May 2000 ~ End Of Selective Availability
On May 1, 2000, the White House announced the end of Selective Availability. Selective Availability was the practice of distorting GPS signal locations which reduced the spatial accuracy for civilizations using GPS units. In order to correct the GPS signal locations, users had to differentially correct the GPS data separately. The end of SA opened up GPS use to the commercial market.
Who Is The Father Of Geography
The first person to have used the word Geography was Eratosthenes of Cyrene, the mathematician and astronomer from ancient Greece. He is also widely regarded as the Father of Geography. Geography is the branch of science that relates to the study of the Earth, its physical features, landmasses, seas, oceans, the natural phenomena occurring on Earth, and the people who inhabit this planet and their interaction with environment.
The Founding Fathers Of Ancient Geography
The earliest world maps date back to the 9th century BC in ancient Babylon. However, these maps were basic regional maps and were laden with errors and exaggerations. Ancient Greece saw the birth of the study of geography and with it the first true world maps. Some historians point Anaximander, a 4th century BC Greek scholar as the true founder of the study of geography. However, four individuals are considered the founding fathers of ancient geography due to their contributions to the discipline Eratosthenes, Strabo, Claudius Ptolemy, and Muhammad al-Idrisi.
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Geography As A Three Key Issues
Rubenstein defines geography as addressing three key issues:
|How do geographers address where things are?|
Five Themes Of Geography
The Five Geography Themes began as a framework for making geography accessible to children from kindergarten to high school. They describe a simple, effective method for parents and educators to teach children about geography and how it relates to nature, civilization, and other topics. More: Five Themes of Geography Explained
Though the National Geographical Standards replaced these themes in 1994, they remain a simple and effective way to teach children about geography.
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~ Bernhardus Vareniuss Geographia Generalis
Varenius Geographia Generalis laid out the main principles of geography on a broad scientific basis, based on what was known during his time.
Absolute geography, relative geography, and comparative geography are the three sections of the work.
The first looks into mathematical facts about the earth as a whole, its shape, dimensions, motions, and measurement, among other things.
The second section looks at how the sun and stars affect the world, as well as climates, seasons, apparent time differences across locations, day length variations, and so on.
The third section discusses the actual divisions of the earths surface, their relative positions, globe and map production, longitude, navigation, and other topics briefly.
What Do Modern Geographers Do
While there are a few jobs with the title of “geographer,” many geography students use their analytical ability and knowledge of the world to work in a variety of fields. Geography students often take jobs in fields such as city planning, cartography, marketing, real estate, environment, and teaching.
Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
How Many Branches Of Human Geography Are There
Human geography consists of a number of sub-disciplinary fields that focus on different elements of human activity and organization, for example, cultural geography, economic geography, health geography, historical geography, political geography, population geography, rural geography, social geography, transport …
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The Relationship Of Physical Geography To Human Geography
In an Introduction to Geography classes a fellow instructor likes to stress the point that physical and human geography are completely separate disciplines and that there can be NO mixing between the two. In fact, he makes a big deal that they must write this down and put stars by it in their notes as this important point will most certainly be on the test. He then stops and lets them think about this statement as they dutifully write it down.
Now you might be thinking that this contention that physical and human geography are completely separate and can never be mixed seems nonsensicaland you would be correct. Eventually, a few of the students start to grin and perhaps a bold one might challenge the instructor .
The instructor then gets to point out to the students the fallacy of such a contention and makes the point that physical and human geography, like the sides of a coin, are absolutely inseparable. We know that physical systems can have enormous impacts on human systems . We also know that human impacts on the environment have been great, as humans have always modified the surface of the planet to scratch out a living or to build great civilizations .
Here is the fundamental contention that justifies this whole course:
March 1879 ~ Establishment Of The United States Geological Survey
Originally called the Geological Survey, the United States Geological Survey was charged with classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
The USGS is a fact-finding federal organization that focuses on four main scientific areas: biology, geography, geology, and hydrology.
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What Does The Word Geography Mean
The word “geography” was invented by the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes and literally means “writing about the earth.” The word can be divided into two parts – ge and graphy. Ge means the Earth and graphy refers to writing.
Of course, geography today means much more than writing about the Earth but it’s a difficult discipline to define. Many geographers have done their best todefine geography but a typical dictionary definition today reads, “The science of the Earth’s physical features, resources, climate, population, etc.”
Geography As Five Themes
Geography often focuses on the question of where and this is referred to asa spatial perspective . In 1986 the National Geographic Society published a guide for educators defining geography in terms of five themes that define the types of knowledge geographers seek to gain:
- Location: how the physical position of people and things on the earth’ssurface affects what happens and why. These explanations often take theform of complex mathematical models and location theories. Example: Why are manufacturing plants in China clustered in specific locations?
- Human-Environment Interactions: the relationship between humansand the physical world. Example: How will people in vulnerable areas respond to climate change?
- Region: how and why phenomena and features tend to concentrate inspecific areas. Example: What are the common historical features of European societiesthat make them respond differently to globalization than emerging Asian countries?
- Place: the characteristics and meanings attached to specific locations. Example: Why has globalization resulted in a rise in nationalistpolitical movements?
- Movement: the transfer of people, goods and idea across the surfaceof the earth. Example: How are global supply chains responding to increasing fuel prices?
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May 2003 ~ Australian Curriculum: Geography Endorsed
Ministers of Education representing the States and Territories of Australia endorsed the Australian Curriculum: Geography from Foundation to Year 10 .
The first time Australia had a national approach to teaching the discipline of Geography. In August 2013 it became the first of all subjects to be published from Foundation to Year 12.
What Is The Most Important Theme Of Geography
Location is the most basic of the fundamental themes. Every geographical feature has a unique location-its global address. A number of geographic factors interact to give significance to a location. A rich geography lies beyond location, yet the concept of location is crucial to geographical understanding.
Geography As A Science
The word geographyhas its etymological roots in the Greek word geographein,which literally means to write or describe the earth’s surface. Getis et al , among others, assert the word was first used byEratosthenes, although the word also reflects the prehistoric activity of map making.
Looking at the present there are at least four distinct usages for the wordgeography:
- a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction ofthe diverse physical, biological, and social features of the earth’s surface
- the geographic features of an area
- a treatise on geography
- configuration: a delineation or systematic arrangement of constituent elements
This brings up the question of what science is,which is yet another word that has a variety of meanings. The word alsohas political implications, such as when used by commentators who contrast the “science” of climatechange with the supposed ignorance of those who question the outputof complex computational climate models.
There are two definitions of science of primary interest to geographers.
Th~18th Centuries In The West
Geography as a science experiences excitement and exerts influence during the Scientific Revolution and Religion Reformation. In the Victorian period, the oversea exploration gave it institutional identity and geography was “the science of imperialism par excellence.” Imperialism is a crucial concept for the Europeans, as the institution become involved in geographical exploration and colonial project. Authority was questioned, and utility gained its importance. In the era of Enlightenment, geography generated knowledge and made it intellectually and practically possible as a university discipline. The natural theology required geography to investigate the world as a grand machine from the Divine. Scientific voyages and travels constructed geopolitical power from geographical knowledge, partly sponsored by Royal Society. John Pinkerton appraised the eighteenth century had “the gigantic progress of every science, and in particular of geographical information” and “alteration has taken place in states and boundaries.”
Institutions such as the Royal Geographical Society indicate geography as an independent discipline. ‘s Physical Geography was the “conceptual culmination of … Baconian ideal of universal integration”. According to Francis Bacon, “No natural phenomenon can be adequately studied by itself alone but, to be understood, it must be considered as it stands connected with all nature.”
Examples Of Geographic In A Sentence
geographic Journal Sentinelgeographic Forbesgeographic Arkansas Onlinegeographic San Diego Union-Tribunegeographic Washington Postgeographic baltimoresun.comgeographic Los Angeles Timesgeographic WSJ
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘geographic.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.
~ Geography Delineated Forth In Two Bookes
Carpenters book, Geography Delineated Forth in Two Bookes, is generally recognized as the first English geography book published. Source: Tyner, J. A. . Stitching the World: Embroidered Maps and Womens Geographical Education. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
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Geographic Techniques Past And Present
Geographic techniques are important tools that help in interpreting data that geographers need for their particular work. Cartography leads in this respect as it precedes geography in their respective discovery and development. In 1500 BCE, early Polynesian sailors utilized shells and sticks to determine their boats’ positions in the ocean. Polynesian navigation was about star movements, ocean waves speed and direction, sea and sky color, cloud clusters above islands, and wildlife flights being observed based on seasons. At present, satellites orbiting above the earth help navigators pinpoint their exact location and destination anywhere on the planet. Other techniques involve sensors, satellite photographs, and computerized data information systems called Geographic Information Systems . These are used by governments, institutions, and businesses.
A Move Toward Regional Science
In the 1950s the regional science movement arose, led by Walter Isard to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the more qualitative tendencies of traditional geography programs. Regional Science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as regional economics, resource management, location theory, urban and regional planning, transportation and communication, human geography, population distribution and environmental quality.
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Is Aristotle The Father Of Geography
Aristotle He was a disciple of Plato the main disciple of the great philosopher Socrates. He had a keen interest in Physics biology and philosophy. But he has not done any remarkable work in the field of Geography. He was the founder of Geography and holds the credit to calculate the circumference of the Earth.
History Of Geographic Study
Geography was first systematically studied by the ancient Greeks, who also developed a philosophy of geography Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Aristotle, Strabo, and Ptolemy made major contributions to geography. The Roman contribution to geography was in the exploration and mapping of previously unknown lands. Greek geographic learning was maintained and enhanced by the Arabs during the Middle Ages. Arab geographers, among whom Idrisi, Ibn Battutah, and Ibn Khaldun are prominent, traveled extensively for the purpose of increasing their knowledge of the world. The journeys of Marco Polo in the latter part of the Middle Ages began the revival of geographic interest outside the Muslim world.
With the Renaissance in Europe came the desire to explore unknown parts of the world that led to the voyages of exploration and to the great discoveries. However, it was mercantile interest rather than a genuine search for knowledge that spurred these endeavors. The 16th and 17th cent. reintroduced sound theoretical geography in the form of textbooks and maps . In the 18th cent. geography began to achieve recognition as a discipline and was taught for the first time at the university level.
Sections in this article:
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Geography Is What Geographers Do
Everything that is happens in a space and time. Therefore, everything has ahistory and everything has a geography. There is no Pope in geography that sayswhat can and cannot be studied in geography, and since few people know what contemporary academic geography is, academic geographers are oftenfree to be interdisciplinary and study what they want. Thereforealmost anything can be and is studied within geography. If you visit theannual meetingof the Association of American Geographers, you cansee presentations on a very wide variety of topicsby a very heterogeneous collection of researchers.
September 1769 ~ Birth Of Alexander Von Humboldt
Widely acknowledged as one of the founders of modern geography, Alexander von Humboldt was born in Berlin, Germany in 1769. Von Humboldt traveled extensively through South America where he studied the flora, fauna, and topography of the continent.
His Essay on the Geography of Plants was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions.
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~ Geographical Association Founded
The Geographical Association is founded at a meeting at Christ Church, Oxford, led by Sir Halford Mackinder, Douglas Freshfield and ten others, mainly Masters from public schools. A subscription of five shillings is set.
A main objective of the GA was to share lantern slide teaching resources. More: Geographic Association
A Brief History Of Geography As A Field Of Study
The Greeks are the first known culture to actively explore geography as a science and philosophy, with major contributors including Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Aristotle, Dicaearchus of Messana, Strabo, and Ptolemy. Mapping by the Romans as they explored new lands added new techniques.
During the Middle Ages, Arabs such as Idrisi, Ibn Battuta, and Ibn Khaldun built on and maintained the Greek and Roman learnings. Following the journeys of Marco Polo, interest in geography spread throughout Europe.
During the Renaissance and into the 16th and 17th centuries the great voyages of exploration revived a desire for solid theoretical foundations and accurate detail. The Geographia Generalis by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercators world map are prime examples.
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Urban And Regional Planning
Urban planning and regional planning use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, etcetera.
The planning of towns, cities and rural areas may be seen as applied geography although it also draws heavily upon the arts, the sciences and lessons of history. Some of the issues facing planning are considered briefly under the headings of rural exodus, urban exodus and Smart Growth.