Problems Arising Through Standardization And Ipsatization
While standardization and ipsatization are easy and widely accepted, there are many constellations in which these procedures are not useful or misleading. For cross-sectional studies, these issues have long been discussed , but additional problems arise when longitudinal data or profiles are examined. The reasons for the additional problems of standardization in longitudinal and nested data are the many additional possibilities to relate ratings to different reference frames and distributions. In longitudinal studies, the questions arise: Shall we standardize within time points, or across them? Standardize within or across individuals? Standardize within or across age groups/cohorts? The resulting problems are:
Standardizing repeated measures within individuals impedes examining mean-level differences between individuals, because each individual’s mean score becomes zero. The standardized means don’t inform whether the individuals differed in their original experiences.
Standardization across individuals within measurement time points impedes examining mean level changes from one time point to another, because all means at all time points become zero, whereas the raw-score means might have shown a decrease in the measured variable, such as interest .
Standardization across individuals should not be done with ipsatized scores, because that entangles the intra-individual frame of reference and the inter-individual frame and is hard to interpret.
Process Of Standardization Of Psychological Test
Standardizing a test or treatment can be a long process. There are two big goals of standardization: collecting the average scores of the population and deciding on test administration details. The population is all the people you want to take the test or go through the treatment. As you can imagine, this could be a big group of people.
Some examples of populations are all 3rd graders in America, all patients in psychiatric hospitals, all clients receiving individual therapy treatment for depression, all people over age 80 in a specific state, or all high-school AP psychology students.
The administration of a test just means the instructions that go with a test. They tell the teacher, therapist, or psychologist how to give the test, how much time to give the test-taker, how to grade the answers, what scores to expect, and what each score might mean. Providing information on what scores to expect requires knowing the scores of other people who have taken the same test. Psychometricians figure this out by getting hundreds or thousands of people to try the new test.
Fg. 2 Online test administration, pixabay.com
Steps 1 and 2 are the most essential in the entire process. Standardizing a test is a lot like any other kind of research. You must know the goal or purpose of the test before you can get started. You also need a good operational definition for whatever you want to measure.
Psychological Assessment Standardization Evaluation Etc
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The Nature Of Psychological Measures
One of the most common distinctions made among tests relates to whetherthey are measures of typical behavior versus tests of maximalperformance . A measure of typical behavior asksthose completing the instrument to describe what they would commonly doin a given situation. Measures of typical behavior, such as personality,interests, values, and attitudes, may be referred to asnon-cognitive measures. A test of maximalperformance, obviously enough, asks people to answer questions and solveproblems as well as they possibly can. Because tests of maximalperformance typically involve cognitive performance, they are oftenreferred to as cognitive tests. Most intelligence andother ability tests would be considered cognitive tests they can alsobe known as ability tests, but this would be a more limited category.Non-cognitive measures rarely have correct answers per se, although insome cases there may be preferred responses cognitive tests almost always have items that have correct answers. Itis through these two lensesnon-cognitive measures and cognitiveteststhat the committee examines psychological testing for thepurpose of disability evaluation in this report.
Standardization Of Business Processes
The most common form of standardization is in the area of business processes. Typically, companies with a global presence or operate franchises utilize detailed process documentation to ensure that the quality of their product or service is the same regardless of the geographical location that a customer visits.
Businesses engaged in manufacturing often form framework agreements that ensure that the products they produce meet the same specifications as other businesses in the industry. The standardization may cover products sold in one geographical location or in the global arena.
For example, manufacturers of LED and LCD television follow certain product standardization rules that ensure that the products sold in the market have similar features. The standards cover specifications such as screen resolution and size, inputs , internet connectivity, etc. The standards are continually modified to mirror advancements in technology.
Standardization among manufacturing businesses ensures that customers get similar products regardless of the manufacturer or geographical location of the store where customers buy from.
Companies that operate globally also standardize their advertising, maintaining a uniform design theme across the different markets as a way of reinforcing its brand image among its global audience. The same design theme and color scheme are applied even when the product packaging is presented in a different language.
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Standardization Of A Test
A psychological test is a standardized measure. Standardization implies uniformity of procedures in administrating and scoring the test. If the scores obtained by different persons are to be comparable, testing conditions must obviously be the same for all.
The formulation of directions is a major part of the standardization of a new test. Such standardization extends to the exact materials employed, time limits, oral instructions, preliminary demonstrations, way of handling queries from test takers and every other detail of the testing situation.
Another important step in the standardization of a test is the establishment of norms. As its name implies, a norm is a normal or average performance. In the process of standardization a test, it is administrated to a large, representative sample of the type of persons for whom it is designed. This group known as the standardization sample serves to establish the norms.
It might also be noted that norms are established for personality tests in essentially the same way as for aptitude tests. On both types of tests, the norm corresponds to the performance of typical or average persons.
Why Is Standardisation Of Psychometric Test Administration Important
Standardisation is an agreement about the process of the test administration. Standardisation of test administration ensures that the assessment is conducted under specific conditions which can be repeated. A standardized test provides you with confidence about repeating the test in the future and ensures that all candidates are treated in the same way. It is also important because it ensures objectivity of scoring and administration conditions. It is important that all candidates are treated in the same way for ethical and comparison standards. For example, if one candidate was administered an ability test, such as the Swift Comprehension Aptitude test, in a quiet room, and another person undertook the test next to a construction site which is really noisy, then it is safe to say that individual who undertook the test in noisy conditions would be affected by the noise. Our confidence in the test scores would decrease when making a comparison. The candidates performance on the test could be affected because of distractions, which us why we have to be considerate about the conditions under which the test was administered.
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Test Administration And Interpretation
In accordance with the Standards for Educational and PsychologicalTesting and the APA’s Guidelines for Test UserQualifications , many publishers of psychological tests employ a tieredsystem of qualification levels required for thepurchase, administration, and interpretation of such tests . Many instruments, such as those discussed throughoutthis report, would be considered qualification level C assessmentmethods, generally requiring an advanced degree, specializedpsychometric and measurement knowledge, and formal training inadministration, scoring, and interpretation. However, some may have lessstringent requirements, for example, a bachelor’s ormaster’s degree in a related field and specialized training inpsychometric assessment , or no specialrequirements for purchase and use. While suchcategories serve as a general guide for necessary qualifications,individual test manuals provide additional detail and specificqualifications necessary for administration, scoring, and interpretationof the test or measure.
Use Of Interpreters And Other Nonstandardized Test Administrationtechniques
Modification of procedures, including the use of interpreters and theadministration of nonstandardized assessment procedures, may pose uniquechallenges to the psychologist by potentially introducing systematicerror into the testing process. Such errors may be related to language,the use of translators, or examinee abilities . For example, if one uses a languageinterpreter, the potential for mistranslation may yield inaccuratescores. Use of translators is a nonpreferred option, and assessors needto be familiar with both the language and culture from which anindividual comes to properly interpret test results, or even inferwhether specific measures are appropriate. The adaptation of tests hasbecome big business for testing companies, and many tests, most oftenmeasures developed in English for use in the United States, are beingadapted for use in other countries. Such measures require changes inlanguage, but translators must also be knowledgeable about culture andthe environment of the region from which a person comes .
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Standardization In Psychological Research
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
This study examines the relationship between individual-level values, using Schwartzs theory, and organizational and occupational commitment among Israeli Arabs. The sample includes 369 Arab teachers working in 14 schools in Arab communities in the north of Israel, with a response rate of 65%. The findings show a significant effect of 2 valuesbenevolence and conformityon most organizational and occupational commitment dimensions, above and beyond the effect of demographic variables. The specific relationships found here are attributed to the characteristics of the sample. Implications of the findings for continuing research on this issue are emphasized.
Overview Of Psychological Testing
Psychological assessment contributes important information to the understandingof individual characteristics and capabilities, through the collection,integration, and interpretation of information about an individual . Such information isobtained through a variety of methods and measures, with relevant sourcesdetermined by the specific purposes of the evaluation. Sources of informationmay include
- Records obtained fromthe referral source
- Records obtained from other organizations and agencies that have beenidentified as potentially relevant
- Interviews conducted with the person being examined
- Behavioral observations
- Interviews with corroborative sources such as family members, friends,teachers, and others and
- Formal psychological or neuropsychological testing.
Agreements across multiple measures and sources, as well as discrepantinformation, enable the creation of a more comprehensive understanding of theindividual being assessed, ultimately leading to more accurate and appropriateclinical conclusions .
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What Do You Mean By Test Standardization
A standardized test is an assessment method based on the principle of consistency: all candidates must answer the same questions and all answers are scored in the same predetermined way.
What is the use of standardization in psychology?
1. the process of setting standards for a test. 2. the use of uniform procedures in test administration to ensure that all participants take the same test under the same conditions and are scored according to the same criteria, which in turn ensures that results can be compared each other.
Supply And Materials Management
- Written by a Standards organization:
- in a closed consensus process: Restricted membership and often having formal procedures for due-process among voting members
- in a full consensus process: usually open to all interested and qualified parties and with formal procedures for due-process considerations
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Alternatives To Standardization And Ipsatization
For bringing differently measured items to the same metric, there are several easy alternative monotonous scale transformations available, which, unlike standardization, do not change the multivariate distribution and covariance matrix of the transformed variables. One solution is the proportion of maximum scaling method , which transforms each scale to a metric from 0 to 1 , by first making the scale range from 0 to the highest value, and then dividing the scores by the highest value.
For instance, for a scale that originally ranged from 1 to 7, first the value 1 is subtracted from each observation to make the scale go from 0 to 6, and then each score is divided by 6 to make the scale go from 0 to 1. Contrary to standardization, this maintains the proportions of the absolute distances between the observed response options.
Another possibility is the percent of maximum possible method , which makes each scale range from 0 to 100 by multiplying the result of the POMS transformation by 100. The resulting POMP-transformed scores can be interpreted as percentages of the possible maximum score. SPSS syntaxes for these transformations can be downloaded freely .
What Is Normalization For
The purpose of standardization is to impose a level of consistency or uniformity on certain practices or operations in the selected environment. An example of standardization would be generally accepted accounting principles to which all companies listed on US stock exchanges must adhere.
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Use Of Rubrics For Fairness
Using a rubric is meant to increase fairness when the student’s performance is evaluated. In standardized testing, measurement error is easy to determine in standardized testing. In non-standardized assessment, graders have more individual discretion and therefore are more likely to produce unfair results through unconscious bias. When the score depends upon the graders’ individual preferences, then the result an individual student receives depends upon who grades the test. Standardized tests also remove teacher bias in assessment. Research shows that teachers create a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy in their assessment of students, granting those they anticipate will achieve with higher scores and giving those who they expect to fail lower grades.
Ergonomics Workplace And Health
In some cases, standards are being used in the design and operation of workplaces and products that can impact consumers’ health. Some of such standards seek to ensure occupational safety and health and ergonomics. For example, chairs could be potentially be designed and chosen using standards that may or may not be based on adequate scientific data. Standards could reduce the variety of products and lead to convergence on fewer broad designs â which can often be efficiently mass-produced via common shared automated procedures and instruments â or formulations deemed to be the most healthy, most efficient or best compromise between healthiness and other factors. Standardization is sometimes or could also be used to ensure or increase or enable consumer health protection beyond the workplace and ergonomics such as standards in food, food production, hygiene products, tab water, cosmetics, drugs/medicine, drink and dietary supplements, especially in cases where there is robust scientific data that suggests detrimental impacts on health despite being substitutable and not necessarily of consumer interest.
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Use Of Standardized Tests In University Admissions
Standardized tests are reviewed by universities as part of the application, along with other supporting evidence such as personal statements, GPA, and letters of recommendation. Nathan Kuncel, a scholar of higher education, noticed that in college admission, SAT, ACT, and other standardized tests “help overwhelmed admissions officers divide enormous numbers of applicants into pools for further assessment. High scores don’t guarantee admission anywhere, and low scores don’t rule it out, but schools take the tests seriously.”
Research shows that the tests predict more than just first-year grades and the level of courses a student is likely to take. The longitudinal research conducted by scientists shows that students with high test scores are more likely to take the challenging route through college.Tests also can indicate the outcomes of students beyond college, including faculty evaluations, research accomplishments, degree attainment, performance on comprehensive exams and professional licensure.
Since GPA has difference across schools and even for two students in the same school, the common measure provided by the test score is more useful.
There is debate whether the test will indicate the long-term success in work and life since there are many other factors, but fundamental skills such as reading, writing, and math are related to job performance.
Many arguments suggest that skills from tests are usefulâbut only up to a point.
Item Response Theory And Tests2
For most of the 20th century, the dominant measurement model was calledclassical test theory. This model was based on the notion that allscores were composed of two components: true score and error. One canimagine a true score as a hypothetical value that wouldrepresent a person’s actual score were there no error present inthe assessment . The model further assumes that all error israndom and that any correlation between error and some other variable,such as true scores, is effectively zero . The approach leans heavilyon reliability theory, which is largely derived from the premisesmentioned above.
IRT models have made the equating of test forms far easier. Equatingtests permits one to use different forms of the same examination withdifferent test items to yield fully comparable scores due to slightlydifferent item difficulties across forms. To convert the values of itemdifficulty to determine the test-taker’s ability scores one needsto have some common items across various tests these common items areknown as anchor items. Using such items, one can essentially establish afixed reference group and base judgments from other groups on thesevalues.