What Is The Interquartile Range
This statistical measure uses the concept of the median rather than the mean the middle-ranking value in a range of data ranked from largest to smallest. It then finds the median of the upper half and subtracts the median of the lower half to produce the difference between the quarter and three-quarters value known as the Interquartile Range. This gives an indication of the spread of the data either side of the median.
Uses Of The Interquartile Range
Interquartile Range is most useful when comparing two of more data sets. For example, you may have collected pebble sizes from a number of beaches along a coast. Whilst they may have a similar median pebble size, you may notice that one beach has much reduced spread of pebble sizes as it has a smaller Interquartile Range than the other beaches. You may then want to focus your fieldwork on this beach to try to work out the processes causing this anomaly to occur.
Related statistical measures
Standard Deviation is also a measure of dispersion, but it uses the mean rather than median as its standard from which the average variation of all the other values are measured.
How Are Mountains Formed
The world’s tallest mountain ranges form when pieces of Earth’s crustcalled platessmash against each other in a process called plate tectonics, and buckle up like the hood of a car in a head-on collision. The Himalaya in Asia formed from one such massive wreck that started about 55 million years ago. Thirty of the worlds highest mountains are in the Himalaya. The summit of Mount Everest, at 29,035 feet , is the highest point on Earth.
The tallest mountain measured from top to bottom is Mauna Kea, an inactive volcano on the island of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. Measured from the base, Mauna Kea stands 33,474 feet tall, though it only rises 13,796 feet above the sea.
Volcanic mountains form when molten rock from deep inside the Earth erupts through the crust and piles up on itself. The islands of Hawaii were formed by undersea volcanoes, and the islands seen above water today are the remaining volcano tops. Well-known volcanoes on land include Mount St. Helens in Washington State and Mount Fuji in Japan. Sometimes volcanic eruptions break down mountains instead of building them up, like the 1980 eruption that blew the top off Mount St. Helens.
Other types of mountains form when stresses within and between the tectonic plates lead to cracking and faulting of the Earth’s surface, which forces blocks of rock up and down. Examples of fault-block mountains include the Sierra Nevada in California and Nevada, the Tetons in Wyoming, and the Harz Mountains in Germany.
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How Is The Interquartile Range Helpful
When we need to describe data collected from an area to compare with data from another area, we may use some sort of average to summarise it. We may use, for example, the mean pebble size we have measured on a beach to compare with the mean of another beach. But this can give an inaccurate interpetation if we then assume the pebbles on the two beaches are similar the spread of pebbles on one beach, from very small to very large may, in fact, be quite different from another beach where the pebble sizes are all very close to the mean.
Impact Of Mountains On Habitats And Geopolitics
Mountains often serve as geographic features that define natural borders of countries. Their height can influence weather patterns, stalling storms that roll off the oceans and squeezing water from the clouds. The other side is often much drier. The rugged landscapes even provide refugeand protectionfor fleeing and invading armies.
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Township Section Range What Do They Mean
Ever wonder how the Township, Range and Section are determined? Well get ready for a history lesson.
Our story begins in 1785, toward the end of the American Revolution as the U.S. received new land in thanks to the Treaty of Paris. In order for the U.S. to properly assess the new land, the Public Land Survey System was developed to plat or divide real property for sale or settling. The PLSS is now the primary surveying method for the majority of America, excluding the original 13 colonies and Texas.
How the System Works
First, a baseline is established that runs east to west. In Arizona, its Baseline Road. Then a principal meridian, which runs north and south is defined. Our principal meridian is the Gila River or roughly 115th Avenue. Next, lines parallel to the baseline are plotted along the map. These are called standard parallels. These three lines, the baseline, principal meridian and standard parallels, form a foundation grid that allows for more detailed survey work.
Township lines that run parallel to the baseline are plotted, typically in intervals of 6 miles. Range lines that run parallel to the principle meridian are plotted, usually in 6 mile intervals.
Once the township is established it is then divided into 36 sections measuring 1 square mile, giving us what we see in our tax records today.
Here is an example using Monsoon.
This property is in section 31, 1 Township north of the baseline and 4 Ranges east of the principle meridian.
Range In Geography Topic
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Why Is It Called Range
Range meaning stove is actually one of the older senses of the word, first appearing in the early 15th century. Early ranges were so-called because they usually had more than one oven and usually at least two cooking spots on top, furnishing a range of places to cook.
What is range in human geography?
Range is the maximum distance people are willing to travel to get a product or service. Threshold is the minimum number of people needed for a business to operate.
What is range in mathematical term?
The range is the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of numbers. To find it, subtract the lowest number in the distribution from the highest.
What is a specified range?
1. UML term used to describe bounded cardinality in class diagrams.
Us Mountain Ranges Map
The United States of America has many diverse landscapes and is home to 300+ major summits over at least 3,000 meters. This US mountain ranges map highlights the major mountain ranges in the United States and how they are distributed throughout the country.
Each state has its own unique geography, with the Appalachian Mountains in the east and the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains in the west. The majority of its highest peaks are located in the states of Colorado, Alaska, and California.
This US mountain ranges map is perfect for identifying where your favorite mountaintop is located and which states its in. It also provides a brief description of each range and some interesting facts about them.
READ MORE:Physical Map of the United States
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Mathematical Function And Models
You select the type of model for how it fits the data because it will provide a mathematical function to the relationship between values and distances. We use functions that are the best fit like exponential, linear, spherical, and Gaussian.
Ideally, you are trying to lower your R-squared value, as best fit as possible. However, when you have an understanding of how the phenomena behave with distance, you can better choose which model to use.
For example, here are the mathematical functions you can apply to semi-variograms:
1. Linear Models
A linear model means that spatial variability increases linearly with distance. Its the most simple type of model without a plateau, meaning that the user has to arbitrarily select the sill and range.
2. Spherical Models
The spherical model is one of the most common models we use in variogram modeling. It is a modified quadratic equation where spatial dependence flattens out as the sill and range.
3. Exponential Models
The exponential model resembles the spherical model in that spatial variability reaches the sill gradually. The relationship between two sample points decays gradually, while at a distance of infinite spatial dependence dissipates.
4. Gaussian Models
The Gaussian function uses a normal probability distribution curve. This type of model is useful where phenomena are similar at short distances because of its progressive rise up the y-axis.
5. Circular Models
Meridians Or Lines Of Longitude
The prime meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. All meridians east of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees east the lines west of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees west . The 0 and 180 lines do not have a letter attached to them. The meridian at 180 degrees is called the International Date Line. The International Date Line is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day . Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. Do not confuse the International Date Line with the prime meridian . The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another.
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What Are The Range Sill And Nugget In Semi
At sample points with close distances, the difference in values between points tends to be small. In other words, the semi-variance is small.
But when sample point distances are farther away, they are less likely to be similar. This means that the semi-variance becomes large.
As the distance increases away from sample points, there is no longer a relationship between the sample points. Their variance begins to flatten out, and sample values are not related to one another.
SILL: The value at which the model first flattens out.
RANGE: The distance at which the model first flattens out.
NUGGET: The value at which the semi-variogram intercepts the y-value.
When you have two sample points at the same location, you can expect to have the same value so the nugget should be zero. Sometimes they dont and this adds randomness. But before the graph starts leveling, these values are spatially autocorrelated.
As expected, when distance increases, the semivariance increases. There are fewer pairs of points separated by far distances, hence the less correlation between sample points.
But as indicated in the semi-variogram with the sill and range, it begins to reach its flat, asymptotic level. This is when you try to fit a function to model this behavior.
Why Was The Saw Invented
Best saws were invented cut the bone Back to the medical topic, for chance, a day of not today I know advised to use of common form is the symphysiotomy, which has been moved for caesarean section and other more modern procedures. However, the saw the mechanic was curiously popular for almost two centuries.
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Why Might Range Size Not Be A Reliable Estimate Of Conservation Status
When accounting for biological features local scale analyses do not capture habitat patterns important for species conservation. The landscape carrying capacity is lower for all the species at the range scale. The effect of habitat loss could be even worse when we consider the total area where the species inhabit.
How Is The Interquartile Range Calculated
It can be calculated manually by counting out the half-way point , and then the halfway point of the upper half and the halfway point of the lower half and subtracting the LQ value from the UQ value:
Imagine we measured 11 pebbles taken from a beach in cm:
4th calculation: Interquartile Range
= 19 8
IQR = 11
Interpretation: There are 11cm between the size of pebbles at the quarter, and three-quarters dispersion around the median pebble size on this beach.
- It can be calculated using three simple formulas. These identify the place in the ranking of values where you can locate the median, UQ and LQ values.
For the median: ÷ 2
For the UQ ÷ 4
For the LQ 3 ÷ 4
where n is the number of values in the data set
= 25 8
IQR = 17 cm
What Is An Example Of Pattern In Human Geography
A Pattern is the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area. Territory in the west was settled in townships, typically 6 miles by 6 miles in patterns. A linear pattern is a strait lines and an example is houses along a street. A centralized pattern is clustered or concentrated at a specific point.
The Basin And Range Province
Within the Basin and Range Province, the relief is abrupt and the basins normally range from 4,000 to 5,000 feet , while most of the mountain ranges climb 3,000 to 5,000 feet above the basins.
Death Valley, California is the lowest of the basins with its lowest elevation of -282 feet . Conversely, Telescope Peak in the Panamint Range to the west of Death Valley has an elevation of 11,050 feet , showing the enormous topographic prominence within the province.
In terms of the Basin and Range Province’s physiography, it features a dry climate with very few streams and internal drainage . Although the area is arid, much of the rain that does fall accumulates in the lowest basins and forms pluvial lakes such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah and Pyramid Lake in Nevada. The valleys are mostly arid however and deserts such as the Sonoran dominate the region.
This area also affected a significant portion of the United Statesâ history as it was a major barrier to westward migration because the combination of desert valleys, bounded by mountain ranges made any movement in the area difficult. Today, U.S. Highway 50 crosses the region and crosses five passes over 6,000 feet and is considered “The Loneliest Road in America.”
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What Do You Mean By The Term Range
1a : a series of things in a line : row. : a series of mountains. : one of the north-south rows of townships in a U.S. public-land survey that are numbered east and west from the principal meridian of the survey.
What is an example of range in geography?
Geographic ranges are influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors that influence geographic range are often related to climate prominent examples include air temperature and snow depth. Biotic factors are interactions between species such as competition and predation.
What does the range mean in science?
What is a Range? The region between the limits within which a quantity is measured, expressed by stating the lower and upper range values. [
What does within a range mean?
phrase. If something is in range or within range, it is near enough to be reached or detected. If it is out of range, it is too far away to be reached or detected. Cars are driven through the mess, splashing everyone within range.
How Does Geographic Range Affect Extinction
Of the genera that go extinct at any time those with limited geographic ranges are more likely to be unsampled in their final interval of existence. Thus among victims of the mass extinction genera with limited range are more likely to appear to go extinct in an earlier bin than those with wide range.
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Arithmetic Mean And Range In Statistics
In statistics, groups of data are commonly represented by arithmetic mean. Sometimes, the arithmetic mean is also referred to as average or just mean.
Basically, the mean is the central value of given data. To find the arithmetic mean of the data set, we have to add all the values in the set and then divide the resulting value by the total number of values.
Arithmetic mean = /
Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
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