Monday, June 17, 2024

How Has Geography Affected Where People Live On The Subcontinent

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Earliest History Of The Indian Subcontinent

Lumbering & forest exploitation is quite common in North America. Every year the unethical breakdown of forests by lumbering companies devastates the environment. The environmental effects of illegal logging include the biodiversity loss, deforestation, & the emission of greenhouse gases.

The Kingdom Of Bhutan

Landlocked and mountainous, the small Kingdom of Bhutan is remotely located next to the high Himalayas between China and India. The mountain peaks reach more than twenty-three thousand feet. Bhutan is about half the size in physical area of the US state of Kentucky and has fewer than one million people. The southern plains are warm, with subtropical weather, but the higher altitudes of the snow-capped mountains have polar-type climates. The local people call their country the Land of the Thunder Dragon because of the harsh storms they experience. Bhutan has large areas of natural habitat that have not been disturbed by human activity. The natural environment and the unique heritage and culture of the people make Bhutan an attractive destination for world travelers.

Bhutan is a small country without much industry or high-tech corporate involvement. Forestry and agriculture are the main economic activities, which account for approximately 60 percent of the countrys population. Grazing livestock and subsistence agriculture are the primary types of farming. Increasing the countrys modest infrastructure is hampered by its high mountains and remote location. India is Bhutans main trading partner and has played an important role in the countrys development and economic situation.

Figure 9.9 Bhutans Famous Taktshang Buddhist Monastery, Commonly Known as the Tigers Nest

Source: Photo courtesy of Avinash Singh, .

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Geography will always influence how people develop economically, culturally, and politically.; In present-day Pakistan, the Harappan Civilization developed along the Indus River.; The river system, as well as the yearly monsoons, provided plenty of water to support agriculture.; The annual flooding of the river left behind fertile soil to plant crops like wheat and barley.; The rivers were so vital to the success of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa that when some parts of the system dried up, the civilization went into decline.Another important aspect of the location of the Harappan civilization was the isolation.; The mountains to the west and north acted as a barrier from invasion by outside people.; The Arabian Sea to the south and west also had the same effect.; The isolation that was set by the geography allowed the cities to focus on infrastructure and technology.; There is very little evidence in the archaeological record that the Dravidians of these city-states allocated resources for military purpose.; As a result, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were some of the most developed cities in the world.; Geography played an important role in that development.;

Further Reading

Further Reading

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New Study Ties Indias Genetic Diversity To Language Not Geography

Note to journalists: For a copy of the paper, please contact Brittany Steff, Purdue News Service, at or 765-494-7833. Photos are available via . Journalists visiting campus should follow visitor health guidelines.

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. The popularity of genetic and ancestry services like and 23andMe attests that people care about where their ancestors originated. The underlying assumption is that the geography of ones forebears affects ones genes today.

Historically, scientists have found that geography is the biggest driver behind the genetic diversity of a population. Now, new research from Purdue University indicates that while that may be true for European countries, it is not true for all other parts of the world especially places like India, where language and social systems have strongly affected how and where people live. The model the researchers developed to analyze Indias population genetics will allow other researchers to analyze populations where genetics are not as closely tied to geography. Understanding the genetics of human populations helps scientists understand the history of human movement and cultures, and paves the way to understanding human health and susceptibility to disease.

Peristera Paschou, a population geneticist and associate professor of biological sciences at Purdue, studies human genetic variation all around the world and led the study with Petros Drineas, associate head of Purdues Department of Computer Science.

The Kingdom Of Kashmir

AH&R Sample Blog: Early Civilizations of Pakistan & India ...

Located in the high mountains of the north is the former Kingdom of Kashmir, a separate kingdom before the British divided South Asia. In 1947, when the British drew the boundary between India and Pakistan, the leader of Kashmir, the maharajah, chose not to be a part of either country but to remain independent. About 75 percent of the population in Kashmir was Muslim; the rest, including the maharajah, were mainly Hindu. This arrangement worked for a time, until the Muslim majority was encouraged by their fellow Muslims in Pakistan to join Pakistan. After a Muslim uprising, the maharajah asked the Indian military for assistance. India was more than pleased to oblige and saw it as an opportunity to oppose Pakistan one more time. Today Kashmir is divided, with Pakistan controlling the northern region, India controlling the southern region, and China controlling a portion of the eastern region. A cease-fire has been implemented, but outbreaks of fighting have occurred. The future of Kashmir is unclear. None of the countries involved wants to start a large-scale war, because they all have nuclear weapons.

Figure 9.8 The Issues with Kashmir

Pakistan controls the northern areas, India controls Jammu and Kashmir, and China controls the eastern portion, labeled Aksai Chin on this map. All three countries have nuclear weapons, and it seems apparent that none of the countries wants to start a nuclear war.

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How Did The Geography Of The Indian Subcontinent Influence The Development Of Civilization There

Who are the experts?Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. Educators go through a rigorous application process, and every answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team.

Geography will always influence how people develop economically, culturally, and politically.; In present-day Pakistan, the Harappan Civilization developed along the Indus River.; The river system, as well as the yearly monsoons, provided plenty of water to support agriculture.; The annual flooding of the river left behind fertile soil to plant…

Patterns Of Human Settlement In South Asia

South Asias rich cultural landscape is a product of its varied physical environment and long history of human settlement. Modern humans first settled in this area 75,000 years ago, and early human ancestors likely settled in the region hundreds of thousands of years before that. The first major civilization in South Asia was in the Indus River valley beginning around 3300 BCE. This civilization, located in present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwestern India, relied on the monsoon rains to provide water to the Indus River. Here, early settlers developed systems of urban planning, baked brick houses, and the civilization at its peak numbered over five million people.

Around 1500 BCE, the Aryans, an Indo-Iranian group from modern-day Iran, invaded northern India. The Aryans were speakers of Indo-Iranian languages and brought their language, known as Sanskrit, their culture, and their ideas of social order to the South Asian realm. Hinduism and the caste system would both emerge from the Aryan culture.

South Asia was conquered by a number of different empires, each leaving an impact on the cultural landscape. The Maurya Empire stretched across the Himalaya and Karakoram mountain ranges, extending into most of South Asia by 250 BCE followed by a number of different dynasties. In the middle ages, the Islamic Empire extended into Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Benazir Bhutto: The First Female Prime Minister Of Pakistan

Womens roles in Pakistani leadership have been complex. To understand the impact of electing the first woman prime minister in Pakistan, one has to go back to 1972. At that time, East Pakistan gained its independence and changed its name to Bangladesh. At roughly the same time, Pakistan elected President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to power. After ruling for five years, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was ousted from power and sentenced to death by General Zia, who became the next president. General Zia was the first military general to also be president. He allowed the Islamic Sharia law to be introduced into the legal system, which bolstered the influence of Islam on the military and government services. In 1988, General Zia was killed in an unexplained plane crash. The daughter of the first presidentZulfikar Ali Bhuttowas then elected as prime minister. The thirty-five-year-old Benazir Bhutto was the first female prime minister of Pakistan.

Figure 9.21

Benazir Bhutto visits the United States in 1989 while she was the prime minister of Pakistan.

Source: Photo courtesy of SRA Gerald B. Johnson, US Department of Defense, .

What Is The Indian Subcontinent

The Indian Subcontinent: A BRIEF Overview
  • A subcontinent is a part of a continent that is politically and/or geographically separate from the rest of the continent.
  • Geographically, the Indian Subcontinent consists of the peninsular part of present-day India, south of the Himalayas, on the Indian tectonic plate.
  • From a political perspective, the Indian subcontinent consists of at least 7 countries: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives.
  • Some consider Afghanistan to be part of the Indian Subcontinent.
  • The people of the Indian Subcontinent have shared ethnic, linguistic, cultural, and historical ties.

A subcontinent is a part of a continent that is politically and/or geographically separate from the rest of the continent. The Indian Subcontinent is a subcontinent for both political and geographical reasons. The countries of the Indian Subcontinent have strong political and cultural ties. It is also a subcontinent from a geographical perspective, since it is territory that is geographically separate from the rest of Asia. It should be noted that the term Indian subcontinent is often used interchangeably with the terms South Asia and Southern Asia. In international discourse, these three terms usually denote the same part of the world.

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Describes Two Ways In Which Geography And Climate Affect The People Of The Indian Subcontinent


Geography influenced formation of two cultures in the region.Climate affected the people of this region by determining the type of food and clothing.


Hills and mountains restricted the people from moving to far lands which resulted to formation of two cultures.The Vindhyan is dominated by Hindi language speakers where as the south of Vindhyan language diversity is present.Climate determines the type of food and cloths for the people.subtropical regions has most people wearing short sleeve shirts where as polar area has fully sleeve shirts for its customers. Subtropical crops such ad wheat grow in northern states of India where as the southern states enjoy rice and coconut farming.

Future Challenges And Opportunities In South Asia

Indias male-skewed population pyramid is indicative of a larger issue of gender inequality in its society. Sexual violence in particular continues to be a significant issue. Although the percentage of women who have been raped in India is lower than in other countries, a majority of rape cases are never reported and even an incidence rate of 8 or 9 percent in a population of over 1 billion people means that tens of millions of women have been victimized. The government of India has taken steps to reform its criminal code so that more criminals are prosecuted but even after a 2013 reform, marital rape continues not to be a crime. In a country that has few female police officers, high rates of domestic violence, and a relatively low status of women, sexual violence will likely remain a problem until these broader, systemic issues are addressed.

What does the future hold for South Asia? Although economic growth has reduced poverty in India, down from 60 percent in 1981 to 25 percent in 2011, corruption has increased. Inequality between genders, religious groups, castes, and ethnic groups remains a problem in much of the region. In some cases, this has led to communal conflict, which refers to violence between members of different communities. In Sri Lanka, a majority Buddhist country, ethnicity and religion are closely linked. Buddhists here have shaken the traditional peaceful image of their religion and have engaged in violent conflict with the minority Tamils and Muslims.

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Geography And Climate Of India

The geography of India is diverse and can be divided into three main regions. The first is the rugged, mountainous Himalayan region in the northern part of the country, while the second is called the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It is in this region that most of India’s large-scale agriculture takes place. The third geographic region in India is the plateau region in the southern and central portions of the country. India also has three major river systems, all of which have large deltas that take over a large portion of the land. These are the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers.

India’s climate is also varied but is tropical in the south and mainly temperate in the north. The country also has a pronounced monsoon season from June to September in its southern portion.

Economics Land Use In India


India’s economy today is a varied mix of small village farming, modern large-scale agriculture as well as modern industries. The service sector is also an incredibly large part of India’s economy as many foreign companies have;such places as call centers located in the country. In addition to the service sector, India’s largest industries are textiles, food processing, steel, cement, mining equipment, petroleum, chemicals, and computer software. India’s agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, tea, sugarcane, dairy products,;and livestock.

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Biodiversity And The Environment

Earlier sections have introduced the issues of population growth and resource depletion in South Asia. India has its share of the same environmental problems. Water pollution along the Ganges is severe and affects the largest concentration of people in India. India is the second-largest consumer of coal in the world, coal that is mainly burned to produce electricity. Burning coal adds significantly to air pollution. A rise in the number of vehicles in use, combined with few emission controls, also adds to the air pollution in urban areas. Deforestation continues in many rural areas, as was noted in earlier sections about Pakistan and Bangladesh.

India has a number of rare animal species that need habitat if they are going to survive. A few of the larger animals include the Indian Rhinoceros, Clouded Leopard, Indian Leopard, Snow Leopard, Asiatic Lion, Bengal Tiger, Asian Water Buffalo, Asian Elephant, Stripped Hyena, and the Red Panda. Many species are endangered or threatened along with many other lesser-known organisms. The high human population growth throughout South Asia places a strain on the natural habitat of wild animals. Habitat loss caused by human development makes holding on to the wide array of biodiversity difficult.

Figure 9.34

The Indian Leopard is a near-threatened species that once lived throughout South Asia.

Source: Photo courtesy of Siddhartha Lammata, .

Physical Geography Of India

The Names of The Indian Subcontinent Explained

India is a peninsula that extends into the Indian Ocean.; It is bordered in the west by the Arabian Sea and Pakistan and in the east by Myanmar, Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. In the north it has a commonborder with Bhutan, Nepal and China.

India got its present form millions of years ago when it started to drift away from the southern continent of Gondwana. After travelling northwards it collided with the Asia . During this period the worlds tallest mountains, the Himalayas, were formed. This process is still continuing as the Himalayas are getting higher and higher.

This gigantic mountain system stretches across Asia for almost 2,200 kilometers. Several parallel ranges of mountains are divided by river valleys. 14 peaks have a height of over 8,000 meters.

South of the Himalaya Mountains lie vastplains which were created by the Indus River in the west and the Ganges River in the east. They extend across northern India for about 2000 km and are up to 300 km wide. The region is not only the heart of Indias fertile farming land but also the most denselypopulated region of the country. ;The Ganges is Indias most important river. The sacred river of Hinduism starts out in the Himalaya Mountains and winds its way to Calcutta, where it flows into the Bay of Bengal.

Physical Geography – Landscapes of India
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The Indian Subcontinent: Land And Culture

The Nehru Gallery at the V&A provides an evocative architectural setting for the display of textiles, paintings, jewellery, furniture and precious objects from South Asia, dating from the 16th to the 19th century.

The great artistic developments and opulence of the Mughal Empire are a focal point of the gallery and feature outstanding examples of jade carving and manuscript painting. Also on display are arts of the Rajput kingdoms, the Muslim sultanates of the Deccan and the Sikh courts. The gallery ends with the material produced during the period of British rule in India and includes beautiful painted textiles and ivory-inlaid furniture.

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