Examples That Are Not Mixtures
Just because you mix two chemicals together, don’t expect you’ll always get a mixture! If a chemical reaction occurs, the identity of a reactant changes. This is not a mixture. Combining vinegar and baking soda results in a reaction to produce carbon dioxide and water. So, you don’t have a mixture. Combining an acid and a base also does not produce a mixture.
Digestion Absorption And Storage
The ability of animals to assimilate starch depends on their ability to elaborate amylase. All species of fish have been shown to secrete a -amylase. It has also been demonstrated that activity of this enzyme was greatest in herbivores. In carnivores such as the rainbow trout and sea perch, amylase is primarily of pancreatic origin whereas in herbivores the enzyme is widespread throughout the entire digestive tract. In Tilapiamossambica the pancreas has been shown to be the site of greatest amylase activity followed by the upper intestine. Although the digestion of starch and dextrin by the carnivorous rainbow trout was shown to decrease progressively as levels of the carbohydrates were increased beyond the 20 percent level, the fish could effectively utilize up to 60 percent glucose, sucrose or lactose in the diet. This demonstrates that, contrary to earlier belief, carnivorous fish are capable of efficiently utilizing simple carbohydrate as a primary energy source.
Commercial Production And Use
Sucrose is the most common food sweetener in the industrialized world, although it has been replaced in industrial food production by other sweeteners such as fructose syrups or combinations of functional ingredients and high intensity sweeteners.
Sucrose is the most important sugar in plants, and can be found in the phloem sap. It is generally extracted from sugar cane or sugar beet and then purified and crystallized. Other commercial sources are sweet sorghum and sugar maples.
Sucrose is ubiquitous in food preparations due to both its sweetness and its functional properties it is important to the structure of many foods including biscuits and cookies, ice cream and sorbets, and also assists in the preservation of foods. As such it is common in many processed and so-called junk foods.
Sugar as a macronutrient
In human nutrition
The rapidity with which sucrose raises blood glucose can cause problems for people suffering from defects in glucose metabolism, such as persons with hypoglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Sucrose can contribute to development of the metabolic syndrome. An experiment with rats that were fed a diet one-third of which was sucrose may serve as a model for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The sucrose first elevated blood levels of triglycerides, which induced visceral fat and ultimately resulted in insulin resistance.
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How It Is Made
Glucose is synthesized naturally in plants and some single-celled organisms through the process known as photosynthesis. In this process, sunlight catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water that results in the formation of a simple carbohydrate and oxygen. The overall reaction can be summarized by a rather simple chemical equation:
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
However, photosynthesis actually involves a number of complex reactions that occur in two general phases, the light reactions and the dark reactions.
Glucose is produced commercially through the steam hydrolysis of cornstarch or waste products containing cellulose using a dilute acid catalyst. The product thus obtained is typically not very pure, but is contaminated with maltose and dextrins .
What Is A Mixture
In chemistry, when two or more substances mix with each other without participating in a chemical change, the resulting substance is called a Mixture.
The result formed due to the combination of substances does not lose its individuality nor are they combined chemically. Mixtures are the one product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances such as elements and compounds.
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Rock Candy: Precipitation Of Sugar
When sugar is placed into plain water, for a time, it seems to disappear. This is because the grains of sugar dissolve, and the individual sucrose molecules become arranged in the spaces between water molecules. This is a result of the electrical polarity of water, which results in the breaking of the “bonds” between sucrose molecules resulting from intermolecular forces.
If enough sugar is added to the solution, no more can dissolve, and the solution is said to be saturated. If the mixture is heated, however, the solubility of sugar increases and more can be added. When the solution cools, the solubility decreases, and the solution is supersaturated.
Over a period of days, as the water evaporates, sugar crystals form, and if a string is placed in the container as a medium for growth, the result is the old favorite called rock candy.
Blood Sugar Level Regulation
There should be appropriate assimilation and catabolism of sugar to ensure proper metabolism. The levels of glucose, for instance, should be regulated and maintained at steady levels. In humans, the regulation of glucose levels in the blood is through the action of hormones, insulin and glucagon. These hormones are produced and released by the pancreatic cells. When the glucose level in the blood is low, the pancreas tends to release glucagon. But when the glucose level in the blood is high, the pancreas releases insulin. This is because glucagon acts by stimulating the production of sugar. It stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen in the liver into glucose that will be released into the bloodstream. Insulin, on the other hand, promotes the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream by the skeletal muscle cells and adipose tissues so that glucose could be converted and stored into glycogen through the process of glycogenolysis.
Try to answer the quiz below to check what you have learned so far about sugar.
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Start Practice Exam Test Questions Part I Of The Series
Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.
1. What are found in the nucleus of an atom?
- A. Electrons and Protons
2. What is the negatively charged particle of an atom?
- A. Electrons
3. What is the positively charged particle of an atom?
- A. Electrons
4. What is the particle of an atom that has no electrical charge?
- A. Electrons
5. The word atom comes from Greek Atomos which means what?
- A. Extremely Small
6. Who was the first person to propose that atoms have weights?
- A. Ernest Rutherford
7. Who discovered the electron?
- A. Joseph John Thomson
8. Who discovered the proton?
- A. Eugene Goldstein
9. Who discovered the neutron?
- A. James Chadwick
10. What is anything that occupies space and has mass?
- A. Element
11. All forms of matter are composed of the same building blocks called______.
- A. molecules
12. How are substances classified?
- A. Elements or Compounds
13. What is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances?
- A. Ion
- C. Molecule
- D. Element
14. What is the result from the combination, in definite proportion of mass, of two or more elements?
- A. Mixture
15. How are mixtures classified?
- A. Elements or Compounds
- B. Metals, Nonmetals or Metalloids
- C. Homogeneous or Heterogeneous
- D. Suspension, Colloids or Solutions
16. The mixture of soil and water is an example of what classification of a mixture?
- A. Homogeneous
- C. Colloid
- D. Solution
17. A very fine particle of soil when mixed to water will form a cloudy mixture. How is this mixture classified?
Why Do We Bother With This Ancient Nomenclature
You might justifiably ask: dont we already have a system for assigning absolute configuration ? Why do we need a new system?
The D-L system isnt a new system, folks. Its the old system it predates Cahn-Ingold-Prelog.
The D-L system is literally a remnant of the horse-and-buggy era, dating back to Emil Fischers work on carbohydrates in the late 1800s a time when organic chemists had no way to determine the absolute configuration of stereocenters, which only became possible in 1951 .
So why does it still get used? Shouldnt it be consigned to the dustbin of history, along with slide rules, 8-track cassettes, and 5 ¼ floppy disks?
Well, there are thriving communities in parts of rural America where horse-drawn carriages persist if you know where to look.
Likewise there is a pocket of organic chemistry where D-L system still finds use, and that is specifically in the realm of sugars and amino acids.
This not a revolt by Amish chemists against the modern evils of the CIP system, by the way. There are at least 3 good reasons, in the specific case of sugars and amino acids, for using L- and D- :
It bears repeating: with sugars and amino acids, L- and D- can be useful designations. For other molecules, you can largely forget about it.
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Science Of Rock Candy And Glass Candy
To make glass candy, sugar syrup is cooled rapidly to prevent crystals from forming. The dissolved sucrose molecules bind with one another, which causes the candy to become amorphous and take on the appearance of glass.
Fun fact: glass candy was historically used for stunts that involved people breaking windows. Gummies are made in a similar way to glass candy, but with gelatin added to the sugar syrup to give it a rubbery consistency.
What Is The Solubility Of Sugar In Vinegar
There is no appreciable sugar reaction with vinegar, which contains a dilute solution of acetic acid, CH3C=O. Most white vinegar is about 5 percent acetic acid and about 95 percent water, so you can imagine how tart its taste might be without this dilution factor.
There is a difference between sugar dissolving and sugar breakdown, which reduces it to glucose and fructose molecules. This occurs as a result of hydrolysis, and is the opposite of the reaction described above that forms sucrose from its monosaccharide components. A water molecule is needed to round out the structures of glucose and fructose.
This non-dissolving of sugar and other molecules in vinegar is evident in food products such as Balsamic vinegar, which visibly contains sugar and other additives apart from any oil layer existing above the watery portion. Vinegar and sugar gastrique is another such product.
Preparation Of Starch Solution
Commercial starch is made by crushing or grinding starch-containing tubers or seeds, then combining the pulp with water, removing any residual impurities, and drying the resulting paste. Starch is used in the processing of paper to improve its strength and in the surface sizing of paper.
To make a starch indicator solution, dissolve 1 gram of corn or potato starch in 10 mL distilled water, shake well, and pour into 100 mL boiling distilled water. Boil for 1 minute, stirring continuously. Allow time for cooling. Decant the supernatant and use it as the indicator solution if a precipitate forms.
The starch solution was prepared by heating in an autoclave at 125oC for 300 minutes., followed by a rapid cooling in a water bath, and then homogenizing in a warm blender for 30 seconds.
The starch solution thus prepared was examined under microscope to confirm that all the starch granules had been ruptured to form a colloidal dispersion. In addition, a few preliminary flocculation tests were made with this solution and the results were compared with a rusticized starch solution. Virtually identical results justified the present preparation methods for the following tests, unless stated otherwise. To minimize the effects of microbiological decomposition, fresh starch solutions were prepared each day. Chemically modified starches, both cationic and anionic, were solubilized in the same manner.
Flammability And Heat Response
Because sugars burn easily when exposed to flame, the handling of sugars risks dust explosion. The risk of explosion is higher when the sugar has been milled to superfine texture, such as for use in chewing gum. The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion, which killed 14 people and injured 36, and destroyed most of the refinery, was caused by the ignition of sugar dust.
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Common Uses And Potential Hazards
Glucose is the primary chemical from which plants and animals derive energy. In cells, glucose is broken down in a complex series of reactions to produce energy with carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.
Glucose also has a number of commercial uses, nearly all of them related to the food processing business. It is used in the production of confectionary products chewing gum soft drinks ice creams jams, jellies, and fruit preparations baby foods baked products and beers and ciders. A relatively small amount is used for non-food purposes, primarily in the production of other organic chemicals, such as citric acid, the amino acid lysine, insulin, and a variety of antibiotics.
The most important health problem associated with glucose is diabetes. Diabetes is a medical condition that develops when the body either does not produce adequate amounts of insulin or cannot use that compound properly. Insulin is a hormone that controls the metabolism of glucose in the body. If glucose is not metabolized properly, a person’s body acts as if it is “starving.” Symptoms of diabetes include excessive hunger, weight loss, and exhaustion. If left untreated, the condition can result in coma and death. Diabetics must have an artificial source of insulin and watch their diets to keep these symptoms under control.
The Science Of Melting Sugar
Sweet flavours are inevitably associated with sugar. In scientific terms, sugar is one or more molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These may be single molecules, as in the case of glucose or fructose, or combinations of molecules: sucrose, for instance, consists of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule bonded together. I have a particular reason for referring to sucrose: common table sugar, the sort normally used in cake and pastry making, is in fact sucrose.
There are many reasons why this kind of sugar has become so popular in cooking and baking. First of all, it is widely available: sucrose, or common sugar, is extracted from sugar cane and beet, which are easy to grow almost anywhere in the world. Not surprisingly, its annual production amounts to 70 million tons.
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Mcq In General Chemistry Part 1
This is the Multiples Choice Questions Part 1 of the Series in General chemistry as one of the General Engineering and Applied Sciences topic. In Preparation for the ECE Board Exam make sure to expose yourself and familiarize in each and every questions compiled here taken from various sources including past Board Questions in General Engineering and Applied Sciences field.
What Chemical Is Used To Test For Sugar
There are a few types of chemical reagents that can be used to detect sugars in a solution. These are used as part of a qualitative test for either the presence or absence of sugars in general, or specific types of solutions.
Benedicts reagent is the most common chemical mixture used for detecting sugars in a solution, though its mostly used for detecting the presence of glucose. The way it works is simple, and involves applying heat to the sugar solution thats being tested. If glucose is present, the Benedicts reagent will change colour from blue to orange.
This reagent is a complex mixture of sodium carbonate, sodium citrate, and copper sulfate pentahydrate. The standard proportions for this mixture are:
- Anhydrous sodium carbonate: 100 gm
- Sodium citrate: 173 gm
- Copper sulfate pentahydrate: 17.3 gm
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How Is Candy Made
The first step to making most candies is typically to dissolve sugar into boiling water. This forms a sugar syrup that can be cooled by removing it from the burner. However, the way the syrup is cooled determines the type of candy produced.4 For example, rock candy is made by allowing the sugar syrup to cool over several days, while fudge requires continuous stirring of the cooling syrup so that the sugar crystals that form remain small.
Other Common Candy Ingredients
While sugar is typically the primary ingredient in candy, many candies also include preservatives and other ingredients to keep treats sweet and edible. For example, the University of Hawaiis Food Safety and Technology newsletter article, Common Food Additives in Candy,5 identifies several candy additives, including the following:
- Butylated hydroxyanisole An antioxidant that prevents fats and oils from becoming rancid in candies such as peanut-butter cups.
- Gum base One of the main ingredients in chewing gum, its made by blending and heating several vegetable or synthetic fibers with a softener such as paraffin and antioxidants.
- Potassium sorbate A preservative that is the potassium salt of sorbic acid,6 which is also a preservative.
For more information about candy and its chemistry, see these resources:
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Is Eating Sugar Cane Good For You
Sugarcane and its derivatives have several known health benefits when consumed in moderate quantities. Chewing on sugarcane or consuming sugarcane water or syrup can help treat urinary tract issues and provide a boost of antioxidants, along with providing benefits to pregnant women and diabetic patients.
What Is Ordinary Sugar Made Of
“Sugar,” in most everyday contexts, refers to the most common commercial product that bears that title, which goes by the chemical name sucrose.
Sucrose is a kind of sugar called a disaccharide, meaning it is composed of a pair of monosaccharides. Those monosaccharides are glucose and a very similar sugar called fructose that the body can rearrange into glucose with the help of biological enzyme protein catalysts.
Sucrose has the chemical formula C12H22O11. It is formed by dehydration synthesis, the removal of what ends up as a water molecule to join glucose and fructose, which both have the formula C6H12O6 but have different physical arrangements of their atoms .
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