Theories And Terminology Of Personality Psychology
What exactly is personality? Where does it come from? Does it change as we grow older? These are the sorts of questions that have long held the fascination of psychologists and which have inspired a number of different theories of personality.
Which Theorist Published Research Related To The Psychology Of Personality
A. Charles Darwin
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Answer: D. Sigmund Freud
The theory of psychoanalysis, developed by Simeon Freud, defense mechanisms, fixations, unconsciousness, and dream symbolism are put together as influencers of contemporary psychologists. The theories developed by Sigmund Freud have helped in shaping the general views of childhood, memory, therapy, personality, and sexuality.
Sigmund believed that people could be cured of their unconscious motivation and thoughts simply by making them conscious. He believed that every stage of a childs development from birth is related directly to the specific demands and needs of the child based solely on a specific body part all rooted within a sexual base.
In Psychoanalytic Thought What Are The Four Most Important Ideas
There are 22 degrees of consciousness represented by the terms in this collection. There are three levels of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. conscious. When it comes to Freudian psychology, they are the ideas or motivations that a person is conscious of or recalls. preconsciousness, unconsciousness, etc. The personality structure developed by Sigmund Freud. The enjoyment principle is the same as before. Ego.
Journal Equity Diversity And Inclusion Statement
Personality psychologists focus on the ways that people differ from one another. Appreciating these differences is essential for the quality of research and theory that the field produces. Yet it is clear that currently, neither the authors nor the participants in our journals reflect the diversity of the populations we seek to understand. This affects the conclusions that one can draw from this work, while also having broader impacts on equity and inclusion in science and beyond. Thus, identifying steps to improve this situation will be an important goal for our team.
The most immediate step will be to expand our efforts to recruit editors, editorial board members, and reviewers from diverse backgrounds. In addition, our team has been paying close attention to concerns raised about biases in the evaluation of work that includes samples from under-represented groups or from authors from under-represented backgrounds. For instance, studies with samples from under-represented groups have sometimes been criticized for a lack of generalizability, whereas samples of college students get a pass on this issue . We pledge to watch for these problematic comments in reviews and decision letters to reduce the negative impact that such biases have. Anyone who has concerns about their experiences during the review process can contact the editor-in-chief at any time.
S Measuring Inner Experience
Descriptive experience sampling : Developed by psychologist Russel Hurlburt. This is an idiographic method that is used to help examine inner experiences. This method relies on an introspective technique that allows an individual’s inner experiences and characteristics to be described and measured. A beep notifies the subject to record their experience at that exact moment and 24 hours later an interview is given based on all the experiences recorded. DES has been used in subjects that have been diagnosed with schizophrenia and depression. It has also been crucial to studying the inner experiences of those who have been diagnosed with common psychiatric diseases.
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What Is The Difference Between The Theory Of Pavlov And Skinner
Pavlovs classical conditioning involves pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to create an unconditioned response. When this pairing is demonstrated multiple times the desired behavior becomes the conditioned response. However, Skinner pairs a behavior with a following consequence .
Focusing On The Self: Humanism And Self
Psychoanalytic models of personality were complemented during the 1950s and 1960s by the theories of humanistic psychologists. In contrast to the proponents of psychoanalysis, humanists embraced the notion of free will. Arguing that people are free to choose their own lives and make their own decisions, humanistic psychologists focused on the underlying motivations that they believed drove personality, focusing on the nature of the self-concept, the set of beliefs about who we are, and self-esteem, our positive feelings about the self.
One of the most important humanists, Abraham Maslow , conceptualized personality in terms of a pyramid-shaped hierarchy of motives . At the base of the pyramid are the lowest-level motivations, including hunger and thirst, and safety and belongingness. Maslow argued that only when people are able to meet the lower-level needs are they able to move on to achieve the higher-level needs of self-esteem, and eventually self-actualization, which is the motivation to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent.
Figure 11.11 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow conceptualized personality in terms of a hierarchy of needs. The highest of these motivations is self-actualization.
Research Focus: Self-Discrepancies, Anxiety, and Depression
Figure 11.12 Results From Higgins, Bond, Klein, and Strauman, 1986
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What Exactly Is A Personality Theory
People vary in their places along a continuum of characteristics within the same set of characteristics. State theories of personality, such as Banduras Social Learning Theory, highlight the importance of nurture and environmental impact, while trait theories of personality claim that personality is biologically determined.
What Is Sound Theory
A good theory unifies a large number of facts and observations into a single model or framework, and it does so inside a single model or framework. Only hypotheses that produce testable predictions may be deemed scientific in the correct sense of the word. Aside from that, there are practical issues to consider. For example, excellent theory is typically straightforward, helpful, and simple to deal with.
What Did Hans Eysenck Believe About Personality
Hans Eysenck was a personality theorist who focused on temperamentinnate, genetically based personality differences. He believed personality is largely governed by biology, and he viewed people as having two specific personality dimensions: extroversion vs. introversion and neuroticism vs. stability.
The Weirdest People In The World: How The West Became Psychologically Peculiar And Particularly Prosperous Joseph Henrich
Joseph Henrichâs engaging book is an interesting challenge to psychology and its community of researchers and academics.
How can we map our understanding of who we are on to other cultures when our research is often restricted to WEIRD cultures?
Henrich also provides a unique standpoint that helps us look at how WEIRD populations became so psychologically peculiar.
Find the book on .
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The Question Is Who Was The Spark That Ignited The Feminist Revolution In Psychology
Feminist psychoanalysis is a term used to describe a kind of psychoanalysis that is centred on women. Karen Horney was the first to use the word feminist psychology, which means feminist psychology. She discusses pre-existing notions about women and relationships, as well as the influence of society, in her book Feminine Psychology , which is a compilation of papers Horney produced on the topic between 1922 and 1937.
Psychoanalysis And The Early Theories Of Personality
In 1921 German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer suggested that body shape was linked to personality. In his view, a slim, delicate person is much more likely to be introverted than someone strong and muscular. Despite a lack of empirical evidence, this idea was further developed in the 1930s by William Sheldon. He created a scoring system that linked body appearance to a set of personality traits .
Around that time was also the rise of psychoanalysis, driven by the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. He began by focusing on psychopathologies â such as hysteria and phobic conditions â before moving into psychoanalysis and personality development and functioning.
Freud believed that neurotic conditions were rooted in distressing episodes from the past â mostly real or imagined sexual fantasies â that were incompatible with the personâs current moral standards. Such conflicts between human drives and the primarily unconscious structures that control them were thought to lead to lasting self-criticism .
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung arrived at a theory of personality development that was less driven by sexual desires, yet more abstract, and at times, even spiritual .
Austrian psychiatrist Alfred Adler, a contemporary of Jung, also challenged the importance of sexual motives in defining who we are. Instead, he suggested that our behavior continually hangs in a balance we exaggerate one behavior to compensate for a deficiency in another .
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Criticisms Of Trait Theory
Most theorists and psychologists agree that people can be described based on their personality traits. Yet, theorists continue to debate the number of basic traits that make up human personality. While trait theory has an objectivity that some personality theories lack , it also has weaknesses.
Some of the most common criticisms of trait theory center on the fact that traits are often poor predictors of behavior. While an individual may score high on assessments of a specific trait, they may not always behave that way in every situation. Another problem is that trait theories do not address how or why individual differences in personality develop or emerge.
Replication And Registered Reports
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology acknowledges the significance of replication in building a cumulative knowledge base in our field. We therefore encourage submissions that attempt to replicate important findings, especially research previously published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Major criteria for publication of replication papers include theoretical significance of the finding being replicated, statistical power of the study that is carried out, and the number and power of previous replications of the same finding.
Other factors that would weigh in favor of a replication submission include: pre-registration of hypotheses, design, and analysis submissions by researchers other than the authors of the original findings and attempts to replicate more than one study of a multi-study original publication.
Please note in the Manuscript Submission Portal that the submission is a replication article submissions should include A Replication of XX Study in the subtitle of the manuscript as well as in the abstract. Replication manuscripts, if accepted, will be published online only and will be listed in the Table of Contents in the print journal.
Papers that make a substantial novel conceptual contribution and also incorporate replications of previous findings continue to be welcome as regular submissions.
To the extent that the study is judged to have been competently performed, the paper will be accepted regardless of the outcome of the study.
Eriksons Stages Of Psychosocial Development
Erik Eriksons eight-stage theory of human development is another well-known theory in psychology. While it builds on Freuds stages of psychosexual development, Erikson chose to focus on how social relationships impact personality development. The theory also extends beyond childhood to look at development across the entire lifespan.
Erikson’s eight stages are:
- Stage 8: Integrity versus despair
At each of these stages, people face a crisis in which a task must be mastered. Those who successfully complete that stage emerge with a sense of mastery and well-being. Those who do not resolve the crisis at a particular stage may struggle with those skills for the remainder of their lives.
What Are The Four Primary Archetypes Identified By Jung
Carl Gustav Jung, a psychiatrist and psychotherapist, believed that everyones personality comprises aspects of four primary archetypes, each of which has its own characteristics. These archetypes serve as models for our conduct and have an impact on the way we think and behave as a result. These archetypes, according to Jung, were designated as the Self, the Persona, the Shadow, and the Anima/Animus.
Kohlbergs Stages Of Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg developed a theory of personality development that focused on the growth of moral thought. Building on a two-stage process proposed by Piaget, Kohlberg expanded the theory to include six different stages:
- Stage 1: Obedience and punishment
- Stage 2: Individualism and exchange
- Stage 3: Developing good interpersonal relationships
- Stage 4: Maintaining social order
- Stage 5: Social contract and individual rights
- Stage 6: Universal principles
These stages are separated by levels. Level one is the pre-conventional level, it includes stages one and two, and takes place from birth to 9 years. Level two is the conventional level, it includes stages three and four, and takes place from age 10 to adolescence. Level three is the post-conventional level, it includes stages five and six, and takes place in adulthood.
Although this theory includes six stages, Kohlberg felt that it was rare for people to progress beyond stage four, also stressing that these stages of moral development are not correlated with the maturation process.
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has been criticized for a number of different reasons. One primary criticism is that it does not accommodate different genders and cultures equally. Yet, the theory remains important in our understanding of how personality develops.
Personality Theory Assessment Criteria
- Verifiability â the theory should be formulated in such a way that the concepts, suggestions and hypotheses involved in it are defined clearly and unambiguously, and logically related to each other.
- Heuristic value â to what extent the theory stimulates scientists to conduct further research.
- Internal consistency â the theory should be free from internal contradictions.
- Economy â the fewer concepts and assumptions required by the theory to explain any phenomenon, the better it is Hjelle, Larry . Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research, and Applications.
Psychology has traditionally defined personality through its behavioral patterns, and more recently with neuroscientific studies of the brain. In recent years, some psychologists have turned to the study of inner experiences for insight into personality as well as individuality. Inner experiences are the thoughts and feelings to an immediate phenomenon. Another term used to define inner experiences is qualia. Being able to understand inner experiences assists in understanding how humans behave, act, and respond. Defining personality using inner experiences has been expanding due to the fact that solely relying on behavioral principles to explain one’s character may seem incomplete. Behavioral methods allow the subject to be observed by an observer, whereas with inner experiences the subject is its own observer.
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What Is The Scientific Term For The Study Of Anomalous Behaviour
Behavioral, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities, which may or may not be associated with a mental condition, are the subject of abnormal psychology, a field of psychology that investigates these patterns. Despite the fact that a wide range of actions might be termed abnormal, this discipline of psychology is most often concerned with behaviour in a therapeutic setting.
What Is The Purpose Of Studying Theories
A theory is a methodical approach to comprehending events, actions, and/or circumstances in a structured manner. A theory is a collection of ideas, definitions, and propositions that are interconnected and that explain or anticipate occurrences or situations by establishing relationships between variables. It is critical to consider the concept of generality, or wide applicability.
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Research Focus: How The Fear Of Death Causes Aggressive Behaviour
Then the participants read the essay that had supposedly just been written by another person. The essay that they read had been prepared by the experimenters to be very negative toward politically liberal views or to be very negative toward politically conservative views. Thus one-half of the participants were provoked by the other person by reading a statement that strongly conflicted with their own political beliefs, whereas the other half read an essay in which the other persons views supported their own beliefs.
At this point the participants moved on to what they thought was a completely separate study in which they were to be tasting and giving their impression of some foods. Furthermore, they were told that it was necessary for the participants in the research to administer the food samples to each other. At this point, the participants found out that the food they were going to be sampling was spicy hot sauce and that they were going to be administering the sauce to the very person whose essay they had just read. In addition, the participants read some information about the other person that indicated that he very much disliked eating spicy food. Participants were given a taste of the hot sauce and then instructed to place a quantity of it into a cup for the other person to sample. Furthermore, they were told that the other person would have to eat all the sauce.
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Trait Theories Of Personality
From the 1940s onwards, several investigators including Gordon Allport, Henry Murray, and Raymond Cattell began exploring the personality traitsâ stability and hierarchy. Rather than based on single key characteristics, they found personality to be a âunified and organized totalityâ .
And yet, by 1971, Rae Carlson claimed that the field had lost its way, misplacing the person in personality research .
Perhaps the most celebrated trait psychologist, Hans Eysenck, produced a taxonomy of personality firmly rooted in biology . Not only was it highly heritable, but it also helped to explain how individuals differed.
Eysenck organized personality into three main traits, psychoticism , extraversionâintroversion , and neuroticismâemotional stability , memorable as the acronym PEN. For example, we might typically think of extroverts as liking parties and having many friends neurotics as anxious, irritable worriers and the psychotic as egocentric or aggressive.
However, despite the theorys strengths, the model has since been considered limited in its number of traits. And while Raymond Cattell created an extended taxonomy of 16 personality factors, he could not replicate how he found them .