Ice Cap Vs Ice Sheet Vs Ice Shelf Vs Iceberg
- Ice caps are ice massed with less than 50,000 square kilometers area e.g. Austfonna ice cap in Norway.
- Ice sheets are ice massed with more than 50,000 square kilometers area e.g. Antarctic ice sheet.
- Ice shelves are large ice masses of ice that float on water. They are extensions of land glaciers that have flown down onto the ocean surface.
- Icebergs are freely floating pieces of ice that have separated from a glacier or an ice shelf.
The Earth And Graticule Location
When identifying a region or location on the earth, the first step is to understand its relative and absolute locations. Relative locationPosition on the earths surface with reference to other places. is the location on the earths surface with reference to other places, taking into consideration features such as transportation access or terrain. Relative location helps one compare the advantages of one location with those of another. Absolute locationAn exact point on the earths surface that can be identified by latitude and longitude., on the other hand, refers to an exact point on the earths surface without regard to how that point is related to any other place. Absolute location is vital to the cartographic process and to human activities that require an agreed-upon method of identifying a place or point.
Just as you were taught in geometry that there are 360 degrees in a circle or a sphere, the earth also has 360 degrees, and they are measured using a grid pattern called the graticule. Lines of latitude and longitude allow any absolute location on the earth to have an identifiable address of degrees north or south and east or west, which allows geographers to accurately locate, measure, and study spatial activity.
Figure 1.3 Basic Lines of Longitude and Latitude
Meridians Or Lines Of Longitude
The prime meridian sits at 0 degrees longitude and divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. All meridians east of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees east the lines west of the prime meridian are numbered from 1 to 180 degrees west . The 0 and 180 lines do not have a letter attached to them. The meridian at 180 degrees is called the International Date Line. The International Date Line is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day . Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. Do not confuse the International Date Line with the prime meridian . The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another.
Also Check: Kendall Hunt Geometry Answer Key
Entry Requirements For Geography Degrees
Again reflecting the diversity of geography topics, entry requirements for geography degrees can vary, and are often relatively flexible in terms of the academic background required. Applicants will typically be expected to have studied some aspects of geography and achieved good grades at secondary level. Related science and social science subjects may also be an asset, including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, sociology, economics, politics and history. Youll need to be able to explain why you want to study geography, perhaps with reference to potential future geography careers or topics youre especially passionate about. You may be asked to attend an admissions interview, while international students may need to submit proof of proficiency in the language used to teach the course.
A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Don’t Miss: Geometry Segment Addition Postulate Worksheet
Geography: Methods And Branches
Geography is a synoptic science that uses the same elements as the other sciences but in a different context. It integrates data spatially, making elaborate use of maps as its special tool. Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically. The systematic approach organizes geographical knowledge into individual categories that are studied on a worldwide basis the regional approach integrates the results of the systematic method and studies the interrelationships of the different categories while focusing on a particular area of the earth the descriptive approach depicts where geographical features and populations are located the analytical approach seeks to find out why those features are located where they are.
In the study of geography two main branches may be distinguished, physical geography and human geography, originally anthropogeography. The first, based on the physical sciences, studies the world’s surface, the distribution, delineation, and nature of its land and water areas. Climate, landforms , and soil are examined as to origin and are classified as to distribution. Drawing on the biological sciences, fauna and flora are brought into an areal pattern. Through the mathematical sciences the motion of the earth and its relationship to the sun , the moon , and the planets are studied, as well as mapmaking and navigation.
Using A State As A Comparison Guide
In comparing one formal political region with another, it is often helpful to use a familiar country, state, province, or political unit as a reference or guide. Wherever you are located, you can research the statistical data for a formal region familiar to you to provide a common reference. The US state of Kentucky is one example that can be used to compare formal political regions. Kentucky ranks close to the middle range of the fifty US states in terms of its population of 4.3 million people. Kentucky is also within the median range of the fifty states in overall physical area. The states 40,409-square-mile physical area ranks it thirty-seventh in size in the United States. Kentucky is not as large in physical area as the western states but is larger in physical area than many of the eastern states. Kentucky includes part of the rural peripheral region of Appalachia, but the state also has cosmopolitan core urban centers such as Lexington and Louisville. Kentucky also borders the metropolitan city of Cincinnati. The rural peripheral regions of the state are home to agriculture and mining. The urban core areas are home to industry and service centers. Other US states could also be used as examples. Identifying a states geographical attributes provides readers both in and outside the United States with a comparison indicator for geographic purposes.
You May Like: Algebra Age Word Problems
The Scientific Process Of Geography
- Observe a particular feature, phenomenon, or event in the world that stimulates a series of questions and thought process.
- Develop an educated thought that tries to answer the questions posed, called a hypothesis.
- Design an experiment or way to “test” your hypothesis.
- Implement the experiment and observe the results using unbiased data and measurement techniques.
- Propose a solution, answer, or rule that explains the hypothesis and experiment.
Keeping Up With The Journal Literature
Want an easy way to keep up with the journal literature for all facets of Geography? And you use a mobile device? You can install the BrowZine app and create a custom Bookshelf of your favorite journal titles. Then you will get the Table of Contents of your favorite journals automatically delivered to you when they become available. Once you have the ToC’s you can download and read the articles you want.
You can get the app from the App Store or Google Play.
Don’t own or use a mobile device? You can still use BrowZine! It’s now available in a web version. You can get to it here. The web version works the same way as the app version. Find the journals you like, create a custom Bookshelf, get ToCs and read the articles you want.
Recommended Reading: Geometry Unit 4 Answer Key
Geography Careers In Cartography
Careers in cartography involve developing and producing different types of maps, as well as producing related diagrams, charts, spreadsheets and travel guides. Your role as a cartographer may also include restoration of old maps and historical documents. Cartographers work within a variety of areas, including publishing, government, surveying and conservation. Today the field draws on an array of advanced technologies, such as geographical information systems and digital-mapping techniques.
Course Structure And Assessment Methods
An undergraduate-level geography degree will usually last three or four years, depending on the country of study, while masters programs take one or two years. Teaching methods will include lectures, seminars and field work, often involving extended trips to different locations. As geography is such a broad subject, students have the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of optional modules. This doesnt necessarily mean simply choosing between physical geography or human geography often its possible to combine elements of both. Assessment is based on exams, course work, and field work projects. At the end of the course, students are usually expected to write a dissertation on a topic of their choice.
Recommended Reading: Beth Thomas Story
Geography Careers In Teaching
You may choose to pass on your geography skills and knowledge to the next generation as a geography teacher in a secondary school, college or further education institution. Like other teaching roles, this will usually require completion of a specialized teaching qualification and/or study to masters or PhD level. Youll also need excellent communications skills, a basic understanding of youth psychology and lots of creativity.
The Where And The Why
What is geography? It might seem like a simple enough term to define. In middle school or high school, your answer might have been something to do with the study of maps, of where things were located in the world. In fact, much of primary and secondary school geography is explicitly focused on the where, answering questions like where a particular country is located, what a countrys capital is, and where major landforms are located. Just as simple arithmetic operations form the backbone of mathematics as a discipline, these kinds of questions are foundational to geographic study. However, one wouldnt likely define math as the study of calculators or of multiplication tables. Similarly, there is much more to geography and geographic inquiry than the study of maps.
Geographers seek to answer both the where and the why. Simply knowing where a country is located is certainly helpful, but geographers dig deeper: why is it located there? Why does it have a particular shape, and how does this shape affect how it interacts with its neighbors and its access to resources? Why do the people of the country have certain cultural features? Why does the country have a specific style of government? The list goes on and on, and as you might notice, incorporates a variety of historical, cultural, political, and physical features. This synthesis of the physical world and human activity is at the heart of the regional geographic approach.
You May Like: Eoc Fsa Warm Ups Algebra 1 Answers
What Do Geography Degrees Cover
The geography topics you cover will largely depend on whether youve opted for a degree focused on physical geography or human geography, though at undergraduate level it is often possible to cover aspects of both before choosing a specialization.
Human geography is concerned with the study of human societies how they operate, develop, and the challenges they face. So if you choose a human geography course, you may cover issues such as population change, cultural and religious practices, or various aspects of globalization. Physical geography, on the other hand, is about understanding the Earths physical processes from climates and weather systems, to earthquakes and rock formations, right down to whats happening on the ocean floor.
Reflecting the broad scope of geography degrees, youll find them titled either as a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science , or at postgraduate level, a Master of Arts or Master of Science . Often the BA and MA options correspond to a human geography focus while BSc/MSc are in the physical geography field but this isnt always the case, so always check the course details.
Geography Careers In Environmental Consultancy
Professional environmental consultants provide guidance on a variety of environmental issues, such as assessment of air pollution or land and water contamination waste management compliance with related legislation and the development of environmental policy. Major employers of environmental consultants include governmental agencies, engineering and construction firms, waste management companies, water suppliers, and conservation groups.
Recommended Reading: Do You Capitalize Bachelor’s Degree In Psychology
Difference Between Large Scale Map And Small Scale Map:
1. Large Scale Map: A large scale map makes every object or a landmark appear larger. Building and roads are clearly recognizable. The large scale map shows the name of malls, bridges, and the names of streets.
2. Small Scale Map: A small scale map makes objects and landmarks appear smaller. The building, road, bridge, or any land feature is not recognizable. A small scale map does not show the names of building, road, or bridge.
Introduction To Physical Geography
Physical geography focuses upon the character of, and processes shaping, the land-surface of the Earth and its envelope, emphasizes the spatial variations that occur and the temporal changes necessary to understand the contemporary environments of the Earth. Its purpose is to understand how the Earths physical environment is the basis for, and is affected by, human activity. Physical geography was conventionally subdivided into geomorphology, climatology, hydrology, and biogeography, but is now more holistic in systems analysis of recent environmental and Quaternary change. It uses expertise in mathematical and statistical modelling and in remote sensing, develops research to inform environmental management and environmental design, and benefits from collaborative links with many other disciplines such as biology , geology and engineering . However, R. Inkpen makes the soundly based claim that there is not a single history of physical geography.
Harden Phys. Geog. 33, 1, 1 writes that while the sub-discipline of physical geography remains firmly grounded in research undertaken to explain Earths landscapes and its geomorphic, hydrologic, atmospheric, cryospheric, petrologic, and biogeographical processes, which change over time and space, the extent of the human footprint on this planet challenges physical geographers to pay greater attention to the role of people in environmental change and the interactions between people and their environments.
What Are The Two Main Branches Of Geography
Geography is the study of the Earth that focuses on its land, physical features, and atmosphere, as well as human activities and how they are influenced by the Earth. Geography examines the nature and relative organization of physical places, locations and human societies throughout the globe. It is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography. Geography is considered a discipline that bridges the natural sciences and the social sciences .
Parallels Or Lines Of Latitude
Figure 1.4 Noted Lines of Latitude
The equator is the largest circle of latitude on Earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. The other lines of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90 degrees going toward each of the poles. The lines north of the equator toward the North Pole are north latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter N. The lines south of the equator toward the South Pole are south latitude, and each of the numbers is followed by the letter S. The equator is the only line of latitude without any letter following the number. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. At 66.5 degrees from the equator are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle near the North and South Pole, respectively.
Three Types Of Scale:
1. Fractional or Ratio Scale: A fractional scale map shows the fraction of an object or land feature on the map. This type uses a set of numbers that represents the object or a landmark. As an example on the left photo, the orange-shaded scale represents a 2/3 fractional scale.
2. Linear Scale: A linear scale shows the distance between two or more prominent landmarks. The linear scale on maps is a set of lines or dots that represents a landmark. An example on the left photo is a map using a linear scale on each road.
3. Verbal Scale: This type of scale use simple words to describe a prominent surface feature. A verbal map scale expands abbreviations to describe a landmark or an object. An example is the image to the left describes a scale as cm is equal to 15 kilometers.
One extra types of Scale that can be added in geography books:
4. Changed Scale: Maps presenting a large amount of distance such as 1450000cm are difficult to describe. A changed scale type acts as an alternative to a large ratio or a metric scale. As an example, the metric ratio scale of 1:1450000 changes into 1 cm = 15 km.