Top 4 Types Of Mountains
In terms of origin and form, mountains can be divided into four main types: 1. Fold Mountain 2. Block Mountain 3. Mountain of Accumulation 4. Residual Mountain.
Type # 1. Fold Mountain:
A fold has two parts. The up-fold or bulged part is called anticline and the down-fold or the depressed part is called syncline.
The crust of the earth is made up of different strata of rocks. As a result of movements inside the earth, these rock strata at times are forced up or down and thus folds are created. Such folds can be said to be caused by the influence of internal forces.
On the other hand, the upper parts of the earths crust are subjected to erosion due to the influence of external forces. These eroded materials are deposited in low lying areas. When these deposits accumulate in the low lying areas for thousands of years, the weights on the bed increase. The bed of the depressed areas may thus subside under the weight and its two rims may come closer.
In the course of time, partly under the pressure from the materials accumulated above and partly due to pressure from the sides of the depression, the deposits turn into stratified sedimentary rocks. At the same time, these rocks become folded and Fold Mountains come into being. These fold mountains contain many fossils of marine origin. This proves that fold mountains have their origin in the depressed parts of the oceans.
Type # 2. Block Mountain:
Type # 3. Mountain of Accumulation:
Type # 4. Residual Mountain:
What Are The Three Types Of Movement In Geography
Option A is correct.
The lithosphere is the outer shell of the earth. It is composed of the crust and a portion of the upper mantle. It’s broken into pieces that are known as tectonic plates. All solid-core planets possess a lithosphere.
The Asthenosphere is located right below the lithosphere, is highly viscous and even molten at some regions. Both the lithosphere and asthenosphere play crucial roles in the movement of the tectonic plates.
The solid inner core should not be confused with the outer molten core. The solid core is the innermost layer of earth. It is believed to be composed of an iron-nickel alloy with other elements. It has an estimated radius of 1221 km, and its temperature is believed to be of 5700K.
Geographical Information Systems Officer
If, as well as the environment, youre interested in working with data, analytics and computer systems, then this role might suit you. Geographic information systems are computerized systems used for the collection, storage, analysis, management and presentation of complicated geographical information, for example radar.
Geographical information systems officers carry out the gathering and examination of geographical data generated by GIS. The data can be applied in a variety of areas, such as defense, meteorology, oil, gas, telecommunications and transportation, to make decisions which benefit the environment.
For entry into this role, you may find it useful to have previously studied GIS as a module during your degree, and many employers also highly value a relevant postgraduate degree and/or work experience.
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Main Types Of Coral Reefs
The following points highlight the three main types of coral reefs. The types are: 1. Fringing Reef 2. Barrier Reef 3. Atoll.
Type # 1. Fringing Reef:
Coral reefs developed along the continental margins or along the islands are called fringing reefs . The seaward slope is steep and vertical while the landward slope is gentle. The upper surface is uneven and corrugated.
Though fringing reefs are usually attached to the coastal land but sometimes there is gap between them and land and thus lagoon is formed between the fringing reef and the land. Such lagoon is called boat channel. Coral reefs are generally long but narrow in width.
The continuity of coral reefs is broken wherever rivers drain into the seas and oceans.
Coral reefs are basically of two types e.g.:
Coral reefs facing open ocean, and
Coral reefs protected by a barrier.
Such fringing reefs are found along Sakau island, southern Florida, Mehetia island etc.
Type # 2. Barrier Reef:
The largest coral reefs off the coastal platforms but parallel to them are called barrier reefs . Barrier reefs are the largest, most extensive, highest and widest reefs of all types of coral reefs. The average slope is about 45° but some barrier reefs are characterized by 15°-25° slope. There is extensive but shallow lagoon between the coastal land and barrier reef.
Type # 3. Atoll:
Atolls are divided into 3 types e.g.:
True atoll characterized by circular reef enclosing a shallow lagoon but without island,
Discussion And Study Questions
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How Many Types Of Plains Are There In Geography
In geography, a plain refers to a flat area with little or no changes in elevation. It is one of the worlds major landforms. Plains are usually found at the foot of mountains, by the coasts, at valley bottoms, or on the upper surface of plateaus. Plains are often the most densely inhabited places in the world. The relative ease of transport along level land favors human settlement. Plains in many parts of the world are important for agriculture. Interestingly, plains also occur underwater where they constitute part of the seafloor. Such plains are called abyssal plains. In this article, we take a look at the different types of plains and their mechanism of formation.
Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
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Chapter : Introduction To The World
Main Types Of Ocean Circulations
This article throws light upon the various types of ocean circulations. The types are: 1. Atlantic Ocean 2. Pacific Ocean 3. Indian Ocean.
Type # 1. Atlantic Ocean:
Let us now study more closely the circulation of ocean currents in the Atlantic Ocean. We shall begin with the North and South Equatorial Current at the equator. The steady Trade Winds constantly drift two streams of water from east to west.
At the shoulder of north-east Brazil, the protruding land mass splits the South Equatorial Current into the Cayenne Current which flows along the Guiana coast, and the Brazilian Current which flows southwards along the east coast of Brazil.
In the North Atlantic Ocean, the Cayenne Current is joined and reinforced by the North Equatorial Current and heads north-westwards as a large mass of equatorial water into the Caribbean Sea. Part of the current enters the Gulf of Mexico and emerges from the Florida Strait between Florida and Cuba as the Florida Current.
The rest of the equatorial water flows northwards east of the Antilles to join the Gulf Stream off the south-eastern U.S.A. The Gulf Stream Drift is one of the strongest ocean currents, 35 to 100 miles wide, 2,000 feet deep and with a velocity of three miles an hour.
The current hugs the coast of America as far as Cape Hatteras , where it is deflected eastwards under the combined influence of the Westerlies and the rotation of the earth. It reaches Europe as the North Atlantic Drift.
Type # 2. Pacific Ocean:
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The Where And The Why
What is geography? It might seem like a simple enough term to define. In middle school or high school, your answer might have been something to do with the study of maps, of where things were located in the world. In fact, much of primary and secondary school geography is explicitly focused on the where, answering questions like where a particular country is located, what a countrys capital is, and where major landforms are located. Just as simple arithmetic operations form the backbone of mathematics as a discipline, these kinds of questions are foundational to geographic study. However, one wouldnt likely define math as the study of calculators or of multiplication tables. Similarly, there is much more to geography and geographic inquiry than the study of maps.
Geographers seek to answer both the where and the why. Simply knowing where a country is located is certainly helpful, but geographers dig deeper: why is it located there? Why does it have a particular shape, and how does this shape affect how it interacts with its neighbors and its access to resources? Why do the people of the country have certain cultural features? Why does the country have a specific style of government? The list goes on and on, and as you might notice, incorporates a variety of historical, cultural, political, and physical features. This synthesis of the physical world and human activity is at the heart of the regional geographic approach.
What Are The Three Types Of Geography
The three main types of geography are physical, environmental and human geography. There are other sub-branches of geography such as political geography, historical geography and religious geography.
Physical geography deals with the study of Earth and its structure. The landforms, continents, oceans and tectonic movements are a part of physical geography. The formation of rocks, weathering, forces of erosion, winds, ocean currents and rivers are all studied as a part of physical geography. Environment geography deals specifically with the study of the interaction of plants and animals with Earth. Human geography focuses on how human societies flourish with the help of natural resources. It deals with the study of the evolution of cultures and religious beliefs. Economic, cultural and political geography are sub-branches of human geography.
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Teaching The Five Themes Of Geography
As many of my long-time readers know, I spent time as a K-12social studies teacher and as a professor of social studies education. Duringthis time, one of my favorite things to teach was thefive themes of geography. The five themes of geography are location, place,human-environment interaction, movement, and region.
These themes were developed in 1984 by the National Councilfor Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers to organizeand facilitate the instruction of geography in K-12. While they have been replacedby the NationalGeography Standards, I still think they provide an excellent way to promotethe teaching of geography. If I were still teaching social studies, I would useboth. Since come of you may not be familiar with the five themes of geography,lets discuss them.
A brief discussion of each the five themes of geography
Location Location pertains to a place or position.The instruction of geography usually begins with location. Location can be twokinds: absolute location and relative location. Absolute location is defined usingits exact address . Relative location describes where aplace is in relation to other locations.
Place Place pertains to the physical and human attributesor characteristics of a location. This concept allows us to compare andcontrast two places on Earth. The place theme of geography illustrates clear imageof a place in the minds of the learners.
Why do students need to learn the five themes ofgeography?
Historical Evolution Of The Discipline
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From the birth of geography as a science during the Greek classical period and until the late nineteenth century with the birth of anthropogeography , geography was almost exclusively a natural science: the study of location and descriptive gazetteer of all places of the known world. Several works among the best known during this long period could be cited as an example, from Strabo , Eratosthenes or Dionisio Periegetes in the Ancient Age to the Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century, in which geography is regarded as a physical and natural science, of course, through the work Summa de GeografÃa of from the early sixteenth century, which indicated for the first time the New World.
During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a controversy exported from geology, between supporters of James Hutton and Georges Cuvier strongly influenced the field of geography, because geography at this time was a natural science.
The second important process is the theory of evolution by Darwin in mid-century which meant an important impetus in the development of Biogeography.
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Extensive And Intensive Farming
Extensive farming or cultivation involves land tillage with an aim of increasing output. Farmers increase the size of land for cultivation to improve yield without changing other factors. On the other hand, intensive farming involves increasing capital and labor on the same piece of land being cultivated to increase yield.
Meridians Or Lines Of Longitude
The prime meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. All meridians east of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees east the lines west of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees west . The 0 and 180 lines do not have a letter attached to them. The meridian at 180 degrees is called the International Date Line. The International Date Line is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day . Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. Do not confuse the International Date Line with the prime meridian . The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another.
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A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Persons Influential In Geography
A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth‘s physical environment and humanhabitat. Geographers are historically known for making maps, the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. They study the physical details of the environment and also its effect on human and wildlifeecologies, weather and climate patterns, economics, and culture. Geographers focus on the spatial relationships between these elements.
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