by Elsasser , has noted that given its immense combinatorial complexity, our universe affords an immensenumber of physically conceivable possibilities, most of which have virtually no chance of occurring, just as Monod argued may be the case for the originof life. However, a conceivable possibility may or may not actually be possible, dependingon the organizational constraints of the world .
But how do we ever know whether a conceivable possibility is actually possible? Inreality there is only one way, which is to witness the possibility become actuality. This isin fact the basis of the scientific method of empirical verification. If we witnesssomething, then we know that it is possible, which means that it may happen again. If we arescientists then we may try to make it happen again in the context of an experiment, that is,we may try to reproduce the result. If we cannot, then our peers will likely remainskeptical about the very possibility.
Monod’s Chance & Necessity And The Origin Of Life
In Chance and Necessity: Essay on the Natural Philosophyof Modern Biology, Jacques Monod argued that the discoveries of molecular biologythoroughly vindicate Darwin by providing the mechanism of heredity that was the majorknowledge gap in his theory . In hisessay Monod chastised biologists who dont concede that organisms do in factact purposefully , wherein lies a flagrantepistemological contradiction that Monod sees as the central problem of biology. Whataccounts for the purposefulness of organisms, according to Monod, is the naturally selectedhereditary mechanism that Darwin was not privy tothe inherited information encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, which in the context of a living cell not onlyspecifies the functional structure of proteins , but also the information needed fortheir appropriate deployment under the range of circumstances that a cell normallyencounters. Monod pointed out that this information was completely arbitrary with respect tothe laws of physics and chemistry, and therefore was not predictable from those laws. Inother words, biology, unlike physics and chemistry, is a special scienceconcerned with functional information, i.e. information that is useful toorganisms, and hence contextually meaningful. Monod, following Ernst Mayr, refers to this asteleonomy.
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Community Definition Biology What Does It Mean
A community definition in biology refers to many individuals belonging to different species. The organisms that make up the biological community also interface with the non-living environment . It represented by rocks, water, air, earth, nutrients, organic substances, light.
In ecology, the community is a set of living beings linked together in a certain area, through the food or food chains. It is a specifically interacting, inextricable complex of animal and plant organisms. It depends on the discipline and the perspective from which it is approached.
This is the basic overview of community definition in biology, lets dive bit more in detail.
Animal Form And Function
Negative feedbackhomeostasis body temperature
The cells in each animal body are bathed in interstitial fluid, which make up the cell’s environment. This fluid and all its characteristics can be described as the animal’s internal environment, which is in contrast to the external environment that encompasses the animal’s outside world. Animals can be classified as either regulators or conformers. Animals such as mammals and birds are regulators as they are able to maintain a constant internal environment such as body temperature despite their environments changing. These animals are also described as homeotherms as they exhibit thermoregulation by keeping their internal body temperature constant. In contrast, animals such as fishes and frogs are conformers as they adapt their internal environment to match their external environments. These animals are also described as poikilotherms or ectotherms as they allow their body temperatures to match their external environments. In terms of energy, regulation is more costly than conformity as an animal expands more energy to maintain a constant internal environment such as increasing its basal metabolic rate, which is the rate of energy consumption. Similarly, homeothermy is more costly than poikilothermy. Homeostasis is the stability of an animal’s internal environment, which is maintained by negative feedback loops.
Water and salt balance
Nutrition and digestion
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What Does Polar In Biology Mean
4.4/5Polar in biology means
A polar molecule is a chemical species in which the distribution of electrons between the covalently bonded atoms is not even. Polarity is a description of how different the electrical poles of a molecule are. When bonded to another atom, the atom with the higher electronegativity will tend to attract more electrons.
Furthermore, what does polar mean in science? The arrangement or geometry of the atoms in some molecules is such that one end of the molecule has a positive electrical charge and the other side has a negative charge. If this is the case, the molecule is called a polar molecule, meaning that it has electrical poles.
Just so, what does polar or nonpolar mean?
Polar molecules occur when there is an electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms. Nonpolar molecules occur when electrons are shared equal between atoms of a diatomic molecule or when polar bonds in a larger molecule cancel each other out.
What does hydrophobic mean in biology?
Hydrophobic Definition. Hydrophobic literally means the fear of water. Hydrophobic molecules and surfaces repel water. Hydrophobic liquids, such as oil, will separate from water. Hydrophobic molecules are usually nonpolar, meaning the atoms that make the molecule do not produce a static electric field.
Homeostasis Meaning And Etymology
The theory of homeostasis was first introduced by Claude Bernard, a French Physiologist in the year 1865, and the term was first used in 1926 by Walter Bradford Cannon. Bradford derived Homeostasis from the ancient Greek words and . The combination of these words translates to similar and standing still respectively.
Read on to explore what is homeostasis and its role in regulating internal body environment.
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How Do Micelles Help Clean Clothes
When we wash clothes, the hydrophilic end attaches with the water while the hydrophobic end attaches with the dirt. thus a micelle is formed. When we scrub the cloth, the dirt is pulled off as the micelle gets washed away with water taking the dirt with it. Micelles do not dissolve in water but remain as colloids.
What Does It Mean To Be Literate In Biology
Authors: William Frierson, Hannah Quinley, Ericka Hammett, Clara Robison
Ask someone what literacy means and they will likely give you a definition including the words read, write, understand, and communicate, among others. Most people would also likely say it is something being taught in schools and that all students should graduate high school being literate. Though definitions of this kind certainly may be accurate, there is so much more to being literate, especially when it comes to specific disciplines. In this Medium writing, we explore what it means to be literate in biology through the presentation of our own miniature lesson. This lesson focuses on the interpretation of a population graph, emphasizing an ecology standard for high school biology and the implications population changes have for an ecosystem as a whole. The use of an activity such as graph interpretation, as presented in this writing, can help emphasize the text, talk, and tasks that will help students increase their disciplinary literacy in biology.
As Aldous Huxley , famed author of Brave New World, once said, Language has made possible mans progress from animality to civilization. Without conversation or even simple talk in our classrooms volumes of information would not be passed along from teacher to student. It is through that dialogue that ideas can be shared and opinions can be cultivated.
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History Of Biological Science
Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece.
Advances in microscopy also had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell and in 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas of the cell theory. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, although it was the British naturalist Charles Darwin who spread the theory of natural selection throughout the scientific community. In 1953, the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA marked the transition to the era of molecular genetics.
Phrenology: Dr. Spurzheims divisions of the organs of phrenology marked externally: Phrenology is a pseudoscience that attempted to determine brain function and personality by analyzing an individuals skull.
The Process Of Science
Science can be defined as knowledge that covers general truths or the operation of general laws, especially when acquired and tested by the scientific method. The steps of the scientific method will be examined in detail later, but one of the most important aspects of this method is the testing of hypotheses by means of repeatable experiments. Although using the scientific method is inherent to science, it is inadequate in determining what science is. This is because it is relatively easy to apply the scientific method to disciplines such as physics and chemistry, but when it comes to disciplines like archaeology, paleoanthropology, psychology, and geology, the scientific method becomes less applicable as it becomes more difficult to repeat experiments.
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Why Is Biology Important
As a field of science, biology helps us understand the living world and the ways its many species function, evolve, and interact. Advances in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and many other areas of biology have brought improvements in the quality of life. Fields such as genetics and evolution give insight into the past and can help shape the future, and research in ecology and conservation inform how we can protect this planets precious biodiversity.
Examples Of Biology In A Sentence
biologybiologybiologybiologyScientific Americanbiology The Conversationbiology Forbesbiology The New Yorkerbiology CNNbiology WiredbiologyWSJbiology USA TODAY
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘biology.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
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What Does Oh Mean In Biology
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile, and a catalyst.
what does stand for in biology? biology, biological science the science that studies living organisms.
Also asked, what state does OH stand for?
Ohio, Buckeye State, OH a midwestern state in north central United States in the Great Lakes region.
What is the difference between OH and HO?
Here is the difference Between OH and HO: HO is a molecule containing positive Hydrogen Oxygen atoms i.e it is a cation. OH is a molecule containing negative Hydrogen Oxygen atoms i.e it is an anion. Both are ions, HO+ is Hydroxide, OH– is Oxyhydride.