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What Is Volume In Chemistry

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What Is Volume In Science

GCSE Chemistry – How to Find the Volume of a Gas #28

In science, as well as in our day-to-day lives, volume is considered the measure of a three-dimensional space, whether its a substance inside of something or enclosed within something. Read on to learn more about what volume is, how its measured, and other important key chemistry terms.

What Can Volume Consist Of?

Volume is the measure of a three-dimensional space, and it can either be a liquid, solid, or gas. You can measure the volume of water in your cup, the volume of a concrete block, or the volume of nitrogen in an enclosed container. These are all measurable units and have a volume.

How Is Volume Measured?

How volume is expressed in measurement also has to do with what youre measuring, either volume, liquid, or gas. According to the International System of Units , volume is expressed by using cubic meters, which is expressed as m3. However, the metric system measures volume in a different way, in liters and its derivatives, such as milliliter . If youre trying to compare cubic meters to liters, one liter has the same amount of volume as that of a 10-cm cube.

How Do You Accurately Measure Volume?

What Is Matter?

What Is Mass?

Mass is how much matter an object contains. It is different than both weight and volume. Mass measures the amount of matter that an object contains, while weight measures an objects force of gravity. Mass is expressed in kg , which is the official measuring unit. Of course, derivatives may be used, such as grams or milligrams.

How To Calculate Volume Using Density

Density measure the amount of mass in a given volume of substance or how much material is in a given space. The density is constant for a substance at a given temperature since increasing the mass of a sample will increase the volume at a proportional rate. Density is calculated by dividing the mass of a substance by the volume . If the density of a substance is known, determining the mass of a sample will allow the volume to be calculated.

Determine the density of the substance. Many reference sources are available that give the density of different compounds. Commonly used references include the Merck Index and the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

Determine the mass of the substance using a balance. Either a triple-beam balance or electronic balance may be used. One method of measuring the mass is to zero the balance with the container for the sample on the balance. Then add the sample to the container and measure the mass of the container and sample. Alternatively, the mass may be determined by measuring the mass of the container and then the mass of the container with the substance. Subtract the mass of the container from the mass of the substance and container to calculate the mass of the substance .

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Worked Examples Of Converting Between Non

Question 1: Convert 10 US gallons to millilitres

Solution:

Use the information above to convert 10 gallons to litres

1 gallon = 3.7854 L

Multiply both sides of the equation by 10

10 × 1 gallon = 10 × 3.7854 L

10 gallons = 37.854 L

Convert 37.854 L to mL

1 mL = 10-3 L

divide by sides of the equation by 10-3

1 mL ÷ 10-3 =

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What Is The Shc Of Water

4,200 Joules per kilogram per degree The specific heat capacity of water is 4,200 Joules per kilogram per degree Celsius . This means that it takes 4,200 J to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C. Lead will warm up and cool down fastest because it doesnt take much energy to change its temperature.

Converting Metric And Si Units Of Volume

Chemistry 11: Moles to Volume Conversion

Litres and millilitres are common units for measuring volume in many countries that have adopted the metric system such as Australia. For example you can buy 1 litre of milk or 2 litres of milk to take home and put in the fridge.But if you want a drink right now you will buy a smaller amount, for example a 375 millilitre bottle or a 250 millilitre popper of juice.Clearly 1 millilitre is a much smaller volume than 1 litre .

The prefix “milli” refers to a thousandth and is given the symbol m. 1 millilitre is therefore one thousandth of a litre . 1 mL = 1/1000 L If we divide 1 by 1000 we can convert the fraction to a decimal: 1 mL = 0.001 L and we can express the decimal number in scientific notation: 1 mL = 1 × 10-3 L

So, if we want to convert the volume of our 375 mL bottle of juice to a volume in litres we know that 1 mL = 1/1000 L so 375 mL = 375 × 1 mL = 375 ×1/1000 L and 375 ×1/1000 L = 375 × 0.001 L = 0.375 L which we can express in scientific notation as 375 × 10-3 L = 3.75 × 10-1 L

If you look around at the glassware in the laboratory designed to contain liquids and solutions you will find small pieces labelled in milliltres and large pieces labelled in litres . For example you might see 10 mL, 50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL and 500 mL beakers, and a big 1 L beaker.Small volumetric flasks might be 25 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL, larger flasks are 250 mL and 500 mL, but the biggest flask is probably 1 L.

Other prefixes before “litres” you might encounter are:

1 L = 1,000 mL

Solution:

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Discuss The Density Of Calcium Compared To The Density Of Sulfur

Have students refer to the illustration of calcium and sulfur on their activity sheets. Explain that a calcium atom is both bigger and heavier than a sulfur atom. But a piece of solid sulfur is more dense than a solid piece of calcium. The density of sulfur is about 2 g/cm3 and the density of calcium is about 1.5 g/cm3.

Ask students:

Based on what you know about the size, mass, and arrangement of atoms, explain why a sample of sulfur is more dense than a sample of calcium.
Even though a sulfur atom has less mass than a calcium atom, many more sulfur atoms can pack together in a certain amount of space. This gives sulfur more mass per volume than calcium, making it more dense.

Relationship To Other Units

Both the US liquid and imperial gallon are divided into four quarts , which in turn are divided into two , which in turn are divided into two , , which in turn are further divided into two . Thus, both gallons are equal to four quarts, eight pints, sixteen cups, or thirty-two gills.

The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces, whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces, meaning an imperial fluid ounce is 1/20 of an imperial pint, or 1/160 of an imperial gallon, while a US fluid ounce is 1/16 of a US pint, or 1/128 of a US gallon. Thus, the imperial gallon, quart, pint, cup and gill are approximately 20% larger than their US counterparts, meaning these are not interchangeable, but the imperial fluid ounce is only approximately 4% smaller than the US fluid ounce, meaning these are often used interchangeably.

Historically, a common bottle size for in the US was the “”, i.e. one-fifth of a US gallon . While spirit sales in the US were switched to metric measures in 1976, a 750 mL bottle is still sometimes known as a “fifth”.

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What Principle Do Bomb Calorimeters Operate On

Bomb calorimeters have to withstand the large pressure within the calorimeter as the reaction is being measured. Electrical energy is used to ignite the fuel as the fuel is burning, it will heat up the surrounding air, which expands and escapes through a tube that leads the air out of the calorimeter.

What Is The Definition Of Volume In Chemistry

Molar Volume Of Gas | Chemical Calculations | Chemistry | FuseSchool

All types of matter occupy space, and this is what volume is.

In science, volume is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional space an object fills. Its usually measured in cubic metres based on the SI or metric system.

Volume can be represented by three axes length, width, and height. In practice, however, volume in chemistry is commonly measured in litres and millilitres. This is because most laboratory experiments in chemistry use solutions, liquid mixtures, and suspensions.

Precise volume measurement is crucial to ensuring the right chemical reactions and rate of reactions occur. Its important for both chemistry analysis and the synthesis of chemicals.

But while measuring the volume of solids and liquids is relatively easy, measuring gas is more problematic.

The volume of gas is directly dependent on its container, meaning no fixed volume can be stated without referencing the volume of the container. Nonetheless, the volume of a gas is still directly proportional to temperature and inversely proportional to pressure. See the summary of gas laws below:

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Discuss Whether Students Values For Density Support Their Predictions From The Beginning Of The Lesson

Discuss student values for density for each of the samples. Point out that different groups may have different values for density, but that most of the values are close to the values in the chart.

Ask students:

Each group measured the volume of the same samples. What are some reasons that groups might have different values for density?
Students should realize that small inaccuracies in measuring volume can account for differences in density values. Another reason is that the graduated cylinder, itself, is not perfect. So there is always some uncertainty in measuring.

Remind students that in the beginning of the lesson they made a prediction about the density of the small, medium, and long sample. Students should have predicted that the longest cylinder has the lowest density, the shortest cylinder has the highest density, and the middle is somewhere in between.

Ask students:

Explain

What Direction Does Heat Always Flow

Throughout the universe, its natural for energy to flow from one place to another. And unless people interfere, thermal energy or heat naturally flows in one direction only: from hot toward cold. Heat moves naturally by any of three means. The processes are known as conduction, convection and radiation.

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How Does A Constant Volume Gas Thermometer Work

A constant volume gas thermometer ususally consists of a bulb filled with a fixed amount of a dilute gas which is attached to a mercury manometer. The manometer is used to measure variation in pressure. The law states that when the temperature of an ideal gas increases, there is a corresponding increase in pressure.

Weight/volume Percentage Concentration Calculations

Definition Of Volume In Chemistry

Weight/Volume percentage concentration , or mass/volume percentage concentration , is a measure of the concentration of a solution. w/v% or m/v% is calculated by dividing the mass of the solute in grams by the volume of solution in millilitres then multiplying this by 100 as shown below.

w/v = volume of solution × 100

A percentage concentration tells us how many parts of solute are present per 100 parts of solution.In weight per volume terms , this means a percentage concentration tells us the parts of solute by mass per 100 parts by volume of solution.

In SI units, w/v% concentration would be given in kg/100 L, but these units are far too large to be useful to Chemists in the lab, grams and milliltres are more convenient units for us.

Recall that 1 kg = 1 000 g

Recall that 1 L = 1 000 mL

so kg/100 L = 1000 g/100 000 mL = g/100 mL

so the units for w/v% concentration are most often given as g/100 mL

Therefore the units for w/v% concentration are grams of solute per 100 mL of solution .

This means that the weight/volume percentage concentration can be given in different, but equivalent, ways. Some examples are given in the table below:

w/v%
= 22.75 g/100 mL

To prepare a solution with a particular concentration, you will weigh out the solid and then dissolve it enough solvent to make a known volume of solution.Therefore you will know the value of two quantities:

which you can use to calculate the weight/volume percentage concentration .

  • Step 6: Write the answer
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    Worked Examples: W/v% Calculations

    Question 1.

    Solution:

    Step 1: Write the equation: either w/v% = w/v × 100 or m/v% = m/v × 100

    weight/volume = × 100

    Step 2: Identify the solute and solvent

    solvent is water, H2O, because this is an aqueous solution.

    Step 3: Extract the data from the question

    mass solute = 5 g

    volume of solution = 250 mL

    Step 4: Check the units for consistency and convert if necessary

    mass solute = 5 g

    volume of solution = 250 mL

    Step 5: Substitute these values into the equation and solve.

    w/v = × 100 = 2 g/100 mL

    Step 6: Write the answer

    w/v% = 2 g/100 mL = 2% = 2%

    Question 2.

    The density of the solution is 1.090 g/mL .

    Calculate the mass/volume percentage concentration of the solution.

    Solution:

    Step 1: Write the equation: either m/v% = m/v × 100 or w/v% = w/v × 100

    mass/volume = × 100

    Step 2: Identify the solute and solvent

    solvent = water = H2O

    Step 3: Extract the data from the question

    mass of solute = mass = 10.00 g

    mass of solvent = mass = 90.00 g

    density of solution = 1.090 g/mL

    Step 4: Check the units for consistency and convert if necessary

    mass of solute = mass = 10.00 g

    volume of solution is unknown and needs to be calculated using the density of solution and the masses of solute and solvent:

    Step 5: Substitute these values into the equation and solve.

    m/v = × 100

    m/v = × 100

    m/v = 10.90 g/100 mL

    Step 6: Write the answer

    m/v% = 10.90 g/100 mL = 10.90 % = 10.90 %

    Si Prefixes Applied To The Litre

    The litre, though not an official SI unit, may be used with . The most commonly used derived unit is the millilitre, defined as one-thousandth of a litre, and also often referred to by the SI derived unit name “cubic centimetre”. It is a commonly used measure, especially in medicine, cooking and automotive engineering. Other units may be found in the table below, where the more often used terms are in bold. However, some authorities advise against some of them for example, in the United States, advocates using the millilitre or litre instead of the centilitre. There are two international standard symbols for the litre: L and l. In the United States the former is preferred because of the risk that the letter l and the 1 may be confused.

    Multiple

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    Worked Examples: W/v% Calculations Requiring Unit Conversions

    Question 1.

    What is the weight/volume percentage concentration of this solution in g/100 mL?

    Solution:

    Step 1: Write the equation: either w/v% = w/v × 100 or m/v% = m/v × 100

    Step 2: Identify the solute and solvent

    solvent is water, H2O, because this is an aqueous solution.

    Step 3: Extract the data from the question

    mass KCl = 45.0 g

    volume of solution = 2.00 L

    Step 4: Check the units for consistency and convert if necessary

    mass KCl = 45.0 g

    volume of solution = 2.00 L V = 2.00

    Step 5: Substitute these values into the equation and solve.

    w/v = × 100

    w/v = × 100 = 2.25 g/100 mL

    Step 6: Write the answer

    w/v% = 2.25 g/100 mL = 2.25 % = 2.25 %

    Question 2.

    What is the mass/volume percentage concentration of this solution in g/100 mL?

    Solution:

    Step 1: Write the equation: either m/v% = m/v × 100 or w/v% = w/v × 100

    Step 2: Identify the solute and solvent

    solvent is water, H2O, because this is an aqueous solution.

    Step 3: Extract the data from the question

    mass solute = 750 mg

    volume solution = 15 mL

    Step 4: Check the units for consistency and convert if necessary

    mass solute = 750 mg mass solute = 750

    volume solution = 15 mL

    Step 5: Substitute these values into the equation and solve.

    w/v = × 100

    w/v = × 100 = 5.0 g/100 mL

    Step 6: Write the answer

    m/v% = 5.0 g/100 mL = 5.0 % = 5.0 %

    Question 3.

    What is the weight/volume percentage concentration of this solution in g/100 mL?

    Solution:

    Step 1: Write the equation: either w/v% = w/v × 100 or m/v% = m/v × 100

    mass solute = 1.15 kg

    Measuring Volume Of Liquids Solids And Gases

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    Because gases fill their containers, their volume is the same as the internal volume of the container. Liquids are commonly measured using containers, where the volume is marked or else is the internal shape of the container. Examples of instruments used to measure liquid volume include measuring cups, graduated cylinders, flasks, and beakers. There are formulas for calculating the volume of regular solid shapes. Another method of determining the volume of a solid is to measure how much liquid it displaces.

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