Heritage Of Antiquity And The Middle Ages
The physical sciences ultimately derive from the rationalistic materialism that emerged in classical Greece, itself an outgrowth of magical and mythical views of the world. The Greek philosophers of the 6th and 5th centuries bce abandoned the animism of the poets and explained the world in terms of ordinarily observable natural processes. These early philosophers posed the broad questions that still underlie science: How did the world order emerge from chaos? What is the origin of multitude and variety in the world? How can motion and change be accounted for? What is the underlying relation between form and matter? Greek philosophy answered these questions in terms that provided the framework for science for approximately 2,000 years.
The Methodology Of Physics
Physics has evolved and continues to evolve without any single strategy. Essentially an experimental science, refined measurements can reveal unexpected behaviour. On the other hand, mathematical extrapolation of existing theories into new theoretical areas, critical reexamination of apparently obvious but untested assumptions, argument by symmetry or analogy, aesthetic judgment, pure accident, and huncheach of these plays a role . Thus, for example, the quantumhypothesis proposed by the German physicist Max Planck was based on observed departures of the character of blackbody radiation from that predicted by classical electromagnetism. The English physicist P.A.M. Dirac predicted the existence of the positron in making a relativistic extension of the quantum theory of the electron. The elusiveneutrino, without mass or charge, was hypothesized by the German physicist Wolfgang Pauli as an alternative to abandoning the conservation laws in the beta-decay process. Maxwell conjectured that if changing magnetic fields create electric fields , then changing electric fields might create magnetic fields, leading him to the electromagnetic theory of light. Albert Einsteins special theory of relativity was based on a critical reexamination of the meaning of simultaneity, while his general theory of relativity rests on the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass.
Ancient Greek Natural Philosophy
Before physics would become the hard science with all its subdisciplines and subtleties, underpinned by math and underpinning virtually every other science, it would become a way of thinking about the world through natural means. This natural philosophy was of great use to the protoscience. No longer were phenomena considered part of the work of magic or supernatural means. Put simply, natural philosophy determined that every event, no matter the size or significance, must have a natural explanation. This was an important and fundamental shift away from a mystical or supernatural view of the world although it was not based on experimentation or observation as the later science of physics would become. These early thinkers were Thales who created natural philosophy and theorized that seismological events such as earthquakes had a natural cause but assumed that landmasses were giant rafts that reacted to ocean ripples which caused the quakes.
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How Physics Applies To Environmental Science
No other science can get away from physics because all matter is made up of molecules. As physics is the study of how matter acts and reacts to various forcings and aspects of the world and the universe, physics has massive implications for the environmental sciences.
Climate change: Although few physicists deliberately aim to become climatologists, many today are working on some of the fundamental problems caused by our changing climate and examining potential solutions . The physics of our environment, atmosphere and ocean cycle system temperature rises all dictate a number of things such as the fluid movements of water systems such as oceanic oscillations, and how environments will react to atmospheric chemistry changes. Physics will show how climates will change and the long-term effects on both land and aquatic ecologies.
Renewable energy: The contribution of physics to the environmental sciences is no better demonstrated than in the development of renewable energy. For example, solar panels and solar arrays convert light and heat into electricity through chemical processes that we have identified through physics . Also, physics has been fundamental in developing turbines – the science behind wind farms that also generate electricity. Finally, physics can be used to calculate the amount of energy produced by the processing and burning of biofuel just as it has for fossil fuels.
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Mathematics And The Probabilistic Nature Of Quantum Objects
Because many of the concepts of quantum physics are difficult if not impossible for us to visualize, mathematics is essential to the field. Equations are used to describe or help predict quantum objects and phenomena in ways that are more exact than what our imaginations can conjure.
Mathematics is also necessary to represent the probabilistic nature of quantum phenomena. For example, the position of an electron may not be known exactly. Instead, it may be described as being in a range of possible locations , with each location associated with a probability of finding the electron there.
Given their probabilistic nature, quantum objects are often described using mathematical “wave functions,” which are solutions to what is known as the SchrÃ¶dinger equation. Waves in water can be characterized by the changing height of the water as the wave moves past a set point. Similarly, sound waves can be characterized by the changing compression or expansion of air molecules as they move past a point. Wave functions don’t track with a physical property in this way. The solutions to the wave functions provide the likelihoods of where an observer might find a particular object over a range of potential options. However, just as a ripple in a pond or a note played on a trumpet are spread out and not confined to one location, quantum objects can also be in multiple placesâand take on different states, as in the case of superpositionâat once.
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Physics: Past And Present
The word physics is thought to come from the Greek word phusis, meaning nature. The study of nature later came to be called natural philosophy. From ancient times through the Renaissance, natural philosophy encompassed many fields, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and medicine. Over the last few centuries, the growth of scientific knowledge has resulted in ever-increasing specialization and branching of natural philosophy into separate fields, with physics retaining the most basic facets. Physics, as it developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century, is called classical physics. Revolutionary discoveries starting at the beginning of the 20th century transformed physics from classical physics to modern physics.
Splitting The Atomic Scientists: How The Ukraine War Ruined Physics
At Cern and elsewhere, a reluctance to give Russian researchers authorship credit on new papers has led to stalemate
In normal times, the four large physics experiments using proton collisions at Cerns Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland publish numerous scientific articles a year. But in March 2022, the number of new research papers by the LHC experiments fell to zero. The reason: a lack of agreement on how to list Russian and Belarusian scientists and institutes, if at all. The temporary compromise, in place up to now, is not to publish.
Publications are the hard currency of research, used for exchange of information and evidence of individuals and funding agencies contributions. The four largest LHC experiments comprise collaborations of thousands of scientists and engineers, with articles typically credited to all members of the project.
According to sources at Cern, after the invasion of Ukraine some members objected to co-authorship with Russian institutes and even with individuals working for them . Fedor Ratnikov, a Russian physicist, explains that no publication policy has satisfied the required two-thirds majority of the participating institutes in each collaboration. We have Ukrainian collaborators for whom this question is naturally extremely painful. most of my Ukrainian colleagues do not extend responsibility for the invasion to their colleagues from Russian institutes. I would say that some of my EU colleagues are much more radical.
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Lab Develops New Method For On
by James Badham, University of California – Santa Barbara
As buzz grows ever louder over the future of quantum, researchers everywhere are working overtime to discover how best to unlock the promise of super-positioned, entangled, tunneling or otherwise ready-for-primetime quantum particles, the ability of which to occur in two states at once could vastly expand power and efficiency in many applications.
Developmentally, however, quantum devices today are “about where the computer was in the 1950s,” which it is to say, the very beginning. That’s according to Kamyar Parto, a sixth-year Ph.D. student in the UC Santa Barbara lab of Galan Moody, an expert in quantum photonics and an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering.
Parto is co-lead author of a paper published in the journal Nano Letters, describing a key advance: the development of a kind of on-chip “factory” for producing a steady, fast stream of single photons, essential to enabling photonic-based quantum technologies.
In the early stages of computer development, Parto explains, “Researchers had just made the transistor, and they had ideas for how to make a digital switch, but the platform was kind of weak. Different groups developed different platforms, and eventually, everyone converged on CMOS . Then, we had the huge explosion around semiconductors.”
Collaborations Between Physicists And Mathematicians At Penn Showcase The Importance Of Research That Crosses The Traditional Boundaries That Separate Fields Of Science
In the scientific community, interdisciplinary can feel like an overused, modern-day buzzword. But uniting different academic disciplines is far from a new concept. Math, chemistry, physics, and biology were grouped together for many years under the umbrella natural philosophy, and it was only as knowledge grew and specialization became necessary that these disciplines became more specialized.
With many complex scientific questions still in need of answers, working across multiple fields is now seen an essential part of research. At Penn, long-running collaborations between the physics and astronomy and the math departments showcase the importance of interdisciplinary research that crosses traditional boundaries. Advances in geometry, string theory, and particle physics, for example, have been made possible by teams of researchers who speak different languages, embrace new research cultures, and understand the power of tackling problems through an interdisciplinary approach.
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Building The Perfect Bubble
While predicting the stability of bubbles in different scenarios may take some time, Rio identified an optimal combination of ingredients to make bubbles last longer while at the same time being easy to create.
The key to longevity is glycerol. The other ingredients include a long polymer like the naturally occurring guar gum and optimum proportion of dishwashing liquid. If you add more dishwashing liquid, creating bubbles becomes easier. However, their life time is shortened. Thats why you need to find the right amount of dishwashing liquid to ensure bubbles last long enough and are easy to generate, Rio said.
Working with the French artist Pierre-Yves Fusier, who specializes in bubbles art, Rio and her colleagues developed the recipe, which consists of 40 milliliters of dishwashing liquid, 100 milliliters of glycerol, and 1 gram of long polymer such as the naturally occurring guar gum mixed in 1 liter of water. Using this recipe, Rio created 5 cm-diameter bubbles in her laboratory that lasted an hour.
While adding glycerol may make the bubbles more stable, Rio said the impact of other ingredients on the bubbles stability is still an open question. Glycerol is a hydroscopic molecule which can help condensate water. But we know the surfactant and the polymer also impact evaporation. The next step in our study, therefore, is to find out how our recipe impacts the evaporation, Rio said.
Dhananjay Khadilkar is a journalist based in Paris.
What Are The Four Laws Of Thermodynamics
The four laws of thermodynamics are as follows.
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News And Popular Press
Popular press resources such as newspapers and magazines are expert but non-scholarly sources that report basic facts and offer opinions. One benefit of these sources is that they are printed shortly after an event, but they do not reach the level of analysis necessary for scholarly work.
- With authoritative features, full news coverage and analysis, and fresh perspectives on technological advances and ground-breaking research, Physics Today informs readers about science and its role in society.
Future Challenges And Opportunities For Physics
There will always be the need for physics as it is so important to all other sciences – chemistry, biology, technology, engineering and so on. While some sciences argue over whether they have reached the limits of the questions they can ask, physics only presents more questions with every answer. These are the future challenges for physics.
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Some Branch Of Physics
Definition Of Physics By The Oxford English Dictionary
“The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.”
Another definition by the digital encyclopedia Microsoft Encarta describes physics as:
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What Is The Theory Of Relativity
Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity is one of the most important discoveries of the contemporary age, and states that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers. As a result of this discovery, Einstein was able to confirm that space and time are interwoven in a single continuum known as space-time. As such, events that occur at the same time for one observer could occur at different times for another.
Einstein’s theory of relativity is summarized in the formula:
E = mc^2
In this equation, “E” represents energy, “m” represents mass, and “c” represents the speed of light.
Basic Physics Concepts To Help You Understand Our World
Physics is the science that quantifies reality. Its influence extends to all the natural sciences, including biophysics, astronomy, and chemistry. Physics classifies all interactions between matter and energy and tries to answer the most central questions of the universe. From Aristotle and Isaac Newton to Marie Curie, philosophers and scientists have been using physics to understand the world for at least 2,000 years.
In any field, a scientist needs a handle on the basics before finding answers to fundamental questions. In physics, different types of matter-energy interactions define the basic branches of the sciences. Energy takes the form of heat, light, radiation, sound, motion, and electricity. It can be stored in an objects position, chemical bonds, physical tension, and atomic nuclei. Matter refers to anything with mass, or anything made up of atoms, that takes up space. From the bonding of atoms to the combustion of an engine, matter and energy interact in all facets of life, defining the physical world.
Read on to see how physics allows engineers to develop life-saving technology like airbags, how it explains door knob placement, and why a persons legs look so short when theyre standing in water.
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Scope And Excitement Of Physics
The scope of physics can be majorly understood by looking at its sub-divisions. There are basically two types of studies in physics, macroscopic physics, and microscopic physics. Macroscopic physics deals with phenomena on a terrestrial, astronomical scale, while microscopic physics deals with the phenomenon on an atomic, molecular, or nuclear scale. The macroscopic study is done mostly in classical physics that includes subjects like mechanics, thermodynamics, etc. The microscopic study is the study of the structure of the atom, etc. Classical physics is unable to contribute in this field and currently, quantum theory is referred for the microscopic level studies.
Therefore, it can be said that the scope of physics is really very vast. The study covers a plethora of physical quantities like length, mass, time, energy, etc. From the study of smallest quantities to the study of the quantities on an astronomical level .