Friday, January 20, 2023

What Does Extinct Mean In Geography

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What Can We Do About It

Are Endangered Species Worth Saving?

Using fewer fossil fuels by lowering the thermostat, driving less frequently, and recycling is one good way to slow the rate of extinctions. Eating less meat and avoiding products, like ivory, that are made from threatened species also can make a difference. At home, securing garbage in locked cans, reducing water usage, and refraining from using herbicides and pesticides can protect local wildlife.

What Are The Main Causes Of Extinction

There are five major causes of extinction: habitat loss, an introduced species, pollution, population growth, and overconsumption. Through the activity, students will create a list of reasons why animals can become extinct.

What are the benefits of extinction?

In effect, a mass extinction cleans the slate, creating new evolutionary niches which promote a wide range of species, increasing biodiversity, competition and in some cases increasing complexity in organisms as they try to carve out their niche in the new world.

What is causing extinction today?

Today, the rate of extinction is occurring 1,000 to 10,000 times faster because of human activity. The main modern causes of extinction are the loss and degradation of habitat , over exploitation , invasive species, climate change, and nitrogen pollution.

Which is the best dictionary definition of extinction?

Definition of extinction. 1 : the act of making extinct or causing to be extinguished. 2. : the condition or fact of being extinct or extinguished also. : the process of becoming extinct. extinction of a species.

Geography Of Current And Future Global Mammal Extinction Risk

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    Current address: Colorado Natural Heritage Program and Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Warner College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America

    Affiliations Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America, NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

  • Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, United States of America

  • Roles Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America

  • Roles Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Methodology, Resources, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, Montgomery, Alabama, United States of America

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Did Humans Cause The Quaternary Megafauna Extinction

The driver of the QME has been debated for centuries. How much was caused by humans and how much by changes in climate?

Today, the consensus is that most of these extinctions were caused by humans.

There are several reasons why we think our ancestors were responsible.

Extinction timings closely match the timing of human arrival. The timing of megafauna extinctions were not consistent across the world instead, the timing of their demise coincided closely with the arrival of humans on each continent. The timing of human arrivals and extinction events is shown on the map.

Humans reached Australia somewhere between 65 to 44,000 years ago.8 Between 50 and 40,000 years ago, 82% of megafauna had been wiped out. It was tens of thousands of years before the extinctions in North and South America occurred. And several more before these occurred in Madagascar and the Caribbean islands. Elephant birds in Madagascar were still present eight millennia after the mammoth and mastodon were killed off in America. Extinction events followed mans footsteps.

Significant climatic changes tend to be felt globally. If these extinction were solely due to climate we would expect them to occur at a similar time across the continents.

Species Threatened With Extinction Today

At risk of extinction

To understand the biodiversity problem we need to know how many species are under pressure where they are and what the threats are. To do this, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species evaluates species across the world for their level of extinction risk. It does this evaluation every year, and continues to expand its coverage.

The IUCN has not evaluated all of the worlds known species in fact, in many taxonomic groups it has assessed only a very small percentage. In 2021, it had assessed only 7% of described species. But, this very much varies by taxonomic group. In the chart we see the share of described species in each group that has been assessed for their level of extinction risk. As wed expect, animals such as birds, mammals, amphibians have seen a much larger share of their species assessed more than 80%. Only 1% of insects have. And less than 1% of the worlds fungi.

The lack of complete coverage of the worlds species highlights two important points we need to remember when interpreting the IUCN Red List data:

  • The number of threatened species is an underestimate. Since only 7% of described species have been evaluated the estimated number of threatened species is likely to be much lower than the actual number. There is inevitably more threatened species within the 93% that have not been evaluated.
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    What Is Extinction Biology

    What Is Extinction In Biology?Extinction is the dying out of a species. Extinction plays an important role in the evolution of life because it opens up opportunities for new species to emerge.Jun 7, 2019Whats is extinction?Extinction is the dying out of a species. Extinction plays an important role

    What is the definition of extinction in biology?

    extinction, in biology, the dying out or extermination of a species.

    What Causes Species Distribution

    Biotic factors such as predation, disease, and inter- and intra-specific competition for resources such as food, water, and mates can also affect how a species is distributed.

    What defines a species?

    A species is often defined as a group of organisms that can reproduce naturally with one another and create fertile offspring.

    What factors affect species distribution?

    Factors affecting species distribution

    • climatic factors consist of sunlight, atmosphere, humidity, temperature, and salinity
    • edaphic factors are abiotic factors regarding soil, such as the coarseness of soil, local geology, soil pH, and aeration and.
    • social factors include land use and water availability.

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    What Was The First Animal To Go Extinct

    With their penchant for hunting, habitat destruction and the release of invasive species, humans undid millions of years of evolution, and swiftly removed this bird from the face of the Earth. Since then, the dodo has nestled itself in our conscience as the first prominent example of human-driven extinction.

    Are We Heading For A Sixth Mass Extinction

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    Seeing wildlife populations shrink is devastating. But the extinction of an entire species is tragedy on another level. Its not simply a downward trend it marks a stepwise change. A complex life form that is lost forever.

    But extinctions are nothing new. They are a natural part of the planets evolutionary history. 99% of the four billion species that have evolved on Earth are now gone.10 Species go extinct, while new ones are formed. Thats life. Theres a natural background rate to the timing and frequency of extinctions: 10% of species are lost every million years 30% every 10 million years and 65% every 100 million years.11

    What worries ecologists is that extinctions today are happening much faster than nature would predict. This has happened five times in the past: these are defined as mass extinction events and are aptly named the Big Five . In each extinction event the world lost more than 75% of its species in a short period of time .

    Are we in the midst of another one? Many have warned that were heading for a sixth mass extinction, this one driven by humans. Is this really true, or are these claims overblown?

    How do we know if were heading for a sixth mass extinction?

    There are a few metrics researchers can use to tackle this question.

  • Compare current extinction rates to previous mass extinctions.We can compare calculations of the current E/MSY to background extinction rates . But we can also compare these rates to previous mass extinction events.
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    Great Aukrocky Islands Off The North Atlantic Coast

    The black-and-white great auk was once found around the North Atlantic, waddling around on craggy coasts including in the UK or swimming in the waves using its short wings. But during the early 19th century, the great auk was killed in huge numbers for its feathers, meat and oils, and because people believed it had supernatural powers. Unafraid of humans, the flightless, defenceless birds were very easy to catch. Sailors would simply round them up and walk them onto ships, before bashing them on the head. Not an auk-some ending.

    History Of Scientific Understanding

    TyrannosaurusCretaceousPaleogene extinction eventGeorges Cuviermammoth

    For much of history, the modern understanding of extinction as the end of a species was incompatible with the prevailing worldview. Prior to the 19th century, much of Western society adhered to the belief that the world was created by God and as such was complete and perfect. This concept reached its heyday in the 1700s with the peak popularity of a theological concept called the great chain of being, in which all life on earth, from the tiniest microorganism to God, is linked in a continuous chain. The extinction of a species was impossible under this model, as it would create gaps or missing links in the chain and destroy the natural order.Thomas Jefferson was a firm supporter of the great chain of being and an opponent of extinction, famously denying the extinction of the woolly mammoth on the grounds that nature never allows a race of animals to become extinct.

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    How Many Species Has Conservation Saved From Extinction

    Its hard to find good news on the state of the worlds wildlife. Many predict that were heading for a sixth mass extinction the Living Planet Index reports a 68% average decline in wildlife populations since 1970 and we continue to lose the tropical habitats that support our most diverse ecosystems. The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity set twenty targets the Aichi Biodiversity Targets to be achieved by 2020. The world missed all of them.20 We didnt meet a single one.

    Perhaps, then, the loss of biodiversity is unavoidable. Maybe there is nothing we can do to turn things around.

    Thankfully there are signs of hope. As we will see, conservation action might have been insufficient to meet our Aichi targets, but it did make a difference. Tens of species were saved through these interventions. Theres other evidence that protected areas have retained bird diversity in tropical ecosystems. And each year there are a number of species that move away from the extinction zone on the IUCN Red List.

    In this article I want to take a look at some of these positive trends, and better understand how we achieved them.

    Pulling animals back from the brink of extinction

    For anyone interested in wildlife conservation, losing a species to extinction is a tragedy. Saving a species is surely one of lifes greatest successes.

    What this means is that extinction rates over the last two decades would have been at least three to four times faster without conservation efforts.

    What Are Active Dormant And Extinct Volcanoes

    Sixth mass extinction: The era of

    Volcanoes are found in three states extinct, dormant and active. However, there is some disagreement between scientists about the definition of what an extinct, dormant and active volcano is. For most, an active volcano has experienced some activity within the last 10,000 years. The problem with this definition is that a volcano may have erupted some 3000 years ago but is unlikely to erupt again in the future. Others suggest that active volcanoes must be currently displaying some sort of activity and not limited to eruption. This activity could be the release of gases or frequent seismic activity.

    The most active volcano in the world is Kilauea volcano on Hawaii. This is followed by Etna in Italy and Piton de la Fournaise on La Réunion island.

    A dormant volcano is said to not have erupted in the last 10 000 years but may erupt again in the future. Some believe that a volcano is dormant, rather than extinct, if there is some record of its past activity.

    In comparison, dormant volcanoes have not erupted since the last ice age and are unlikely to erupt again in the future. However, it is very difficult to suggest a volcano will never erupt again in the future. One example of this is Four-Peaked Mountain in Alaska. This volcano was considered extinct until 2006 when it began exhibiting signs of activity and is now classed as dormant.

    The image below shows the Kerid Crater, a dormant volcano in Iceland.

    Kerid Crater, Iceland.

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    Past Global Species Extinctions

    At least five major mass extinctions have probably occurred in the geologic past. During the Late Ordovician Mass Extinction events, approximately 85% of marine species died. The mass extinction occurred in 2 phases at the beginning and in the middle of Hirnantian Age. In the first phase of extinction, changes in nutrient cycling as a result of glacially-forced regression were thought to be responsible. Stagnation of oceanic circulation and post-glacial temperature and sea level rise were the main cause of the second phase of extinction. Meanwhile, both extinction events were thought to be stimulated by the rapid change in climate. The greatest mass extinction in Earths history took place about 250 million years ago. This event, commonly known as the Great Dying removed up to 95% of life on Earth. It is believed that a gigantic volcanic eruption triggered global warming through the release of carbon dioxide and methane. This mass extinction first started in the deep ocean area, and then moved up to the upper layers of ocean, killing almost all living creatures.

    What Does It Mean To Be On The Verge Of Extinction

    What does it mean to save a species from extinction?

    An operation is beginning to try to save a species of crocodile from extinction. Many species have been shot to the verge of extinction. If someone refers to the extinction of a way of life or type of activity, they mean that the way of life or activity stops existing.

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    Why Is Species Distribution Important

    Species distribution models provide a tool for mapping habitat and can produce credible, defensible, and repeatable information with which to inform decisions. However, these models are sensitive to data inputs and methodological choices, making it important to assess the reliability and utility of model predictions.

    Predation Competition And Disease

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    In the natural course of events, species become extinct for a number of reasons, including but not limited to: extinction of a necessary host, prey or pollinator, inter-species competition, inability to deal with evolving diseases and changing environmental conditions which can act to introduce novel predators, or to remove prey. Recently in geological time, humans have become an additional cause of extinction of some species, either as a new mega-predator or by transportinganimals and plants from one part of the world to another. Such introductions have been occurring for thousands of years, sometimes intentionally and sometimes accidentally . In most cases, the introductions are unsuccessful, but when an invasive alien species does become established, the consequences can be catastrophic. Invasive alien species can affect native species directly by eating them, competing with them, and introducing pathogens or parasites that sicken or kill them or indirectly by destroying or degrading their habitat. Human populations may themselves act as invasive predators. According to the “overkill hypothesis”, the swift extinction of the megafauna in areas such as Australia , North and South America , Madagascar, Hawaii , and New Zealand , resulted from the sudden introduction of human beings to environments full of animals that had never seen them before and were therefore completely unadapted to their predation techniques.

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    Objectives Of The Special Section

    This special section of Environmental Humanities explores, defines, and elaborates on the spatial character of species extinction and its effects. The importance of extinction studies in environmental humanities is well established, and there have been significant and valuable contributions that problematize the scientific and atomized definition of the death of a species and move us toward a richer understanding of the social, cultural and affective aspects of the slow loss of whole ways of being. However, there has been relatively little debate on how these rich and specific understandings of extinctions are grounded in geographic insights into historic, social, political, ecological, and economic transformations at different scales, and how a geographic lens that foregrounds the contingencies of place might help bring these relationships into focus. The aim of this special issue, then, is to bring extinction studies into closer conversation with approaches in traditions such as human geography and political ecology to shed light on geographies of extinction. By this, we mean the place-specific nature of extinction, including spaces and places that are deemed to be extinct the geographies through which extinction processes unfold and the geographies that are left after extinction.

    What Have We Already Lost

    Some of the animals lost forever due to human activities in the last two centuries have included the West African Black Rhinoceros , Pyrenean Ibex , Passenger Pigeon , Quagga , the Tasmanian Tiger , and numerous others. Since 1900, about 69 mammalian and 400 other vertebrate species have been lost forever. Currently, a large number of flora and fauna suffer a threatened status

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