Thursday, April 25, 2024

# What Is Projection In Geography

## What Is Simple Conic Projection Used For

Map Projection and its Types: Fundamentals of Geography

Conic projections are used for midlatitude zones that have an eastwest orientation. Somewhat more complex Conic projections contact the global surface at two locations. These projections are called Secant projections and are defined by two standard parallels.

What is an example of conic projection?

Conic projections are used mainly for polar maps, and for maps that need to show only a portion of the globe. Examples of some conic projections are: Albers Equal Area Conic, Equidistant Conic, Lambert Conformal Conic, and Polyconic . Azimuthal Projections.

What is simple conical projection with standard parallel?

Simple Conical Projection with one standard parallel is a perspective projection in which the parallels and meridians are projected directly on the inner surface of the cone with respect to a light source at the center of the generating globe.

## Peel An Orange And Flatten The Peels

Imagine you have an orange. This is your imaginary Earth. When you look at it in any direction, you wont be able to see all sides of it. But when you peel the orange, flatten and stretch it out, you can begin to see everything.

Similarly, a map projection is a method by which cartographers translate a sphere or globe into a two-dimensional representation. In other words, a map projection systematically renders a 3D ellipsoid of Earth to a 2D map surface.

There are multiple ways to represent a sphere on a two-dimensional surface Like Jason Davies popular Map Projection Transition Visualizer.

Because you cant display 3D surfaces perfectly in two dimensions, distortions always occur. For example, map projections distort distance, direction, scale, and area.

Every projection has strengths and weaknesses. All in all, it is up to the cartographer to determine what projection is most favorable for its purpose.

## Map Global Analysis Results

Map projections distort the grid of latitude and longitude lines, which means they also distort your data. You’ve taken great care to conduct an analysis of future precipitation changes properly and precisely. Next, you need to present your results on a map. You want to choose a projection that will allow you to present those results clearly, so they are not misinterpreted.

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## Which Projection Is Best

The mathematics of projection do not permit any particular map projection to be best for everything. Something will always be distorted. Thus, many projections exist to serve the many uses of maps and their vast range of scales.

Modern national mapping systems typically employ a transverse Mercator or close variant for large-scale maps in order to preserve conformality and low variation in scale over small areas. For smaller-scale maps, such as those spanning continents or the entire world, many projections are in common use according to their fitness for the purpose, such as Winkel tripel, Robinson and Mollweide. Reference maps of the world often appear on compromise projections. Due to distortions inherent in any map of the world, the choice of projection becomes largely one of aesthetics.

Thematic maps normally require an equal area projection so that phenomena per unit area are shown in correct proportion.However, representing area ratios correctly necessarily distorts shapes more than many maps that are not equal-area.

The Mercator projection, developed for navigational purposes, has often been used in world maps where other projections would have been more appropriate. This problem has long been recognized even outside professional circles. For example, a 1943 New York Times editorial states:

## What Are Map Projections

Earth is a big blue marble thats the shape of a sphere . This is why a globe is the best way to represent the Earth.

But globes are hard to carry in your suitcase and you can only see one side of the globe. On top of that, its hard to measure distances and theyre just not as convenient as paper maps.

This is why we use map projections on globes and flatten them out in two dimensions. But as youre about to find out, you cant represent Earths surface in two dimensions without distortion.

On top of that, all types of map projections have strengths and weaknesses preserving different attributes.

• What is Your Favorite Map Projection?
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## What Is Perspective Projection In Geography

Perspective projections can be drawn taking the help of a source of light by projecting the image of a network of parallels and meridians of a globe on developable surface. Nonperspective projections are developed without the help of a source of light or casting shadow on surfaces, which can be flattened.

## A Special Case Universal Transverse Mercator System

It took another 200 years for the next development in take place for the Mercator projection.

Again, like Lamberts revolutionary change to the way that the Mercator projection was calculated this development was a change in how the Transverse Mercator projection was used. In 1947 the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation developed the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system .

NATO recognised that the Mercator/Transverse Mercator projection was highly accurate along its Standard Parallel/Central Meridian. Indeed as far as 5° away from the Standard Parallel Central Meridian there was minimal distortion.

Like the World Aeronautical Charts, the UTM system was able to build on the achievements of the International Map of the World. As well as developing an agreed, international specification the IMW had developed a regular grid system which covered the entire Surface of the Earth. For low to mid-latitudes the IMW established a grid system that was 6° of longitude wide and 4° of latitude high.

Please note that this is not a new revised projection, but a series of maps using the same projection . This is not commonly appreciated and UTM is often wrongly described as a projection in its own right it is not it is a projection system.

This is why UTM is regarded as a Special Case.

World wide, including Australia, this UTM system is used by mapping agencies for local and national, topographic maps.

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## How Are Different Map Projections Used

The method used to portray a part of the spherical Earth on a flat surface, whether a paper map or a computer screen, is called a map projection. No flat map can rival a globe in truly representing the surface of the entire Earth, so every flat map misrepresents the surface of the Earth in some way. A flat map can show one or more–but never all–of the following:

• True directions

Different projections have different uses. Some projections are used for navigation, while other projections show better representations of the true relative sizes of continents.

For example, the basic Mercator projection yields the only map on which a straight line drawn anywhere within its bounds shows a true direction, but distances and areas on Mercator projection maps are grossly distorted near the map’s polar regions. On an equidistant map projection, distances are true only along particular lines, such as those radiating from a single point selected as the center of the projection. Shapes are more or less distorted on every equal-area map.

The scale of a map on any projection is often crucial to the map’s usefulness for a given purpose. For example, the extreme distortion that is present at high latitudes on a small-scale Mercator map of the World disappears almost completely on a properly oriented Transverse Mercator map of a small area in the same high latitudes. A large-scale 7.5-minute USGS topographic map based on the Transverse Mercator projection is nearly correct in every respect.

## Construction Of A Map Projection

Types of Map Projections [AP Human Geography]

The creation of a map projection involves three steps:

• Selection of a model for the shape of the Earth or planetary body . Because the Earth’s actual shape is irregular, information is lost in this step.
• Transformation of geographic coordinates to plane coordinates
• Reduction of the scale
• Most map projections are not “projections” in any physical sense. Rather, they depend on mathematical formulae that have no direct physical interpretation. However, in understanding the concept of a map projection it can be helpful to think of a globe with a light source placed at some definite point relative to it, projecting features of the globe onto a surface. The following discussion of developable surfaces is based on that concept.

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## Quantitative Properties Of Map Projections

A sphere, unlike a polyhedron, cone, or cylinder, cannot be reformed into a plane. In order to portray the surface of a round body on a two-dimensional flat plane, you must first define a developable surface and devise rules for systematically representing all or part of the spherical surface on the plane. Any such process inevitably leads to distortions of one kind or another. Five essential characteristic properties of map projections are subject to distortion:shape, distance, direction,scale, and area. No projection can retain more than one of these properties over a large portion of the Earth. This is not because a sufficiently clever projection has yet to be devised the task is physically impossible. The technical meanings of these terms are described below.

For a complete description of the properties that specific map projections maintain, seeSummary and Guide to Projections.

## What Is Your Favorite Map Projection

Spatial referencing systems are used to locate a feature on the Earths spheroid surface. The location of any point on Earth can be defined using latitudes and longitudes. These points are expressed in angular units such as degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Most maps in a GIS are in two-dimensional form. To make use of these maps, you need reference systems that use a pair of coordinates.

However, when you transfer a spherical shape to a flat surface, you approximate the true shape of the Earth. Depending on the map projection you choose, some projections may cause distance between features on a map to be preserved while distortion is introduced to shape. In some cases, the area may be preserved while the direction is distorted.

Cartographers choose map projections that best represent the purpose, size, and shape of the area of interest on the map.

Recommended Reading: Introduction To Differentiable Manifolds And Riemannian Geometry

## How Do Map Projections Influence The Portrayal Of Spatial Data

EARTH IS NOT FLAT, so a flat map cannot portray all locations accurately. An ideal map would preserve directions, distances, shapes, and areas, but it is not possible to preserve all four of these accurately. Instead, either the shape of features on a map, such as country outlines, is preserved or the area of features is preserved, but never both at the same time. Many map projections depict both shape and area somewhat inaccurately, as a trade-off, so that neither will be shown more inaccurately. Cartographers have developed different ways of projecting our three-dimensional world onto a flat map, and each approach is called a map projection. The particular type of projection is chosen based on the intended use of the map.

## Orientation Of The Projection

Once a choice is made between projecting onto a cylinder, cone, or plane, the orientation of the shape must be chosen. The orientation is how the shape is placed with respect to the globe. The orientation of the projection surface can be normal , transverse or oblique . These surfaces may also be either tangent or secant to the spherical or ellipsoidal globe. Tangent means the surface touches but does not slice through the globe secant means the surface does slice through the globe. Insofar as preserving metric properties go, it is never advantageous to move the developable surface away from contact with the globe, so that practice is not discussed here.

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## Geographic Vs Projected Coordinate Systems

When you are trying to choose a coordinate system for your map, are you sometimes confused by the options?

What is the difference between a geographic coordinate system and a projected coordinate system anyways?

• A GCS defines where the data is located on the earths surface.
• A PCS tells the data how to draw on a flat surface, like on a paper map or a computer screen.
• A GCS is round, and so records locations in angular units . A PCS is flat, so it records locations in linear units .

## What Are The Pros And Cons Of Conic Projection

Pros: Sailors loved it preserves angles and directions in a small area.

• Cons: Bad for understanding the real size and shape of continents and countries.
• Related: After this video youll never trust a map again.
• Pros: The only area-correct map of its time got featured in The West Wing
• What does conical projection mean?

What does conic projection mean? : a projection based on the principle of a hollow cone placed over a sphere so that when the cone is unrolled the line of tangency becomes the central or standard parallel of the region mapped, all parallels being arcs of concentric circles and the meridians being straight lines drawn from the cones vertex to

Which statements describe conic projections?

The projections are termed cylindric or conic because they can be regarded as developed on a cylinder or a cone, as the case may be, but it is as well to dispense with picturing cylinders and cones, since they have given rise to much misunderstanding.

#### What are the advantages of a conic map projection?

Equally spaced parallels. Compromise. Equidistant meridians converging at a common point. This projection was developed by De lIsle.

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## Find A Global Equal Area Projection

##### Note:

If you don’t have ArcGIS Pro or an ArcGIS account, you can sign up for an ArcGIS free trial.

The project has three maps. The Precipitation Change map is active.

The data on this map shows predicted precipitation anomalies for the years 2040 to 2059.The green areas are predicted to have more precipitation in thefuture compared to historic averages. The brown areas are predictedto experience less.

First, you’ll find out which projection this map is using.

• In the Contents pane, right-click Precipitation Change and choose Properties.
• In the Map Properties window, click the Coordinate Systems tab.

Under Current XY, you can see that the current coordinate system for this map is WGS 1984 Web Mercator .

Web Mercator is a common projected coordinate system designed for web mapping applications. Most of Esri’s basemaps are tiled in Web Mercator, so they can have the greatest compatibility. However, this projection does not preserve areas, distances, or angles.

• The property that is most important to preserve in your precipitation map is area. This is true for most maps presenting analysis results involving area, density, or distance comparisons.

• Properties: Equal Area
• ## Commonly Used Map Projections

Map projections in GIS (theory)
 Best Used in areas over the Poles or for small scale continental mapping Lambert Conformal Conic Best Used in mid-latitudes e.g. USA, Europe and Australia Mercator Best Used in areas around the Equator and for marine navigation Robinson all attributes are distorted to create a more pleasant appearance the 1963Best Used in areas around the Equator Transverse Mercator Best Used for areas with a north-south orientation

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## Find The Northernmost Magnetic Pole

Next, you’ll use your map to measure distances between true north and the wandering magnetic north pole, to determine the year when they were closest.

• On the toolbar below the map, make sure the Snapping button is highlighted.

Snapping will allow you to measure features more easily.

• On the ribbon, click the Map tab. In the Inquiry group, click Measure.

The Measure Distance window appears on top of the map.

• Click the point labeled North Pole, and click the point labeled 2020.
##### Tip:

Hold the Ckey or the middle button of your mouse to pan on the map withoutdeactivating the measure tool.

The tool reports a distance of 403.1 kilometers .

• On your keyboard, press Esc to clear the measurement.
• Measure the distance between the true north pole and some previous locations of the magnetic north pole.

Magnetic north was nearest to true north in 2018, when it was 394.16 kilometers away. It is now heading south, toward Russia.

• You can make true distance measurements on this map because it uses an equidistant projection. However, no projection can preserve all distances. The azimuthal equidistant projection preserves distance and direction from the central point only. So measurements from the north pole are true, but measurements between any other locations on this map will be inaccurate.

## A Special Case Geographic

This is a mathematically simple projection. It is also an ancient projection .

Because of its simplicity it was commonly used in the past and it has been adopted as the projection of choice for use in computer mapping applications notably Geographic Information Systems and on web pages. Also, again because of its simplicity, it is equally able to be used with world and regional maps.

Plate Carrée is the French term for flat square. In GIS operations this projection is commonly referred to as Geographicals.

This is a cylindrical projection, with the Equator as its Standard Parallel. The difference with this projection is that the latitude and longitude lines intersect to form regularly sized squares. By way of comparison, in the Mercator and Robinson projections they form irregularly sized rectangles.

While we have described the Geographic or Plate Carrée as a projection, there is some debate as to whether it should be considered to be a projection. This is because it makes no attempt to compensate for distortions due to the transfer of information from the surface of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper .

This is why we are describing the Geographical projection as a Special Case.