Th~18th Centuries In The West
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Geography as a science experiences excitement and exerts influence during the Scientific Revolution and Religion Reformation. In the Victorian period, the oversea exploration gave it institutional identity and geography was “the science of imperialism par excellence.” Imperialism is a crucial concept for the Europeans, as the institution become involved in geographical exploration and colonial project. Authority was questioned, and utility gained its importance. In the era of Enlightenment, geography generated knowledge and made it intellectually and practically possible as a university discipline. The natural theology required geography to investigate the world as a grand machine from the Divine. Scientific voyages and travels constructed geopolitical power from geographical knowledge, partly sponsored by Royal Society. John Pinkerton appraised the eighteenth century had “the gigantic progress of every science, and in particular of geographical information” and “alteration has taken place in states and boundaries.”
Over the past two centuries the quantity of knowledge and the number of tools has exploded. There are strong links between geography and the sciences of geology and botany, as well as economics, sociology and demographics.
Global Positioning System A Familiar Tool
of geographers is GPS or Global Positioning System. It was originally developed to help military forces know exactly where they were on the earth’s surface. The system uses a series of 24 satellites called Navstars, which beam information to the earth. The exact positionlatitude, longitude, altitude, and timeis displayed on a handheld receiver. Hikers, explorers, sailors, and drivers use GPS devices to determine location. They are also used to track animals.
Geographers use a variety of other tools including photographs, cross sections, models, cartograms, and population pyramids. These tools help geographers to visualize and display information for analysis. They are looking for patterns and connections in the data they find. You will learn how to use these tools in the Geography Skills Handbook, which follows, and in the Map and Graph Skills pages in this book.
What Tools Are Used In Geography
Geographers use a set of specialized tools to describe, understand and explain the structure of the Earth. Some of these tools have a long history of use in the geographical sciences, such as maps, the compass and surveying equipment. Other tools take advantage of modern technology made possible by the Information Age and Space Age, especially Global Positioning Systems. Geography is an essential skill, whether guiding ships across the ocean, positioning astronauts in space or providing directions to grandma’s house.
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An Example Of Balloon Mapping
The interactive aerial map below shows an example of balloon mapping. If you are reading this in print, you can view the map at
If you are interested in trying out balloon or kite mapping yourself, youll find some do-it-yourself;resources at .
Why Does Science Matter
Why should one care whether GIS is a science or not? The technological face of GIS is widely successful in government, business, andeducation, and it appears to have affected and improved the lives of far morepeople than have many theoretical advances . Technology in general hasthe potential to contribute greatly to society and culture.
However, science is often held in high regard, and labeling a field as ascience may sometimes help to ensure it a place in the academy or to secure itgreater funding and prestige. “Science” is often used as a generic synonym for”research,” particularly research of a basic, systematic, and generalizablekind. Thus “science” often functions as a rather crude but convenient shorthandfor academic legitimacy; if “doing GIS” is “doing science” then its claim to aplace in the academy, as a topic of research and graduate-level instruction, isclearly strengthened.
Clearly it does matter whether or not “doing GIS” is “doing science,” if forno other reason than “doing science” is often considered a code-phrase foracademic legitimacy. We will now argue that “doing GIS” may express at leastthree meanings that are represented by three positions. Our strategy,therefore, is to examine the role and legitimacy of each of these fourpositions within the academy in general and within the discipline of geographyin particular.
Why Would You Use Gis
Clearly, the use of GIS requires some expense and preparation.;Why would you go to the trouble?; There are actually a number of good reasons. GIS is a powerful tool that can be used for analysis and assessment of the community or of an issue, and the planning, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention or initiative.
Three Positions On Gis
In synthesizing the general themes of the GIS-L discussion it becameclear to us that GIS could be understood not by the two distinct positionstaken by the GIS-L discussants but as three positions along acontinuum from tool to science, focusing on the several meaningsattached to “doing GIS” rather than to GIS alone. These are: 1) GIS as tool; 2)GIS as toolmaking; and 3) the science of GIS. It seems clear from the GIS-Ldiscussion that the label “GIS” is simplistic, since it fails to indicate byitself whether the topic involves fundamental scientific questions andhypotheses, or whether it merely adds gloss to the research through the use ofan admittedly complex and sophisticated tool — whether it decodes as “science”or “system.” We have derived three positions on GIS from the GIS-L discussionbecause what is probably needed to fully describe the entity “GIS” is aqualitative shift from bureaucratic, “black-and-white” boxes of description to”fuzzy” continua, where it is explicitly recognized that labels are notperfect. Although these three positions do not capture all of the nuances ofargument made during the GIS-L debate, they do represent three major pointsalong a “tool – science” continuum.
The “toolmaking” position sees GIS in an academic setting as concerned withadvancing the tool’s capabilities and ease of use. Besides using the tool,toolmakers are likely to promote the adoption of GIS, play a role in educatingits users, and work to ensure its responsible use.
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Th Grade Tools Of Geography
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Presentation On Theme: Unit : Tools Of Geography Presentation Transcript:
1 UNIT 1: TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHYRHS-ANDERSONAll graphics are clip art or from
2 WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?GEOGRAPHY is the study of the world’s environment and man’s interaction within the environment.Geography has two strands or parts:PHYSICAL: The study of the earth’s natural features, such as mountains, rivers, soil, vegetation, and weatherandHUMAN: The study of human cultures and man made features.All kinds of resources are used to study geography, but the most common are MAPS.
3 MAPSA map is a 2 dimensional graphic of the earth or part of the earth.A person who makes maps is called a cartographer.Maps are important as a tool for geography because we can show so much information about the earth on one document.There are parts to maps, types of maps, and even map projections that are very important as a basis for all of geography.
4 Geographic InformationCartographers today use many sources of data collected for their maps.GIS is the most accurate to date: GIS is using computers to plot points and other information on maps.Air Photography and Satellite Images can help gather information to then be placed on maps. Cartographers can interpret what they see and plot it on a map.GPS use satellites around the world to plot the exact point of location from an electronic receiver.
10 LATITUDE AND LONGITUDEReading coordinates is very important in finding location in geography.Remember that you read the x-axis first and then read the y-axis second X- AXISY- AXIS
11 GLOBAL GRID LINES
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Surveying Equipment: The Power Of Precision
You have likely seen these tools used by construction contractors while your car was stopped in traffic, but geographers use them to perform the same task for their jobs. The most recognizable is the theodolite, a level lens on a tripod that helps measure relative distance and elevation. Geographers combine the theodolite with a plumb line and measuring tape to accurately assess even small details of an area.
Remote Imaging: Photographic Evidence
Until the middle of the 20th century, geographers had to make maps based on observations and measurements taken on the ground. With the invention of reliable air travel, and later of satellite imaging, geographers can now draw maps and make observations based on photos taken from the same perspective as a map of the area. Modern technology allows geographers to use remote images that record information beyond the visible spectrum, such as magnetic activity, infrared temperature and subterranean water levels.
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Maps: Drawings Of The Land
A map is, at its core, a drawing of a spatial area on Earth. Different maps serve different functions. The most basic map shows the physical features of an area, from a world map depicting countries to a detailed walking map of every path on a college campus. Other kinds of maps can give other data about a region, for example, a color-coded a map of a continent according to languages spoken or major exports, or a graded map showing the relative elevations in a mountainous area.
Tools For Teaching Geography & Exploring The World
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We are barely finished with this school year, and over the last few weeks Ive been piecing together what we will be doing during the upcoming school year. One of my;initial plans for this past year was to work on world geography with the boys. Unfortunately, I went a little overboard in my mind and it was put to the side mainly because I wanted to reinvent the wheel and put together;a billion ideas into creating our own curriculum.;
Rather than running myself ragged and truthfully in an effort to keep it more simple Ive decided to use something that is already pre-planned Elementary Geography and Cultures from Masterbooks. Its a curriculum Ive been eyeing for quite some time and includes the books;Passport to the Worldand the Childrens Atlas of Gods World;. ;Yes, I will likely end up reworking some of my past geography printables and also create a few additional go-alongs for what we are doing, BUT I am so very excited about this one year world geography plan.;
Now, while having a curriculum framework to follow is great, the most effective way to teach our kids geography is through the hands-on tools that go along with ANY;curriculum. Here are 10;tools for teaching geography all things;our family has used to keep learning fun.
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More Specifically Gis Can Be Used:
Existing Spatial Data Sources
Several government and other organizations often make spatial data publicly available in a variety of formats that are relatively easy for the general public to use;through the creation of mash-ups. Mash-ups are web pages that;take;data from two different sources or sets and put them together. Just two examples of mash-ups include taking data from Vancouver open data and overlaying them on a Google maps.
- Vancouver Open Data in file formats compatible with the Web, Google Maps and Google Earth, ArcGIS and QGIS and several other file formats compatible with accessible software systems.;
- British Columbia Open Data
- Canada wide data offered by the Canadian government in file formats compatible with QGIS and ArcGIS.
There are far more available online, and they will;change rapidly. There is increasing expectation that data should be made publicly available.
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Two Or Three Dimensions
A globe is a three-dimensional representation of the earth. It provides a way to view the earth as it travels through space. But since the earth is a sphere, we can see only one half of it at any time. For certain tasks, globes are not very practical because they are not easily portable.
People often prefer to use maps, which are two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth’s surface. Maps are easily portable and can be drawn to any scale needed. The disadvantage of a map is that distortion occurs as the earth’s surface is flattened to create the map. A cartographer, or mapmaker, reduces some types of distortion by using different types of map projections. A map projection is a way of drawing Earth’s surface by presenting a round Earth on flat paper. To learn more about map projections, see the Geography Skills Handbook, pages 1819.
Putting The Debate Into Perspective: Definitions Of Science
A lengthy foray into the philosophy and sociology of science is beyond thescope of this paper, but some consideration of these matters is unavoidable inorder to know what scientists do, the significance of what they do, and therelationship of science to other knowledge-generating mechanisms. There is onecaveat at the outset: there are probably as many definitions and viewpoints ofscience as there are scientists , and not all of these arenecessarily correct! A concise definition of science cannot hope to capture thefull meaning of the term. Science encompasses a wide range of fields thatdiffer widely from each other in philosophy, knowledge content, andmethodology. The term “science” may be viewed as a shorthand for a logical andsystematic approach to problems that seeks generalizable answers. This is theposition taken by Robinson et al. in describing how cartography employs”the scientific method” in constructing its products. Given Robinson et al.’semphasis on logic, most computer applications would pass the test of being”scientific,” though it leaves unanswered the question of whether “doingcartography” is “doing science.” Nonetheless, many participants in the GIS-Ldebate were probably unaware of the finer shades of meaning conveyed by theterm “science,” or that many users of GIS might think of themselves as”scientists” in the unqualified sense of that term.
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Tools To Support Geography Learning:
- Learn Through Music:
Music is a go-to for children to memorize things easily. You can use Geography Songs to make students learn countries, bodies of water, and continents. Also, ask them to listen to composers who were born in the different countries or music or dance forms that is native to the geographical areas.
- Focus on Artists :
Allow your students to learn about artists native to the country they are studying or special art styles that are based in a geographical region.
- Create Continent Boxes:
Ask students to inculcate the behavior of collecting hands-on materials based on countries or continents in boxes. Like some paper cuttings/objects or specific materials resembling a country – flags of different countries, their animals and landmark figures. It is indeed a fun activity and will make them learn different geographical information effortlessly.
- Eat and Cook a Special Meal Together
Although cooking is a life skill for kids to learn, but it can be a memorable way to make kids learn about a country. Depending on the country you are teaching, pick a recipe or create a meal that would be native to that country It will also help them understand the cultures of different countries.
- Put a Puzzle Together
While you are reading aloud or keeping fidgeting kids busy, pull out a puzzle and work on it together. GeoPuzzles is an interesting app to have kids learn on. Rather than being regular shaped puzzle pieces, each piece is shaped like the countries within that continent.
Top Applications And Resources For Teaching Geography:
Google Maps is one of the real game changer for teachers. Teachers can use Google Maps to help students to build tours, measure distances, look at directions and compare different kinds of maps. Therefore, teachers make use of the fantastic possibilities available on Google Maps.
The Ordnance Survey website is based in the UK, but it contains some brilliant kid-friendly activities that encourage students to learn more about geography. On Ordnance survey students can practice map skills, play geography-related games, and use Geographic Information Systems to learn more about their world. And its all presented in a bright, friendly and colorful way.
Google Lit Trips is an incredible blend of literature with geography. This interactive application allows students to map out the journey that the protagonists take in a book they read. From The Grapes of Wrath to The Odyssey to more students can follow in the footsteps of the people in the stories, looking at the environments and places that they visited.
Geo Challenge is a fun and challenging geography quiz game with a variety of beautiful graphics and animation to test your geography knowledge of the world. It comes with 4 mini-quizzes to test a students knowledge by asking them to answers the questions divided in 4 different categories: country flags, country borders, major cities of the world and famous landmarks around the world.
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