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How Should You Prevent Biological Hazards From Contaminating Food

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How To Prevent Harm From Naturally Occurring Physical Hazards

Basic Food Safety for Oregon: Chapter 2 “Health and Hygiene” (English)

The best way to prevent naturally occurring physical hazards from getting into food is to remove the physical hazard and discard it as soon as possible. If you cannot discard the hazard immediately, you should store them in place where they will not contaminate the food you are working on or other food that could be in the area. In addition, you should be very thorough when removing hazards. For example, you should remove pin bones in a fish fillet or completely remove pits from cherries or olives. Your customers will be pleased with your efforts when they dont find a hazard in their food.

Additionally, you should NOT use any hazards as a garnish. Your customers will most likely assume that what is on the plate is edible. This could be problematic, especially if your customers ingest the hazard. It is best to use garnishes that are edible.

If the food is supposed to have a naturally occurring hazard, inform your customers, either in person or on the menu. You could list such food items as bone-in chicken wings, oysters on the half shell, and T-bone steaks. This will help your customers to look for and avoid eating the hazards.

Knowing how to prevent naturally occurring physical hazards can help keep your food and customers safe. If you would like to learn more about food hazards or are interested in other food safety topics, visit

Find Out More About Contamination

There are three types of contamination: chemical, biological and physical. Any of these types of contamination can occur in a food business, and rigorous controls are required to prevent it from happening. Find out more about the different types of contamination and how to prevent cross-contamination. Control methods and procedures should be laid out in detail in your Food Safety Plan. Food Safety Plans are important for any food business and help to protect consumers from food safety risks, including food poisoning or allergic reactions. In most provinces and territories, Food Safety Plans are required by law and should be based on the seven principles of HACCP.Find out more about Food Safety Plans and the seven principles of HACCP by downloading the CIFS Guide to Understanding HACCP Principles.

Need to create a Food Safety Plan for your business? The CIFS HACCP Food Safety Plan Kit can help. It comes complete with all the information, tools and instructions you’ll need to build a compliant Food Safety Plan tailored to your business.

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This page was archived due to the coming into force of the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations. Archived information is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes only. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. For current information visit Food.

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What Is Food Contamination

Food contamination involves the contamination of food by physical, chemical, biological or cross-contamination incidents. Food contamination can lead to serious health issues, such as food poisoning, and therefore it must be handled seriously.

Food contamination involves food which has been contaminated with a foreign substance, which could be physical, biological or chemical. Food contamination occurs when food is not cooked properly, stored properly or is handled unhygienically, allowing bacteria, viruses and germs to contaminate the food. If you eat contaminated food, the symptoms can be unpleasant and sometimes serious. Therefore, food contamination should be avoided as far as possible.

Physical Contamination

Physical contamination occurs when hazardous, physical objects come into contact with food. Physical contamination includes a range of physical objects which are present during the food preparation journey.

Physical harmful objects include:

  • Fingernails
  • Jewellery

To avoid physical contamination of food, ensure that those handling foods have their hair tied back, no jewellery on, their hands washed thoroughly, gloves on, and if they are wearing a plaster, it must be a bright blue kitchen plaster. If something which is glass or plastic breaks in the kitchen, all surrounding food must be disposed of in case any specks of glass or plastic have contaminated the food.

Biological Contamination

Bacteria includes:

  • Campylobacter
  • Listeria

Prevention Of Biological Hazards

Module1 HACCP, GMP and SSOP

The primary check to biological hazards should be exercised at the level of entry or exit of any animal from the farm and also monitoring the re-entry of a previously healthy animal. A newly introduced animal should be checked thoroughly for the presence of infection and its vaccination status. The animal should be tested for diseases prevalent in the previously inhabited area and kept separate for the appropriate quarantine period. The entry of personnel should be restricted and no new person from unknown area or endemic area be allowed to enter the farm premises. Entry of vehicles should also be restricted with a separate area of disembarking. Semen, vaccine, and other biological products should be properly screened so as not to introduce an infection to a farm.

F. Hilbert, … F.J.M. Smulders, in, 2014

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Keep Your Fridge Below 5c

Keep your fridge temperature below 5C and use a fridge thermometer to check it. This prevents harmful germs from growing and multiplying.

Avoid overfilling your fridge if it’s too full, air cannot circulate properly, which can affect the overall temperature.

Do not leave the fridge door open unnecessarily.

How To Prevent Chemical Contamination

To prevent chemical contamination from happening in your business:

  • always label and store chemicals separately from food
  • use the appropriate chemical for the job you’re doing
  • always follow the chemical manufacturer’s instructions with regards to dilution, contact time and water temperature
  • use chemical pest control products with care or outsource pest control activities to a professional pest control service
  • ensure everyone in your business has completed food safety training

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How Do I Clean And Sanitize Kitchen Tools

Dishes and cooking utensils

  • Remove detachable parts, such as blades, plastic or wooden handles and screens.
  • Wash dishes, pots, pans and utensils and detached parts in hot, soapy water.
  • Rinse in clear water after washing.
  • Place items in a wire basket or other container and immerse them in a sanitizing solution.
  • What Are The Hazards Of Food Safety

    Basic Food Safety for San Diego County: Chapter 2 “Health and Hygiene” (English)

    There are a range of hazards associated with food safety, which could be biological, chemical, physical or allergenic. Therefore, it is important to understand how to control hazards of food safety, to protect consumer health as far as possible.

    There are many hazards related to food safety, which could be biological, chemical, physical or allergenic. These hazards can affect the health of those who consume contaminated food, and therefore hazards must be identified and reduced as far as possible during the food production journey. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles help food businesses to prevent various hazards from occurring to ensure health and safety standards are maintained throughout food production.

    The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

    The HACCP principles are a preventative approach to food safety and encourage food businesses to assess biological, chemical, physical and allergenic hazards which could affect food safety. The HACCP principles require food businesses to revise current procedures and to conduct hazard analysis, in order to identify critical control points. As a result of the emphasis which the HACCP principles have placed on preventing hazards from occurring, it has helped to reduce the amount of food poisoning and foodborne illnesses which occur due to poor food safety.

    What types of food hazards are there?

    Biological Hazards

    Examples of biological microorganisms include:

    • Salmonella
    • Norovirus

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    Causes Of Foodborne Illness

    The causes fall into the following 3 categories:

  • Biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Bacteria and viruses are responsible for most foodborne illnesses. Biological hazards are the biggest threat to food safety. They can be inherent in the product or due to mishandling .
  • Chemical hazards include natural toxins and chemical contaminants. Some natural toxins are associated with the food itself , some are made by pathogens in the food when it is time/temperature abused . Some additives, such as sulfites, can be a hazard to some people. Chemical contamination can occur when products are not used correctly.

  • Food allergens are a chemical hazard. Some people are sensitive to proteins in foods. Every food is different. Eight major food allergens include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish , wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts.
  • Physical hazards can include metal shavings from cans and plastic pieces or broken glass.

  • How Can I Prevent Physical Hazards In My Food Business

    Care should be taken during the preparation process to reduce the risk of contamination. The following checklist is a useful one to have to hand, especially when training new starters in HACCP compliance, or providing refresher training for existing staff members:

    • Ensure all food is covered when in storage
    • Gloves need to be worn when preparing food to cover any finger cuts or bandages and hair should be worn in ponytails, under hairnets
    • Other than a plain wedding band, jewellery should not be worn while preparing food
    • Nail polish and artificial nails should be avoided
    • Glass cookware should be shatterproof

    By law, all food handlers must have an understanding of the basic principles of food hygiene and know how to work safely so as to protect the food they serve from contamination. Just like any other employee working for a business within the food industry, you need to fulfil your training requirements within food health and safety, including food hygiene, by completing courses such as the Food Safety & Hygiene Level 2 Course For Catering.

    For more information on what to expect from an inspection by an EHP, read our essential white paper.

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    Identification Of Mrm Options

    Risk management options are control measures that risk managers may consider to manage the microbiological risks and prevent or control foodborne diseases. The identification of management options should be based on the consideration of the ability of the control measures to mitigate the risks to desired level of health protection and on the practical feasibility, acceptability, and consequences of the options. An MRA can help in determining the efficacy of different control measures in achieving the desired objectives.

    One category of risk management options is legislation. For managing biological hazards, a number of options are possible, including:

    Another risk management option is the establishment of a FSO for a particular food safety issue. This approach offers flexibility to industry to select appropriate control measures that meet the FSO.

    For certain problems, the risk management option of choice is the education of food handlers and consumers in hygienic handing of food. This is perhaps one of the key control measures applicable to most biological hazards, and particularly important for the preparation of food for infants and young children.

    Keith I. Crews, in, 2020

    What Are Food Safety Risk Assessments And Why Are They Used

    World Health Day: 5 common causes of food contamination ...

    A risk assessment evaluates if a food is safe to eat. Hazards and risks are evaluated by experts, but the complex assessments are sometimes misunderstood.

    How to communicate food risk?

    Food risk communication is the process of informing audiences, frequently the general public, about food-related risk and safety issues, and providing enough information to allow them to take action to reduce or avoid risks. As consumers, we receive a lot of information about the food we eat. Every day, we are bombarded with both accurate and misleading information about the benefits or risks of certain foods. Conflicting and inaccurate messages about nutrition science and food safety can decrease public confidence in the food supply. Communicating effectively is crucial to increasing trust and empowering people to make informed decisions about healthy diets and lifestyles.


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    What Should Food Workers Do To Prevent Biological Hazards From Contaminating Food

    Workers must strictly adhere to food conservation guidelines to prevent biohazards from contaminating food.


    Contamination of people through contaminated food is a constant concern in every country in the world. Many microorganisms in some foods cause food poisoning, but unfortunately these foods have no change in smell, taste or appearance. For this reason, it is important that food workers follow all food conservation guidelines to the letter. Some of these guidelines are:

    Wash hands thoroughly before handling any kind of food

    Wash hands and utensils thoroughly when handling different foods to avoid cross contamination

    Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly under running water and soak them in water with sodium hypochlorite

    Do not freeze foods that have already been thawed.

    Keep the refrigerator temperature below four degrees, while the freezer should be between minus twelve and fifteen degrees

    To prevent biological hazards from contaminating food, there are some steps that the food worker should follow:

  • Wash hand properly before handling any food or after touching raw food to prevent the germs from spreading.
  • Raw meat, poultry, and seafood should be kept in a sealed container to prevent cross-contamination.
  • Cooking temperature. The minimum cooking temperature varies depending on the type of food. You can use the food thermometer to check the food temperature.
  • Wash fruit and vegetables under cold running water before you eat them.
  • How Can I Prevent Chemical Hazards In My Food Business

    You can minimise the risk of contaminating food with chemicals by:

    • Inspecting food upon delivery to ensure goods coming in are fit for consumption
    • Recording deliveries into your premises and marking any issues on the correct document as part of your effective HACCP record-keeping process
    • Using copper pots that have an interior lined with a nonporous metal such as stainless steel
    • Keeping chemicals away from food and cooking areas
    • Storing all chemicals safely and labelling them properly so theyre immediately identifiable as hazardous substances

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    Hazards Of Concern In Foods

    A hazard is any biological, chemical, or physical agents the consumption of which may cause a food to be unsafe.

    The main biological hazards of concern in food safety are pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Viruses seem to be the main agents responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks, followed by bacteria and parasites, respectively. It should be highlighted that approximately four in five agents of foodborne disease outbreaks cannot be specified, which includes bacteria, chemicals, and unknown agents.

    The known biological hazards associated with foodborne disease outbreaks can be seen in Table 1. Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, and Campylobacter are the bacterial hazards causing most foodborne diseases . Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia intestinalis are the main parasitic agents of foodborne diseases, whereas Norovirus stands out as the main virus associated with foodborne disease outbreaks . On the other hand, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus enterica serotype Typhi, Brucella spp., and Mycobacterium bovis are the main concerns when hospitalization rates are taken into account, as they reach more than 50% in all cases .

    Table 1. Estimated annual number of episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illnesses caused by 31 pathogens, United States

    55 961 1351

    K.N. Bhilegaonkar, … RK Agarwal, in, 2014

    How Can I Prevent Biological Hazards In My Food Business

    Cross Contamination – Food Safety

    The following measures are fundamental to the prevention and control of biological hazards:

    • Refrigerate foods that need cold storage such as milk and other dairy products, raw and cooked vegetables, fruits and meats as well as opened jars, bottles and cans
    • Discard any food that has been stored at the wrong temperature, has visible mould, is discoloured or has an unusual odour
    • Employees must use personal protective equipment and adhere strictly to the practice of good personal hygiene
    • Ensure all your produce has been purchased from an approved supplier

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    How Can You Prevent Biological Hazards From Contaminating Food

    4.5/5foodfoodfoodspreventcontaminationabout it here

    If the contact with biological hazards cannot be prevented, the employees must use personal protective equipment and adhere strictly to the practice of personal hygiene. The personal protective equipment includes masks, gloves, protective clothing, eye shields, face shields and shoe covers. 1.

    Furthermore, what are biological food hazards? A general definition of a hazard as related to food safety is conditions or contaminants that can cause illness or injury. Biological hazards include microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds and parasites. Some of these are pathogens or may produce toxins.

    Correspondingly, how can we prevent physical hazards in food?

    Eliminate potential sources of physical hazards in processing and storage areas.

    How can we prevent health hazards?

    In order to control workplace hazards and eliminate or reduce the risk, you should take the following steps:

  • identify the hazard by carrying out a workplace risk assessment
  • determine how employees might be at risk
  • evaluate the risks
  • record and review hazards at least annually, or earlier if something changes.
  • The six main categories of hazards are:

    • Biological. Biological hazards include viruses, bacteria, insects, animals, etc., that can cause adverse health impacts.
    • Chemical. Chemical hazards are hazardous substances that can cause harm.
    • Physical.

    Eliminating Biological Hazards In Your Restaurant

    Written bySmartSense |Food Safety

    Biological hazards are an unforeseen threat to consumers. Much like with chemical hazards, it is the job of food service professionals to protect their consumers.

    Biological hazards are foodborne viruses, fungi, bacteria, and parasites. The most common biological hazards to be aware of are E. coli, Shigella, Norovirus, Salmonella, Hepatitis A, and Staph.

    A biological hazard outbreak can occur within any establishment. Its important to be familiar with the hazards, prepare all food properly, and be highly selective of your vendors.

    Most biological hazards in restaurants are controlled by using the following four methods.


    The method of time measurement is useful for controlling the growth of bacteria. Its important to remember that bacteria can grow rapidly in The Danger Zone, temperatures of 40oF – 140oF. Although food has been cooked, it is still at risk of rapid bacteria growth when left out. The Meat and Poultry Hotline advise that you never leave food out of refrigeration for over 2 hours.


    The temperature of food should be monitored and maintained from beginning to end. On the supply chain, most food should remain at a constant temperature. Temperature needs to be monitored and recorded to ensure safety for consumers.

    When food is being cooked, it should be cooked within recommended ranges to kill any potential pathogens. For example, most meats have an minimum internal temperatures ranging from 145oF to 160oF.

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