Presentation On Theme: Ap Human Geography Gravity Model Presentation Transcript:
1 AP Human GeographyGRAVITY MODEL
2 What is a model?a representation of some phenomenon of the real-world made to facilitate an understanding of its workingsa simplification and/or generalization of a complex reality from which the incidental detail has been removedan abstraction not a reality
3 Types of geographic modelsMathematicalGraphicTextual
4 What do you need to know about models?The associated geographerThe parts of the modelThe assumptions of the modelCritiques of the modelApplications of the model
5 Most Critical! A model IS NOT a plan to be followed in the future.A model IS a description of what happened in the past.A model IS NOT a critique of the present.A model IS a pattern to which we can compare the present in order to see differences.
6 Toblers Law of GravityWaldo Tobler”Everything is related to everything else, but near thing s are more related than distant things.
7 Gravity Model Uses size of location and distance as factors for travelSize of location takes precedent over distanceThe gravity model can be used to estimate:Traffic FlowsMigration between two areasThe number of people likely to use one central place
9 When used geographically, the words ‘bodies’ and ‘masses’ are replaced by ‘locations’ and ‘importance’ respectively,.Importance can be measured in terms of population numbers, gross domestic product, or other appropriate variable.
What Is The Gravity Model Ap Human Geography Example
Gravity Model: The movement of people between two places is based on factors of population size and distance. For example, a big city like Chicago is likely to attract commuters from a fairly large radius because of its size, but the further away you get, the more likely people are to travel to other cities such as St.
Conditions For Spatial Flows
Estimating flows between locations is a methodology of relevance to transportation. These flows, known as spatial interactions, enable to evaluate the demand for transport services. They cover forms of mobility such as journeys to work, migrations, tourism, the usage of public facilities, the transmission of information or capital, the market areas of retailing activities, international trade, and freight distribution. Mobility can be physical or intangible , and each form of mobility is subject to a form of friction.
Economic activities are generating and attracting movements. The simple fact that a movement occurs between an origin and a destination underlines that the costs incurred by a spatial interaction are lower than the benefits derived from such an interaction. As such, a commuter is willing to drive one hour because this interaction is linked to an income, while international trade concepts, such as comparative advantages, underline the benefits of specialization and the ensuing generation of trade flows between distant locations.
Three interdependent conditions are necessary for a spatial interaction to occur:
- Conditions for the Realization of a Spatial Interaction
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Wrapping Up The Gravity Model
To wrap up this section of the study guide, the gravity model definition derives itself from Newtons Law of Gravitation, and essentially takes two cities and determines the strength of interaction between them by using their populations and distances. The higher the populations, the stronger the interaction, and the farther away the cities are, the lower the interaction is squared, due to the idea of distance decay. Although this model is a good indicator of interaction, some weaknesses mostly pertain to its inability to account for certain variables. You would most likely be asked to use this on the AP® Human Geography FRQ section as a tool to explain certain phenomena related to migration patterns. It is unlikely that you will be asked about this on the AP® Human Geography multiple choice portion of the exam.
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Introduction To The Gravity Model
When discussing urban geography, more particularly cities and urban land use, it is important to understand the gravity model, as we will discuss in this study guide. The gravity model helps to give a clearer understanding of the distribution and size of cities while also providing useful explanations of interactions among networks among cities.
To understand a gravity model definition, you should understand that it is called the gravity model because it is related to Isaac Newtons Law of Gravitation, which predicts the gravitational force between two objects. Newtons Law is applied to urban geography in the sense that it determines the strength of the interaction between two urban geographical regions, which can be cities, metropolitan areas, countries, etc. The strength of this interaction can be calculated by the formula below:
S=\dfrac __ }^ }
where _ and _ are the populations of cities 1 and 2, respectively, D is the distance between the two cities, and S is the interaction strength. The populations are, of course, in units of people, and the distance is generally in units of miles or kilometers, depending upon where in the world you are. The resulting strength is, therefore, in units of ^/^ or ^/^. However, the number is usually just reported without units.
What Is An Example Of The Gravity Model
. Subsequently, one may also ask, what is the gravity model in human geography?
< Human Geography AP. The Gravity Model is a model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities. It is based on Newton’s universal law of gravitation, which measured the attraction of two objects based on their mass and distance.
what does the gravity model of migration suggest? The gravity model of migration is a model in urban geography derived from Newton’s law of gravity, and used to predict the degree of migration interaction between two places. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less. This phenomenon is known as distance decay.
Also question is, how is the gravity model calculated?
The gravity model can be calculated as the product of the population sizes, divided by distance squared, or S= /. What this shows is that the bigger and closer places are, the more influence they’re likely to have on each other.
What is a gravity model in economics?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The gravity model of international trade in international economics is a model that, in its traditional form, predicts bilateral trade flows based on the economic sizes and distance between two units. The model was first introduced in economics world by Walter Isard in 1954.
Origin / Destination Matrices
Each spatial interaction, as an analogy for a set of movements, is composed of a discrete origin/destination pair. Each pair can itself be represented as a cell in a matrix where rows are related to the locations of origin, while columns are related to locations of destination. Such a matrix is commonly known as an origin/destination matrix, or a spatial interaction matrix.
In the O/D matrix, the sum of a row represents the total outputs of a location , while the sum of a column represents the total inputs of a location. The summation of inputs is always equaling to the summation of outputs. Otherwise, there are movements that are coming from or going to outside the considered system. The sum of inputs or outputs gives the total flows taking place within the system . It is also possible to have O/D matrices according to the age group, income, gender, etc. Under such circumstances, they are labeled sub-matrices since they account for only a share of the total flows. If the sample is small and disaggregated it is possible to use a simple list of interactions instead of a matrix. Still, an origin/destination matrix can be constructed out of this list.
- Representation of a Movement as a Spatial Interaction
- Constructing an O/D Matrix
The Gravity Model And The Ap Human Geography Exam
On the AP® Human Geography course description, the idea of the gravity model falls under the category of Cities and Urban Land Use. More specifically, you would be asked to use the gravity model to study systems of cities, while focusing on the location of cities, and why cities are where they are. You most likely will not be asked specifically what the gravity model is but rather you will be asked how you can apply it to certain scenarios.
On the AP® Human Geography multiple choice part of the exam, it would be difficult to incorporate the gravity model without it being a straight gravity model definition question. Therefore, youre far more likely to use it in the free-response question section than in the AP® Human Geography multiple choice section. You would use it on the AP® Human Geography FRQ as a tool to explain a phenomenon that the question is asking.
To help you apply this study guide to the exam as best as possible, here is an example of an AP® Human Geography FRQ from the 2008 AP® Human Geography Exam :
Regional migration patterns within the contiguous United States are the result of several factors. The map above shows net migration at the county level, but these data support generalizations about migration patterns at the regional scale.
A. Identify two specific regions that have experienced net in-migration.
B. Identify two specific regions that have experienced net out-migration.
1. Economic structure
2. Friction of distance
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What Is Ravenstein’s Gravity Model
4.6/5gravity modelmodelRavensteingravity modeldetail here
Examples. If we compare the bond between the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, we first multiply their 1998 populations to get 317,588,287,391,921 and then we divide that number by the distance squared .
how Ravenstein’s laws apply to the gravity model? The gravity model of migration is a model in urban geography derived from Newton’s law of gravity, and used to predict the degree of migration interaction between two places. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less. This phenomenon is known as distance decay.
Accordingly, what does the gravity model explain?
The Gravity Model is a model used to estimate the amount of interaction between two cities. It is based on Newton’s universal law of gravitation, which measured the attraction of two objects based on their mass and distance.
What is gravity model in international trade?
The gravity model of international trade in international economics is a model that, in its traditional form, predicts bilateral trade flows based on the economic sizes and distance between two units.
What Does Distance Decay Mean In Ap Human Geography
4.2/5Distance decaydistancedistance decaydistance
Consequently, what is an example of distance decay?
Distance decay is the idea that the farther away you are from goods or services, the less likely you are to make use of it. For example, if you live in a rural area, it’s likely that you travel to a bigger city 100 miles even if it offers bigger and better goods and services.
Subsequently, question is, what is the difference between distance decay and friction of distance? Distance decay is the weakening of the interaction between two places, caused by increasing distance. The friction of distance is the effect distance has on the number of interactions between two places.
Moreover, how do you calculate distance decay?
Distance decay is commonly represented graphically by a curving line that swoops con- cavely downward as distance along the x-axis increases. It can be mathematically represented by the expression I = 1/d2, where I is a measure of spatial interaction and d is distance .
What is suburbanization in human geography?
suburbanization. The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe. counterurbanization. Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
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Gravity Model Of Migration
The gravity model of migration is a model in urban geography derived from Newton’s law of gravity, and used to predict the degree of migration interaction between two places. Newton’s law states that: “Any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.”
Example And Explanation Of The Gravity Model
Midtown Sunset Manhattan, New York City. Image Source: Flickr
So that you can better see how this works lets look at an example of two pairs of cities, with one being a pair of the large cities far apart and the other being a pair of smaller cities closer together. In the first pair, we will look at New York City and London, and in the second pair we will look at Amsterdam and Brussels.
As of July 2016, the population of New York City is approximately 8.5 million people and London is 8.2 million people. They are 3,470 miles apart. The population of Amsterdam is approximately 800,000 people and Brussels is 1.2 million people. These two cities are 109 miles apart. Dont worry, you wont have to do actual calculations on the AP® exam. This is just to show the implications of the model.
First, lets calculate the interaction strength between New York City and London, which is 5,788,604. Next, we will do the same for Amsterdam and Brussels, which is 80,801,279.
Another criticism of the gravity model relates to the fact that the interaction strength isnt represented in units. This is because the units resulting from this calculation are physically meaningless while, in the Newtonian gravity model, a gravitational constant is included to give the calculation physical meaning. Therefore, the criticism argues that it is not scientifically verifiable and can only be based on observation.
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