Unit : Ecosystems: Interactions Energy And Dynamics
Assignment 1: Photosynthesis
Students will investigate the relationship of photosynthesis and respiration through the growth of plants and statistical analysis of biomass loss over time. In this lab, students will grow plants under two sets of conditions: sun exposure or darkness. After a set period of time, students will dry out the plants and measure the biomass. They can then link the energy requirement for photosynthesis to the production of biomass, or growth. Students will document their hypothesis, procedures, data and observations, discussion and conclusion in their laboratory notebook according to cGLP standards. Then, students will write a final formal laboratory report following all pertinent current journal writing standards including the abstract, introduction, procedures, data and observations, discussion and conclusion.
Assignment 2: Digestion
Assignment 3: Carbon Predictions
Assignment 4: Global carbon dioxide levels
Assignment 5: Ocean Ecosystem
Assignment 6: Agricultural Biotechnology
Assignment 7: GMO Food Testing
Assignment 8: Bioethics of Agricultural Biotechnology
As a result of the increasing agricultural biotechnological investigations, concerns about environmental and social impacts and risk/benefit analysis become more prevalent. Students will perform a close reading of the pros and cons of agricultural biotechnology
The Business Of Longevity: Dealbook/dialogue
Ginkgo wouldnt exist today without translational research capital from the government, Mr. Kelly said.
Ginkgo landed its first paying customer in 2014. Today, the company has dozens of customers across a variety of industries, including food, agriculture and pharmaceuticals. Its work varies depending on the customer. It can supply expertise, enzymes or complete cells. During the pandemic, for example, it has taken on fast-turnaround projects like helping Moderna optimize enzyme production to accelerate the manufacture of its Covid-19 vaccine.
But most Ginkgo projects are longer-term initiatives designed to greatly increase the efficiency or speed of a desired biochemical process in a cell.
The companys scientists begin by exploring its internal and public databases of DNA, as they seek to develop a more powerful enzyme, for example. Enzymes are the catalysts for chemical reactions in cells.
They might start with 100,000 similar enzymes and then select the 5,000 more promising ones to make. The 5,000 samples are then tested in the Ginkgo labs.
The resulting enzyme is often 10 times better at producing the desired effect than the enzyme the customer started with, the company says.
Ginkgos automated labs span more than 100,000 square feet and have cost about $500 million so far. The company refers to its labs collectively as its foundry, a nod to the name used for computer chip-making contractors.
Ginkgos labs make its high-volume, rapid-experiment model possible.
Scientists Change Biology With Technology
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Scientists Modify Biology with Technology
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Imagine storing digital information in deoxyribonucleic acid , the substance that carries genetic information in the cells of living things.
What about wearing a device that makes you more intelligent or creating new materials by changing the genes of microorganisms?
These ideas may sound unreal, but scientists are creating technologies that use their knowledge of biology and make changes with a computer. These scientists are working with artificial intelligence , using the power of computers to copy intelligent human behavior.
Some of the researchers presented their findings at the 2018 Milken Institute Global Conference. The meeting was held recently in Los Angeles, California.
The researchers spoke at a group discussion called Things That Will Blow Your Mind.
The machine finds stuff in biology that a human would never find, said Joshua Hoffman, chief executive officer of Zymergen. He said his company is performing experiments that would never have been possible just a few years ago.
Changing microbial genes
Zymergen uses computers to design experiments that change the genetic structure of microorganisms. As a result of the changes, the chemicals produced by microbes can make stronger or better materials.
He added that Zymergen works on creating non-harmful chemical products that protect plants from disease.
Improving the human brain
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List Key Technologies Enabling Modern Uses Of Biology
Biotechnology is the use of biological agents for technological advancement. Biotechnology was used for breeding livestock and crops long before the scientific basis of these techniques was understood. Since the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, the field of biotechnology has grown rapidly through both academic research and private companies. The primary applications of this technology are in medicine and agriculture . Biotechnology also has many industrial applications, such as fermentation, the treatment of oil spills, and the production of biofuels .
Figure 1. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by fungi, bacteria, and other organisms that have antimicrobial properties. The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin. Antibiotics are now commercially produced and tested for their potential to inhibit bacterial growth.
In this outcome, we will learn about some modern technologies used in biology today.
The Ethics Of Biotechnology
Biotechnology doesnt have to be deadly, or even dangerous, to fundamentally change our lives. While humans have been altering genes of plants and animals for millennia first through selective breeding and more recently with molecular tools and chimeras we are only just beginning to make changes to our own genomes .
Cutting-edge tools like CRISPR/Cas9 and DNA synthesis raise important ethical questions that are increasingly urgent to answer. Some question whether altering human genes means playing God, and if so, whether we should do that at all. For instance, if gene therapy in humans is acceptable to cure disease, where do you draw the line? Among disease-associated gene mutations, some come with virtual certainty of premature death, while others put you at higher risk for something like Alzheimers, but dont guarantee youll get the disease. Many others lie somewhere in between. How do we determine a hard limit for which gene surgery to undertake, and under what circumstances, especially given that the surgery itself comes with the risk of causing genetic damage? Scholars and policymakers have wrestled with these questions for many years, and there is some guidance in documents such as the United Nations Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.
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The Main Sciences Related To Biology
farming : This set of activities and knowledge, is also a science whose focus is the production of land crops. Its practical applications are the axis that mobilizes this field of study.
Anatomy: This science is the study of the animal form, the body of the human being and other living beings, especially their organic composition.
Biochemistry: This discipline is part of the chemistry and focuses its study on the necessary processes of cellular level. So that life exists and works.
Bioengineering: The study of biology through the means of engineering with emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.
Bioinformatics: This science is considered a branch of information technology or computer science, applied to biology. Its main field of action is related to genomic data.
Mathematical Biology: This field of scientific research brings together knowledge from different disciplines, its main nucleus of study are the biological processes through the use of mathematical formulas.
Biomechanics: Considered as a branch of medicine, this science focuses on the study, analysis and research of force and acceleration, which make up the mechanics of living beings. An example of their application are artificial limbs.
Biophysics: Is the central discipline in the study of the laws governing vital energy. He focuses his research on biological processes through physics, through the application of his theories and methods.
Phytopathology: Is the study of plant diseases.
Changing Paradigms For Biological Science And Technology
It is evident to the workshop participants that we are undergoing a majorparadigm shift in the way that science and technology development are pursued.There are two equally important components of this paradigm shift:
- first, the increasing importance and accelerating development oftechnologies from within and outside the field that change the direction, rateof progress, and approaches used in the biological sciences and
- second, the external environment of decreasing public support,increasing competition with non-academic institutions, and growing need foralliances and partnerships with other academic institutions and other sectors ofsociety.
The post-War World II era of open-handed, expanding public support for scienceand technology appears to be over. Science now competes, often on aless-than-level playing field, with a constantly shifting panoply ofhigh-profile social imperatives. As a recent report of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science noted:*
Scientists and engineers are struggling to interpret the new paradigmcreated by the most significant across-the-board funding cuts to the R& Denterprise in the post-World War II era.
Thus, a primary question that the workshop participants attempted to address is,What are the evolving paradigm changes that will impact the development of newtechnologies applicable to biology? We anticipate that the following will beintegral elements of the new environment for R& D:
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Advances In Technologies With Relevance To Biology: The Future Landscape
This chapter provides an overview and a perspective on the breadth and types of technologies that may have an impact on the life sciences enterprise of the future, with the understanding that there are inherent difficulties in anticipating or predicting how any of these technologies alone or in combination will alter the nature of the future threat landscape.
Rather than attempt to cover the technology landscape in a comprehensive manner, this chapter highlights technologies likely to have obvious or high-impact near-term consequences illustrates the general principles by which technological growth alters the nature of future biological threats and, highlights how and why some technologies are complementary or synergistic in bolstering defense against future threats while also enhancing or altering the nature of future threats.
There is immense diversity and rapid evolution of technologies with relevance to the life sciences enterprise. Their impact may be beneficial or detrimental depending on how these tools and technologies are applied. Some may be seen as coming out of left field that is, these technologies may have very different applications from those originally intended, or may be combined in unexpected, nontraditional configurations. The combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology is one such example of a synergistic combination.
Suggested Citation:Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences
Council Mission And Objectives
Synthetic biology is developing tools and frameworks to design the building blocks of life. This ability promises to revolutionize economies and societies, offering new approaches to transform industries and overcome global challenges. The impact areas are manifold: synthetic biology is driving innovation in manufacturing, healthcare, energy production, information storage, environmental remediation, materials and many more. However, these impacts so far are being driven and felt by a select few globally. As synthetic biology matures, we have choices in how we shape the future. How can we realize the potential of synthetic biology to benefit people and the planet? The Global Future Council on Synthetic Biology is re-examining the past and the future of synthetic biology, considering what values can guide more effective, equitable and ethical outcomes, and developing the stories and strategies we need to realize the futures we desire.
Forum Council Manager:
The Technology Development And Implementation Process
In considering how to facilitate the development of new technologies, animportant question is: How do new technologies emerge?
Some breakthroughs have been stimulated by a focused effort to developtechnologies in order to solve significant research problems that weretechnology-limited – a process that might be termed “market-pull.” Forexample, the size and complexity of the genetic material that controls the formand function of living systems required dramatic developments in technology tomap, sequence, and manipulate DNA with high throughput. Large-scale DNA mappingand sequencing methods have evolved to meet the challenge to producehigh-throughput tools. In addition, microfabrication technologies that combinedsilicon wafer material with solid-phase chemical array methods have made itpossible to screen matrices of specific DNA sequences rapidly and with smallsample sizes. More advanced, automated tools are now on the horizon, based onthe development of new microfabrication and analysis methods using hybridtechnologies from biology, chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering,and computer science. High-performance computing and communication will also berequired to process, analyze, display, search, and archive the huge data sets.
Typically, new technology development occurs through either industrialinnovation or discovery by academic researchers . Federal funding for academic research has been key to many ofthe academic advances.
Abortion Human Cloning Genetic Researches Biology Topics:
What are some topics in science?
Some of the hottest topics in science nowadays are: the perspectives of genetic engineering of humans using CRISPRs, the importance of the human microbiome in preventing many diseases , solutions for multi-drug resistance in bacteria, immunotherapy in cancer research , etc.
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How do you choose a research topic?
When choosing a research topic, you should be considering your interests, the interests of the readers/ audience, the impact of the topic, the current state of knowledge in the field, recent advances related to the topic , etc.
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Summary Conclusions And Recommendations
Biology is at a crossroads. The biological sciences have lagged othersciences such as physics and chemistry in the large-scale application ofadvanced technology to research problems. Over the past 20 years, however,technology has increasingly demonstrated its potential to catalyze revolutionarybreakthroughs in the biological sciences.
From the scanning tunneling microscope to gene cloning technology to theremote sensing satellite, emerging technologies have stimulated new research andeven spawned new industries.
Now, new technologies are emerging which give promise of yielding similarrapid advances in the biological sciences, if they can be merged into researchand education in a timely and effective way. At the same time, though, anotherfactor has appeared which has sweeping implications for research and educationin all the sciences: Declining federal support for academic research, reducedindustrial R& D budgets, strong global competition in research as well astechnology development, and increasing complexity, cost, and speed of technologydevelopment all comprise an historicparadigm shift for scientific research in the United States.
The workshop participants identified a wide range of applicable emergingtechnologies, which are presented in a table in Section III, “The EmergingTechnologies.” Among the many new tools that are or will be needed, some ofthose having highest priority are:
- computational biology applied to complex systems to yieldprogress in structural biology
The Study Of The Molecular Basis Of Biology
All cells have a molecular plan for their function. Molecular biologists study the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins within cells and how they work, to better understand all living things.
In this program, you will explore fundamental biological principles as they relate to the life of humans, animals, plants and microorganisms. You will study concepts in biochemistry, evolution, genetics/genomics, physiology and more. You will develop your investigative skills, with hands-on research experiences both in the laboratory and out in the field.
This program is excellent preparation for advanced degree programs in biochemistry, medicine, pharmacy, biotechnology, or biology-related graduate programs.
This degree could be a good fit if you:
- Have a genuine curiosity about life on earth
- Enjoy science and research
- Have a strong work ethic
- Are a creative problem solver and critical thinker
With this degree, you could become a/an:
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Definition Of Science And Technology
Science from the Latin scientia is a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as the organized body of knowledge gained through such research. Science as defined here is sometimes termed pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of scientific research to specific human needs.
Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species’ usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species’ ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human society, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the two concepts.
Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge. This system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena. The term science also refers to the organized body of knowledge people have gained using that system.
Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:
These groupings are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions.
Getting The Message Out
Given the fact that technology traditionally has not held a prominent positionin biological research , there is a need to explain what the opportunities and potentialbenefits are – in other words, to communicate the change in course that biologymust undergo in order to deal with biological complexity.
To a large extent this is a role for NSF in its communication with the researchcommunity. But government, academia, and industry all have a responsibility forcommunicating, to Congress and the general public, the importance of stimulatingthe development of emerging technologies applicable to biology.
All these sectors also have a new responsibility for educating the generalpublic in a more formal sense, and especially for improving science andmathematics education so as to improve the pool of potential researchers in thebiological sciences. K-12 education is an important key. Research centers suchas the Science and Technology Centers have proven to be excellent vehicles forexposing young students – and their teachers – to the excitement of scientificdiscovery and the pursuit of knowledge. Programs in which scientists visit K-12classrooms to give talks and make presentations are also effective. K-12involvement should become a permanent component of academic life.
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