Is It For Me
If you are interested in the disciplines of Political Science and Geography and you hope to develop a critical understanding of the relationship between the earth’s natural and human phenomena and its political institutions and systems, then this may be the course for you.
Career opportunities for graduates lie in fields such as public and European affairs, overseas assistance, resource management and risk assessment, the supply of environment-related advice to governments and industry, the study and practice of environmental policymaking, and teaching and higher education. The possibilities are boundless – our alumni pages give an indication of some of the careers followed by Political Science graduates.
A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
Radical Geography And The Issue Of Social Justice
31If human geography has made progress, a new question arises. Has the relation between geography and society changed? Or in other words, has the role and the influence of geography on social reality changed? Theoretical and quantitative geography corresponded quite well to the needs of the modern world, in creating normative and sometimes voluntaristic models of the best possible, rational organisation of space. It was a full ingredient of progress and economic growth in the postwar era. The postmodern stance has put lots of question marks around this instrumentalist view of science.
32The most fundamental one was addressed in a discussion between Jones and Harvey on the possible social actions in capitalism and the existence of capitalism itself. It clarifies the difference in the way a postmodernist and a historical materialist geographer conceive of social reality. The discussion raises the question whether we should look at the world as something that can be made or remade, but in the absence of any solid ground to justify such interventions in reality , or whether we should look at social reality from the viewpoint Marx formulated as follows: «Men make their own history, but not of their own free will not under the circumstances they themselves have chosen» . In other words, are there limits to constructivism and if yes, what are they?
AMIN A. , «Moving on: institutionalism in economic geography», Environment and Planning A, 33, pp. 1237-1241.
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Cultural Geography Take One: In The Beginning
Our first take follows a conventional narrative plot that begins with origins and a classical period, then unfolds in a linear narrative of ongoing progress of new, newer, and newest cultural geography. This will give the reader a sense of comfort typical with linear, progressive stories, and it will suggest that the boundaries of cultural geography are knowable, periodic, and fixed. This will be deliberately challenged in the takes that follow.
Classical cultural geography is conventionally traced back to origins in the 1920s, with the work of Carl Sauer and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, United States of America. The Berkeley School, as it would become known, embedded an understanding of culture as both cultivation to grow or rear and as way of life. Carl Sauer coined the term cultural landscape to describe the manner in which place was fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. For Sauer,
culture was the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result . Under the influence of a given culture , itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development. With the introduction of a different that is alien culture , a rejuvenation of the cultural landscape sets in, or a new landscape is superimposed on remnants of an older one.
H. Ernste, L. Smith, in, 2009
D. Bell, in, 2009
Different Branches Of Geography
Geography, the study of the Earth and its processes, is indeed an intriguing subject. Read through this ScienceStruck article to know about the different branches of geography.
Geography, the study of the Earth and its processes, is indeed an intriguing subject. Read through this ScienceStruck article to know about the different branches of geography.
One of the most important aspects of human history lies in the representation and interpretation of surrounding landscapes. This is due to a simple fact that, it is these very landscapes that provide us with most of our necessities. This is also precisely why humans, over hundreds and thousands of years, have been consistently trying to find meaning in their surroundings, so that they can organize their world. Some of the oldest literature that helps us do so, to a large extent, are the geographies. These are essentially exploration accounts of various land journeys and sea voyages of ancient people. These give us vivid accounts of places, distant and sometimes, beyond our reach. They also inform us about places, which no longer exist.
Branches of Geography
There are two main branches of geography viz., physical geography and human geography. All the other known branches of geography, essentially are the sub-branches of these two.
Physical GeographyHuman Geography
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The Physical And Human Geographies Of Japan
With its four major islandsHokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikokuas well as thousands of smaller ones, Japan has a total land area of approximately 145,825 square miles. The distance from the northernmost tip of Hokkaido to extreme southern Kyushu is approximately the same as the distance from Bangor, Maine, to Mobile, Alabama, in the United States .
Japan’s population of more than 127 million makes it the world’s 10th-mostpopulated nation. Japan’s population is almost one-third larger than Germany‘s and more than twice the size of the individual populations of the United Kingdom, Italy, and France. However, since peaking at an average of four per household during the postwar ”baby boom,” Japan’s birthrates have been steadily declining, and in 2006 Japan’s population fell for the first time since the government began keeping this data in 1899. Japan’s current average birthrate is 1.26 children per household, and it is likely that further population declines will occur . While the number of children as a proportion of the Japanese population continues to decline, the percentage of Japanese age 65 and older grows rapidly.
Most of the arable land is in quite scarce flatlands. Although Japan’s average population density per square mile is comparable to such small countries as Belgium and the Netherlands, these countries are flat with far more arable land.
Reintroduction Of The Physical Environment In Human Geographical Practice
- 10One could argue that French possibilism and its postwar forms ar
- 11This «jump of view» is nicely illustrated by the change in the title of one of the oldest televisio
29A short overview of how ecosystems have been dealt with since the sixties highlights the way covered. From the static equilibrium of the ecosystem of the Club of Rome and the urge to respect these constraints imposed by nature, the conception moved towards sustainable development, which implies a dynamic equilibrium and today the idea that ecosystems are chaotic is gaining consideration. We thus accept to live with risk and uncertainty, but at the same time it implies that humanity is part of the chaos. The planet earth is turned into a gigantic experimental laboratory of global change. And this gradually attracts more and more attention from human geography. Surely, the hybrid conception of nature is a step forward in coping with this reality. At the same time these changes in the conception of ecosystems are proof of the way social development influences the formation of concepts in the natural sciences by offering thought models that reflect societal structures and dynamics .
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In The Library’s Collections
To find items about political geography or geopolitics, you can physically browse the shelves in the call number range JC 319 through JC 323 on Berry Level 4 . Other books will be found in the D’s, E’s, F’s,and J’s.
When you search the online catalog, use the subject headings “political geography” or “geopolitics.” Either subject heading will get you started. Don’t forget about the related subject headings.
Research In Human Geography
The discipline of human geography investigates the interaction between humans, societies and the environment. Thus, human geography contributes to the social sciences by focusing on how the spatial organisation of different activities and operations affects humans, and conversely, on how human activity generates specific spatial outcomes. The geographers at MIUN conduct research in several topics including: exploring the interface between society and nature examining and discussing concepts relating to space, place, and scale and investigating various contemporary societal issues. In recent years, various research projects have included studies on tourism geographies, landscape and resource management, regional development, urban, economic and political geography, labour and feminist geographies. In almost all our studies, sustainability is included as an underlying theme. The geography unit within the Institution of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism consists of an active research community, whose members collaborate in international and cross-disciplinary research while also teaching at both undergraduate and graduate levels.
Geographies of contested landscapes, resource management and planning
Economic, labour, and feminist geographies in transformation
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Cultural Geographies Of The Sea
While contemporary studies of the political geography of the sea can draw upon a long history of political geographers studying maritime conflict, the study of marine issues is quite new in cultural geography. Of course, there always have been marine cultural geographies seafaring and fishing communities invariably display distinct cultural formations that reflect and impact the surrounding marine environment. Historically, however, few geographers have devoted their attention to the cultures of fishing communities and even fewer have studied the cultures of societies engaged in uses of the deep sea .
To ground Gilroy’s metaphors, some geographers have turned their attention to shipboard life. Shipboard life provides a unique environment for geographic research because it is simultaneously mobile and stable, it is both a workspace and a living space, it is both self-contained and open ended, and a ship is both an insular community and one that typically brings people of many backgrounds and nationalities together. Again, work in this area has been aided by advances outside the discipline, in particular by social historians who have researched the role of the 18th- and 19th Century seamen, pirates, and whalers in constructing modern norms and disciplines of nation, class, gender, sexuality, and labor.
C. Pattie, R. Johnston, in, 2009
What Are The Branches Of Geography
The work Geography has been derived from geographia, which means description of the earth. The science of Geography is related to the study of earth, its phenomena, its features, inhabitants, lands and processes. The field encompasses the understanding of earth, along with a wide range of natural and human complexities. Geography is a vast field of study that has kept millions of researchers busy in dozens of branches and sub-disciplines. Almost every subject on this earth has a branch of Geography related to it. Essentially, Geography has been divided into two broad branches, which are Physical Geography and Human Geography. With an aim to acquaint you with the diversity of geographical branches, this oneHOWTO article is going to discuss what are the branches of Geography? We’ll also give you a few details about each of them.
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What Is Human Geography
Defining human geography is especially difficult because of complicating factors like the relationship between human geography and geography the rather late professionalization of the discipline variations in human geography written in different languages and the difficulty of being able to identify definitive research questions, sequential paradigms, or key thinkers. It is tempting to define a common ground for human geography’s intellectual core , and wish to enforce this. Such a common ground might provide human geography with a sense of unity. But the reality of how human geography is practiced simply cannot sustain this. As David Livingstone so powerfully put it in The Geographical Tradition , The idea that there is some eternal metaphysical core to geography independent of historical circumstances will simply have to go.
Table 1. Contents of Progress in Human Geography, 19782007 numbers of articles by subdisciplinary themea
C. Gibson, G. Waitt, in, 2009
Geography As A Science
Geography is the spatial study of the earths physical and cultural environments. Geographers study the earths physical characteristics, its inhabitants and cultures, phenomena such as climate, and the earths place within the universe. Geography also examines the spatial relationships between all physical and cultural phenomena in the world. Furthermore, geographers also look at how the earth, its climate, and its landscapes are changing due to cultural intervention. Geography is a much broader field than many people realize. Most people think of area studies as the whole of geography. In reality, geography is the study of the earth, including how human activity has changed it. Geography involves studies that are much broader than merely understanding the shape of the earths landforms. Physical geography involves all the planets physical systems. Human geography incorporates studies of human culture, spatial relationships, interactions between humans and the environment, and many other research areas that involve the different subspecialties of geography. Students interested in a career in geography would be well served to learn geospatial techniques and gain skills and experience in GIS and remote sensing, as they are the areas within geography where employment opportunities have grown the most over the past few decades.
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Geography’s Ways Of Looking At The World
A central tenet of geography is that “location matters” for understanding a wide variety of processes and phenomena. Indeed, geography’s focus on location provides a cross-cutting way of looking at processes and phenomena that other disciplines tend to treat in isolation. Geographers focus on “real world” relationships and dependencies among the phenomena and processes that give character to any location or place. Geographers also seek to understand relationships among places: for example, flows of peoples, goods, and ideas that reinforce differentiation or enhance similarities. Geographers study the “vertical” integration of characteristics that define place as well as the “horizontal” connections between places. Geographers also focus on the importance of scale in these relationships. The study of these relationships has enabled geographers to pay attention to complexities of places and processes that are frequently treated in the abstract by other disciplines.
Integration in Place
Places are natural laboratories for the study of complex relationships among processes and phenomena. Geography has a long tradition of attempting to understand how different processes and phenomena interact in regions and localities, including an understanding of how these interactions give places their distinctive character.
Interdependencies Between Places
Suggested Citation:Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society
Interdependencies Among Scales
What Is The Difference Between Physical Maps And Relief Maps
A relief map is different than a physical map in that a relief map shows human-created features such as boundaries, and physical maps show the natural features of the Earth. a relief map shows the difference between elevations in an area, and a physical map shows the natural features of the Earth.
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What Is The Difference Between Physical And Political Geography
A political map focuses on boundaries between entities, like countries, states or counties. A physical map focuses on the geography of the area and will often have shaded relief to show the mountains and valleys. Typical colors are blues, greens and browns. Many rivers, mountains and lake features are usually labeled.
Difference Between Human Geography And Physical Geography
Physical and Human Geography is the principal branches of Geographical sciences.
Physical geography is what we are more familiar with as it involves earths land areas, bodies of water, plant life etc. Physical geographers help in making decisions about managing different types of resources such as water, forests and land.
Human geography is more about peoples religion, culture and way of life. Human geographers aid in planning cities and the formulation of international business models.
This article will give details about the key differences between Physical Geography and Human Geography as both are important concepts in the geography segment of the IAS Exam.
Aspirants can find more Difference Between Articles, by visiting the linked page
The differences between Physical Geography and Human Geography is given in the table below
Difference Between Physical Geography and Human Geography
The concepts of physical geography come under the umbrella segment of Geography in the UPSC Exams, while some aspects of human geography overlap with the Art and Culture segment. The following links will help in preparing for both the sections:
Difference Between Human Geography and Physical Geography-
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