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What Is Serum In Biology

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Why Is The Serum Test Conducted

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The serum is done to measure the amount of protein albumin in the blood. When the kidney starts to fail, the albumin starts leaking in the urine. The serum test helps to diagnose liver and kidney abnormalities.

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How Long Is Dog Serum Good For

Serum can be stored frozen at any temperature for up to 180 days without losing efficacy. Once thawed, serum should be kept refrigerated for only up to 7 days to avoid possible contamination and bacterial growth. At the authors practice, equine and canine sera are stored frozen in 0.2-mL aliquots.Mar 3, 2021

How Do I Rehydrate My Dog

The most effective way of treating dehydration is to place the pet on a drip. This will replace any fluids already lost and also prevent further dehydration. An alternative method of dog rehydration is administering fluid under their skin to form a camel shaped hump. This fluid is then absorbed over a few hours.31 Jan 2017

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Medical Definition Of Serum

Reviewed on 3/29/2021

Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plasma, the liquid portion of normal unclotted blood containing the red and white cells and platelets. It is the clot that makes the difference between serum and plasma.

Terms in this dictionary with the word “serum” include maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein , serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase , serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase , and serum hepatitis.

The term “serum” also is used to designate any normal or pathological fluid that resembles serum as, for example, the fluid in a blister.

“Serum” is a Latin word that refers to the “whey”, the watery liquid that separatesfrom the curds in the process of cheesemaking.

Examples Of Serum In A Sentence

Human Serum Albumin

serumserum PeoplemagserumCNN UnderscoredserumNew York Timesserum NBC Newsserum Peoplemagserum WSJUSA TODAYserum Town & Country

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘serum.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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Good Reproducibility In Serum And Better In Plasma

Both plasma and serum displayed good stability in the metabolite concentrations we measured. The metabolite concentrations from the repeated measurements on the 83 samples showed a high correlation between the first and the second measurements with mean correlation coefficients of all 122 metabolites being 0.83 and 0.80 for plasma and serum, respectively. Thus, reproducibility was significantly better for plasma than for serum , although the absolute differences in r were small.

Correlation between repeated measurements of plasma and serum metabolites.

Correlation coefficients between repeated measurements of metabolite concentrations were plotted. r values in serum are plotted against r values in plasma. Shapes represent different groups of metabolites: Acylcarnitines , Amino acids , Hexose , and Glycerophospholipid . Colors represent different subgroups of glycerophospholipids: lysoPhosphatidylcholine , Phosphatidylcholine , and Sphingomyeline .

Higher Sensitivity In Serum

We also noticed that serum provided higher sensitivity than plasma, when average metabolite concentrations were compared between subjects with different phenotypes. For example, 40 metabolites in serum were identified to have a significantly different mean concentration in type 2 diabetes patients vs. non-T2D individuals, while plasma only revealed 25. Similar results were also observed when comparing male against female individuals, as well as when comparing smokers against non-smokers, serum always containing larger number of significantly different metabolites . Furthermore, for each of the three phenotypes, all significantly different metabolites that were identified using plasma were among those identified using serum. The metabolites that failed to be identified in plasma were, nevertheless, close to the borderline of significance.

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The Key Components Of Blood

Blood is the red fluid that flows through the human circulatory system, delivering oxygen and nutrients to cells while transporting waste products away. Its key components are:

  • Blood cells Red blood cells carry oxygen white blood cells are cells of the immune system.
  • Platelets Platelets are tiny cell fragments that form blood clots to stop bleeding.
  • Plasma Plasma is the liquid component of blood.

Functions Of Human Serum

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The human serum is a circulating carrier of exogenous and endogenous liquids in the blood. It allows substances to stick to the molecules within the serum and be buried within it. Human serum thus helps in the transportation of fatty acids and thyroid hormones which act on most of the cells found in the body.

hyroid hormones are essential to the proper development and functioning of the body because they help to regulate bone growth and maturation, carry out protein synthesis and increase the body’s basal metabolic rate. Human serum also helps transport other hormones which are fat soluble.

Due to its unique role as a circulating carrier, human serum is used in the protein binding of many drugs to facilitate drug distribution within the body. Human serum is used to distribute antibiotics in the body and albumin allows the curable substances in the antibiotics to be bind and carried out throughout the body.

The human off-the-clot serum is the serum that has been allowed to coagulate naturally after collection and has not been exposed to any anticoagulants. The human off-the-clot serum is ideal for metabolic studies because it is available in the original transfer packs straight from individual donors.

Human AB serum is collected from type AB donors and it lacks antibodies against blood type A and B antigens. Human AB serum is used in cell therapy applications and transplantation and tissue engineering.

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More Details About Plasma

The difference between blood and plasma is that plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Furthermore, one of its roles is to keep the blood pressure in a healthy range. Moreover, plasma is responsible for carrying important nutrients, minerals, proteins, and hormones to the necessary places of the body.

Plasma is certainly the biggest part of the blood, forming 55% of it. In spite of the colour of blood appearing red, the plasma is of a pale yellow colour. Also, the formation of plasma is such that it is 90% water.

Plasma also consists of various enzymes and salts. Furthermore, plasma has antibodies that are effective in fighting infections and diseases. Moreover, Plasma helps carry nutrients, hormones, and proteins, to the various cells present in the body.

When To Use Serum Plasma Or Both

Whether youre developing a diagnostic test, supplementing a cell culture, or running a research assay, we recommend using both serum and plasma so you can observe how different sample types behave. If you use only one, you could be misled by false results.

For example, clotting factors in serum or the platelets and cellular elements that contaminate plasma could interfere with or alter your results. If your results are the same for serum and plasma, then you have more flexibility in sample usage.

View all of our available serum and plasma samples, including normal donors, diabetic donors, RA donors, SLE donors, and donors with other disease states.

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Serum Vs Plasma: Do You Know The Difference

Not all scientists are aware of the difference between serum and plasma. So lets explain. As well as red and white blood cells and nutrients, blood contains fibrinogen and blood clotting factors which cause clotting when blood is exposed to air. This clotting is important to prevent excessive bleeding following injury. The action of these clotting components can be stopped using anti-coagulants and this prevents any clots from forming.

Blood plasma and serum are different preparations of blood that are generated depending on whether or not an anticoagulant is added to the blood sample at the point of collection. The addition of anti-coagulants to prevent clot formation is important, for example, if the blood is being used for transfusion, and also preparing serum for use in cell culture.

How are sera and plasma made?

Plasma

Starting with whole blood, if an anticoagulant is added immediately after collection, then coagulation is prevented and all components are kept in suspension. If you just leave this blood sample alone without mixing, then all the components will settle out. The heavier cells will sink to the bottom. This results in a clear liquid at the top. This clear upper layer is plasma which is essentially all the components of blood minus the cells. Under centrifugation, a layer of white cells called the buffy coat forms between the plasma and red blood cells. Plasma retains fibrinogen.

Serum

Exosome purification from serum and plasma.

History And Etymology For Serum

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Noun

borrowed from Latin, “whey, wheylike fluid,” of uncertain origin

Note: Latin serum has been conventionally linked with Greek orós, of identical meaning, and both compared with the Sanskrit verbal base sar-, allegedly meaning ” flow” in Vedic texts . More recently, however, this interpretation has been rejected, and sar- read as “run off”hence Vedic Sanskrit ásarat“ran off,”prasísarti“lets run, stretches, extends,” not akin to sára“lake, pond” and related words, which describe still water. The Sanskrit etymon has been further compared with Greek hállomai” spring, hop,” Latin salre“to jump” . If this is correct the Indo-European base is *sel-, and any connection to serum and orós impossible these two words are left then without any certain etymology.

Adjective

from attributive use of serum entry 1

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More Details About Serum

Serum refers to the solute component of blood which has no role in blood clotting. Furthermore, serum is an important source of electrolytes and is the most preferable part of blood during the checking of blood groups. Moreover, the use of serum takes place for various types of diagnostic tests for determining the level of proteins, cholesterol, sugar etc in the blood.

The serum of convalescent patients, displaying signs of a successful recovering, is useful in the treatment of that particular disease in other people. The reason for this is because the generation of antibodies by successful recovery serves as powerful fighters against the pathogen.

Blood serum and plasma happen to be the largest sources of biomarkers. There is the complication of its vast dynamic range due to salts, lipids, multiple mechanisms of degradation, and post-translational modifications.

FAQs about Plasma and Serum

Question 1: What is the chief difference between plasma and serum?

Answer 1: The most important difference between plasma and serum has to do clotting. Furthermore, plasma is the liquid that is found remaining when the prevention of clotting happens and after adding an anticoagulant. In contrast, serum is the liquid that is found remaining after the blood clotting has taken place.

Question 2: How fibrinogen brings out the difference between plasma and serum?

Answer 2: Fibrinogen brings out the difference plasma and serum as it is present only in plasma.

References:

Serum Vs Plasma: Whats The Difference

Serum and plasma both come from the liquid portion of the blood that remains once the cells are removed, but thats where the similarities end.

Serum is the liquid that remains after the blood has clotted.

Plasma is the liquid that remains when clotting is prevented with the addition of an anticoagulant.

This is not an insignificant difference.

See All Available Serum Products See All Available Plasma Products

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Enzymes That Test For In The Blood Serum

Usually, enzymes which enter the bloodstream signify something bad, whether itâs myocardial infarction, congenital heart disorders, cancer, and more. The below listed ones are some we’d find and what they exactly mean:

  • Alanine Aminotransferase

  • Aspartate Aminotransferase

  • A liver enzyme. Can increase when using the cholesterol-lowering medications

A liver enzyme, which is released into the bloodstream following injury or even death of cells. Increased AST is seen with myocardial infarction , liver diseases, and a few medications. Can increase when using cholesterol-lowering medications.

Difference Between Serum And Plasma

Serum albumin
Serum is the liquid part of the blood after the coagulation. Plasma is a clear and yellowish fluid part of the blood.
2. Serum is the water fluid from blood without the clotting factors. Plasma is the blood fluid that contains blood clotting agents.
3. Volume of serum is less in comparison to plasma. Plasma is a clear yellow liquid which is 55% of total volume of blood.
4. Serum is acquired from the process of spinning after clotting. Plasma is acquired from the process of spinning before clotting.
5. Serum is more difficult and time consuming to separate. Plasma is easier and less time consuming to separate as compared with serum.
6. Serum does not need anticoagulants for separation. Anticoagulants are necessary to separate plasma.
7. Composition Serum contains proteins, electrolytes, antibodies, antigens and hormones. Plasma is considered as the medium of blood in which RBCs , WBC and other components of blood are suspended.
8. Composition Serum contain antibodies and cross react with recipient antigen. Blood plasma contains antibodies, a type of protein that can fight a substance considered foreign to the host body.
9. Serum contains proteins like albumin and globulins. Plasma contains the clotting factors and water.
10.

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What Is Serum How It Differs From Blood

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  • Plasma Or Serum Samples

    Blood serum is collected into tubes with no additives and allowed to stand at room temperature for 45 min to clot. Samples are then centrifuged and the serum aliquots prepared for storage at 80°C.

    Blood plasma should be collected in approximately 8 mL aliquots into Li-heparin- or EDTA-containing tubes . It should be noted that collecting into EDTA tubes will produce high-intensity NMR peaks from EDTA and its complexes with Mg2 + and Ca2 + ions, causing these peaks to overlap with those from other small molecules and thus complicating the metabolic interpretation of certain areas of the spectrum. Collection into heparin tubes results in a spectrum which, although not obviously altered, contains broad heparin proton resonances that are not easily identifiable. These heparin signals complicate analysis of other resonances, including characterization of broad lipoprotein peaks into subclasses. Samples should then be left for no more than 24 h, centrifuged, and aliquots prepared for storage at 80°C.

    Aruna Pal, A.K. Chakravarty, in, 2020

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    Serum In Biology Topic

    Human Serum And Its Important Role In Research

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    Human serum is one of the most important tools in todays laboratories, and for good reason human serum allows scientists to grow human cells, test the efficacy of drugs, gain a deeper understanding of the immune system, and perform innovative research. While processing human serum for use in research is complex, it yields a product that provides reliable, repeatable results in the laboratory.

    Human blood contains more than 4,000 components, each with a different purpose. The major components of whole blood are red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, and platelets. Human blood is about 55 percent plasma and 45 percent cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen and white blood cells fight infection. Plasma is the watery, clear yellow-tinted fluid that holds the cells and platelets, along with sugars, lipids, vitamins, minerals, hormones, enzymes, antibodies, other proteins, and blood clotting factors.

    While human serum does not contain fibrinogen, it does contain hormones, minerals, proteins and carbon dioxide. Albumin is an important protein in human serum, as it carries steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones in the blood. Human serum is also an important source of electrolytes.

    Uses for Human Serum

    Human AB serum is essential in the investigation of cell therapy applications, transplantation and tissue engineering. Laboratories collect human AB serum from donors who have type AB blood, which lacks the antibodies against blood type A and B antigens.

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    Protein Content Of Serum

    The human blood serum has approximately 7% protein content, out of which two-thirds is albumin and the remaining one-third is globulin. Electrophoresis of the blood serum yields a large albumin peak and three small glubin peaks. The three types of globulin found in serum are alpha , beta and gamma .

    Each globulin is a mixture of many different proteins as can be seen by the technique of immunoelectrophoresis.

    Clinical And Laboratory Uses

    Serum from convalescent patients successfully recovering from an infectious disease can be used as a biopharmaceutical in the care of other people with the same disease because the antibodies formed by successful recovery are pathogen’s potent fighters. Such convalescent serum is a form of immunotherapy.

    Also, serum is used in protein electrophoresis, because of the lack of fibrinogen that can cause false results.

    Fetal bovine serum is very rich in growth factors and is frequently added to the growth media used for eukaryotic cell culture. The embryonic stem cells were originally maintained with a cytokine leukaemia inhibitory and an FBS combination factor, but concerns about batch-to-batch differences in FBS led to the production of serum substitutes.

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