Discussion And Study Questions
What Led To The Decline Of The Kingdom Of Aksum
The kingdom of Axum went in decline from the late 6th century CE, perhaps due to overuse of agricultural land or the incursion of western Bedja herders who, forming themselves into small kingdoms, grabbed parts of Aksum territory for grazing their cattle and who persistently attacked Axums camel caravans.
How Did Geography And Religion Influence Ethiopias Development
Ethiopia’s location played a major part in its development as they are located near the likes of Greece and India as well as the Persian empire of the past. Having these countries as trade partners influenced the development of Ethiopia tremendously as these countries didn’t only bring stores with them but their culture, heritage and religion as well.
Correct answer is D) It included provisions that Britain stop impressing American sailors.
The Treaty established the release of all prisoners and the restoration of all disputed lands and boats, which meant that approximately 40,000 km2 of territory near the Upper and Michigan lakes returned to America in Maine and on the Pacific coast. The treaty did not impose major changes to the pre-war situation. Britain promised to return the captured slaves, but instead, a few years later, he paid £ 250,000 to the United States for them. The British proposal to create an Indian buffer zone in Ohio and Michigan collapsed after the Indian coalition collapsed. The weak guarantees regarding the American treatment of Indians in Article IX were ignored.
Why Was The Location Of Axum So Important
Aksum was perfectly located to become a major center of trade. Merchants would travel from central Africa, Persia, India, and Egypt bringing their goods to Aksum to trade. Aksum had access to several different trade routes including major waterways such as the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and the Nile River.
What Led To The Fall Of Aksum
Subsequently, Aksum could not maintain its political and social-economic system. Extensive land use that was necessary for the required high level of food production for the kingdoms large population, and probable heavier rains caused degradation of the fertile soil, which further contributed to the downfall of Aksum.
Don’t Miss: What Is Z In Chemistry
Ethiopia And The Early Islamic Period
The rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula had asignificant impact on Aksum during the seventh and eighthcenturies. By the time of the Prophet Muhammad’s death , the Arabian Peninsula, and thus the entire oppositeshore of the Red Sea, had come under the influence of thenew religion. The steady advance of the faith of Muhammadthrough the next century resulted in Islamic conquest of allof the former Sassanian Empire and most of the formerByzantine dominions.
Despite the spread of Islam by conquest elsewhere, theIslamic state’s relations with Aksum were not hostile atfirst. According to Islamic tradition, some members ofMuhammad’s family and some of his early converts had takenrefuge with the Aksumites during the troubled yearspreceding the Prophet’s rise to power, and Aksum wasexempted from the jihad, or holy war, as a result. The Arabsalso considered the Aksumite state to be on a par with theIslamic state, the Byzantine Empire, and China as one of theworld’s greatest kingdoms. Commerce between Aksum and atleast some ports on the Red Sea continued, albeit on anincreasingly reduced scale.
Serengeti And Game Reserves
The Great Rift Valley and the surrounding savannas in Kenya and Tanzania are home to some of the largest game reserves in Africa, with a broad variety of big game animals. One of these large regions is the vast Serengeti Plain, located in northern Tanzania and southern Kenya. The governments of Tanzania and Kenya maintain national parks, national game reserves, and wildlife sanctuaries in their countries, most notably in the Serengeti Plain. Legal protection for as much as 80 percent of the Serengeti has been provided. The protections restrict hunting and commercial agriculture and provide protection status for the wildlife. The word Serengeti means Endless Plains.
The Serengeti Plain is host to an extraordinary diversity of large mammals and fauna. The largest migration of land animals in the world occurs in the Serengeti. Every fall and spring, as many as two million wildebeests, antelope, and other grazing animals migrate from the northern hills to the southern plains in search of grass and food. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the Ngorongoro Crater are located on the Tanzanian side of the border. The enormous crater is the basin of an extinct volcano that has been transformed into a protected national park for the animals that graze on the grassy plains. This is a dry region because the Ngorongoro Highlands create a rain shadow for the area.
Figure 7.41 The Serengeti Plains in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Why Is Ethiopia So Special
It has the largest population of any landlocked country in the world. With mountains over 4,500 meters high, Ethiopia is the roof of Africa. The painting and crafts are especially unique, and are characterized by the North African and Middle Eastern traditional influences combined with Christian culture.
What Was Lobengula Promised
According to Helm, Rudd made a number of oral promises to Lobengula that were not in the written document, including that they would not bring more than 10 white men to work in his country, that they would not dig anywhere near towns, etc., and that they and their people would abide by the laws of his country and in
Recommended Reading: Holt Geometry Lesson 4.5 Practice B Answers
What Are Three Facts About Axum
Interesting Facts about the Kingdom of Aksum The city of Axum still exists in northern Ethiopia. It is a fairly small city with a population of just over 50,000 people. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Africa. The stone buildings in Aksum were built without the use of mortar.
How Did Egypt Become So Powerful
The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.
Don’t Miss: What Are Dyes In Chemistry
Views On The Emperors
Ethiopia is the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie as Jesus, the human incarnation of God. The Emperor himself was the defender of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, that also has a concept of Zion, although it represents a unique and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. , but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible. It is also used to refer to Axum, the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.
Genetic Diversity And Homogeneity
We used three different approaches to assess within-group genetic homogeneity in the Ethiopian ethnic groups. First, we computed the observed autosomal homozygous genotype counts for each sample using thehet command in PLINK v1.9, taking the median value within each group. Second, we pruned SNP data based on linkage disequilibrium , which left us with 359,281 SNPs, and used PLINK v1.9 to detect runs of homozygosity . This ROH procedure find runs of consecutive homozygous SNPs within groups that are identical-by-descent; here we report the total length of these runs per individual . Third, we used FastIBD, implemented in the software BEAGLE v3.3.2, to find tracts of identity by descent between pairs of individuals. For each population and chromosome, fastIBD was run for ten independent runs using an IBD threshold of 1010, as recommended by Browning and Browning, for every pairwise comparison of individuals. For each population, we report the fraction of the genome that each pair of individuals shares IBD .
We assessed whether the degree of genetic diversity in Ethiopian ethnic groups was associated with census population size, by comparing different measures of genetic diversity described above with the census population size using standard linear regression . As population census are not always available and can be inaccurate, we limited this analysis to ethnic groups in the SNNPR, for whom census information was recently reported .
You May Like: What Does I Stand For In Physics
How Did The Spread Of Christianity And Islam Affect The Kingdom Of Axum
Aksum, though weakened, remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the 7th century. However, unlike the relations between the Islamic powers and Christian Europe, Aksum , was on good terms with its Islamic neighbours and provided shelter to Muhammads early followers around 615.
How Did Christianity Influence Ethiopia
Christianity in Ethiopia is the largest religion in the country and dates back to the ancient Kingdom of Aksum, when the King Ezana first adopted the faith. This makes Ethiopia one of the first regions in the world to officially adopt Christianity. Various Christian denominations are now followed in the country.
Also Check: Geometry Segment Addition Postulate Worksheet
Somali Sultanates And Islam
During the Middle Ages, Somalias territory witnessed the emergence and decline of several powerful sultanates that dominated the regional trade. At no point was the region centralized as one state, and the development of all the sultanates;was linked to the central role that Islam played in the area since the 7th century. Islam;was introduced to the northern Somali coast from the Arabian Peninsula early on, shortly after the hijra , or;the journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad;and his followers from Mecca;to Yathrib, later renamed Medina, in 622 CE.
The oldest mosque in the city of Zeila, a major port/trading center, dates to the 7th century.;In the late 9th century, Muslims;were living along the northern Somali seaboard, and evidence suggests that Zeila was already the headquarters of a Muslim sultanate in the 9th or 10th century. According to I.M. Lewis, the polity was governed by local dynasties consisting of Somalized Arabs or Arabized Somalis, who also ruled over the Sultanate of Mogadishu;in the Benadir;region to the south.
The Economy Of Ethiopia
During the period of the revolution it is remarkable that Ethiopia had any economy. The basic economy was agricultural. Upwards of eighty percent of the population is directly or indirectly dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood. Although an overwhelming proportion of the population are engaged in agriculture, agricultural production accounts for only about 50 percent of Gross Domestic Product . Most of the farming is for the subsistence of the rural population and consists primarily of subsistence crops such as grains and pulses. The 1976-77 productions were:
*Teff is grain native to Ethiopia used inmaking the pancake-like injera
Teff, wheat and barley are cultivated in the high altitude areas and corn , millet and sorghum in the lower altitude areas. Pulses are the primary source of protein in the diet of the rural Ethiopians. In addition to the crops shown above there were about 50 thousand tons of various oil seeds grown. Their consumption is important for the times when religious observances prohibit the consumption of animal fats. The false banana is another crop that provides substantial amounts of starches for the Ethiopian diet. The plant does not produce edible bananas but its roots provide large amounts of starch.
Ethiopia also grows a substantial amount of cotton and processes it into fabric for clothing.
|Land Use Category|
*Plant leaves containing a mild stimulantsimilar in effect to caffeineEthiopia
Don’t Miss: How To Calculate Frequency Physics
Ancient And Medieval Ethiopia
The first kingdom thought to have existed in todays Ethiopia was the kingdom of Dmt, with its capital at Yeha, where a Sabaean-style temple was built around 700 BCE. It rose to power around the 10th century BCE, but little is certain about its development and decline. It is not knownwhether Dmt ended as a civilization before Aksums early stages, evolved into the Aksumite state, or was one of the smaller states united in the Aksumite kingdom;possibly around the beginning of the 1st century.Aksum is the first verifiable kingdom of great power to rise in the region. It was a trading empire;in the area of northern Ethiopia andEritrea that existed approximately from 100 to 940 CE, and was a major agent in the commercial route between theRoman Empire;and Ancient India.About 1000 , a non-Christian female ruler conquered the area. Little is known about this episode, but the later Solomonic Dynasty used the legend of a princess named Yodit to legitimize its rule.
Classifying Ethiopians Into Genetically Homogeneous Clusters
We followed Leslie et al. to generate a measure of cluster certainty using the last 100 fineSTRUCTURE MCMC samples. In particular for each of these 100 MCMC samples, we assigned a certainty score for each individual i being assigned to each final cluster j as the percentage of individuals assigned to the same cluster as individual i in that MCMC sample that are found in final cluster j. For each combination of individual and final cluster, we averaged these certainty scores across all 100 MCMC samples. For each of our 78 final clusters, in Supplementary Data; we report the average certainty score of being assigned to that cluster across all individuals assigned to that cluster. This average certainty score had a mean of 44.7% across all clusters . For comparison, the average certainty score of being assigned to a cluster other than the final classification we used had a mean of 0.7% across all clusters . We note that clusters do not necessarily correspond to distinct groups that split from one another in the past, but instead provide a convenient means to increase power and clarity of ancestry inference by merging people with similar genetic variation patterns, and separating individuals of the same self-identified label that have different genetic variation patterns.
How Did Christianity Start In Ethiopia
The adoption of Christianity in Ethiopia dates to the fourth-century reign of the Aksumite emperor Ezana. Frumentius sought out Christian Roman merchants, was converted, and later became the first bishop of Aksum. At the very least, this story suggests that Christianity was brought to Aksum via merchants.
Synthesize How Did Geography And Religion Influence Ethiopia’s Development
ethiopia is located close to the trade routes of different and important nations such as persia, iemen and india. being in contact with different kinds of culture and religion mold ethiopia through the centuries.
the development of ethiopia was highly influenced by both the geography and religion of the region. the kingdom of aksum began to thrive around 300 b.c., until approximately a.d. 600. the territory of the kingdom of aksum spread from the mountains of present-day ethiopia to the red sea. the strategic location of this kingdom made it a great candidate to become a major center of trade. it attracted merchants from central africa, persia, india, and egypt. its access to several different trade routes provided ethiopia with the perfect conditions for trade. ; its major port was the city of adulis, in the northern red sea of eritrea. a wide variety of products were traded in adulis, some of which include olive oil, cloth, gold, salt, ivory, glass, and gems. ;
as a consequence of aksum’s strategic location and its distinguished role in international trading, the culture of the city developed into a blend of several of its adjacent cultures. the people from aksum were influenced by the egyptians, the arabs, the romans and the greeks. after 325 ce christianity was the primary religion, and it had a significant impact on the culture as well. aksum was one of the most advanced cultures of ancient africa. ;
a long narrative poem about the heroic figure is a legend.
Read Also: What Does Abiotic Mean In Biology
What Happened To Axum
After a second golden age in the early 6th century the empire began to decline in the mid 6th century, eventually ceasing its production of coins in the early 7th century. Around this same time, the Aksumite population was forced to go farther inland to the highlands for protection, abandoning Aksum as the capital.
Early Populations And Neighboring States
Details on the origins of all the peoples that make up thepopulation of highland Ethiopia were still matters forresearch and debate in the early 1990s. Anthropologistsbelieve that East Africa’s Great Rift Valley is the site ofhumankind’s origins. In 1974 archaeologists excavatingsites in the Awash River valley discovered 3.5-million-year-old fossil skeletons, which they named Australopithecusafarensis. These earliest known hominids stood upright,lived in groups, and had adapted to living in open areasrather than in forests.
Coming forward to the late Stone Age, recent research inhistorical linguistics–and increasingly in archaeology aswell–has begun to clarify the broad outlines of theprehistoric populations of present-day Ethiopia. Thesepopulations spoke languages that belong to the Afro-Asiaticsuper-language family, a group of related languages thatincludes Omotic, Cushitic, and Semitic, all of which arefound in Ethiopia today. Linguists postulate that theoriginal home of the Afro-Asiatic cluster of languages wassomewhere in northeastern Africa, possibly in the areabetween the Nile River and the Red Sea in modern Sudan. Fromhere the major languages of the family gradually dispersedat different times and in different directions–theselanguages being ancestral to those spoken today in northernand northeastern Africa and far southwestern Asia.
Read Also: How To Do Friction Problems In Physics