Monday, September 27, 2021

What Is Said To Be The Origin Of Chemistry

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The Origins Of Chemistry Were Multicultural

6 Chemical Reactions That Changed History

Figure 1.15

While the word “chemistry” may have its roots in Egypt, chemical experimentation seems to have been prevalent all over the world, even as early as the 5th century BC. In China, the goal of the early alchemists was largely to find “the elixir of life” a potion that could cure all diseases and prevent death. Ironically, many of these early elixirs involved mixtures of mercury and arsenic salts, both of which are extremely poisonous. In fact, it’s rumored that several Chinese emperors actually died after drinking “elixirs of life” . Despite never finding a magical potion that could cure all diseases, early Chinese chemists did discover many new chemicals and chemical reactions, including those used in fireworks and gunpowder.

Medieval Europeans were similarly fascinated by alchemy. Unfortunately, many alchemists in Europe borrowed ideas from the more mystical of the Arabian alchemists and, as a result, European alchemy quickly became associated with wizardry, magic, and the search for the “philosopher’s stone”. It wasnt until the late 17th century that European chemists began applying the scientific method. Robert Boyle was the first European to do so, using quantitative experiments to measure the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas. His use of the scientific method paved the way for other European scientists and helped to establish the modern science of chemistry.

Figure 1.16

Time Is A Relative Thing

Every time you two are next to each other, you lose track of time.

You have so many common interests and even more mutual trust that you can talk about literally everything, so spending time with this person always feels like five minutes.

Time passes by so quickly without you even noticing it. And you know what they saytime flies when you are having fun.

However, the truth is that time flies when you are with the right person.

When you are with the right person, there are numerous topics to talk about and you couldnt get bored of each other if you wanted to.

Even if you were sitting in complete silence, you would still enjoy each others company.

The thing is, you two connected in a way you never thought possible.

You have never experienced this with anyone else, thats why there is never enough time and everything ends too soon.

Mechanistic Explanations In Chemistry

There has been a profusion of discussion in the literatures ofphilosophy of biology and philosophy of neuroscience about the notionof mechanisms and mechanistic explanations . Yet the production of mechanisms as explanatoryschemes finds its original home in chemistry, especially organicchemistry. Chemical mechanisms are used to classify reactions intotypes, to explain chemical behavior, and to make predictions aboutnovel reactions or reactions taking place in novel circumstances.

Goodwin identifies two notions of chemical mechanism at play inchemistry. The first or thick notion of mechanism is like amotion picture of a chemical reaction. Such a mechanism traces out thepositions of all of the electrons and atomic cores of some set ofmolecules during the course of a reaction, and correlates thesepositions to the potential energy or free energy of the system. Onemight think of this as an ideal reaction mechanism, as it wouldcontain all information about the time course of a chemicalreaction.

Figure 6. Thin reaction mechanism for the SN2 reaction.

Part of the reason that thin reaction mechanisms are widely used isthat determining thick reaction mechanisms is essentially impossibleexperimentally, and extremely difficult theoretically. But this cannotbe the whole story because when necessary, chemists have been able toproduce relevant portions of the thick mechanism.

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What Does Isoelectronic Mean In Chemistry

    • Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    • B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College

    Isoelectronic refers to two atoms, ions, or molecules that have the same electronic structure and the same number of valence electrons. The term means “equal electric” or “equal charge”. Isoelectronic chemical species typically display similar chemical properties. Atoms or ions with the same electronic configurations are said to be isoelectronic to each other or to have the same isoelectronicity.

    Related Terms: Isoelectronicity, Valence-Isoelectronic

    What Gets Stored In A Cookie

    Chemistry

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    Your Smile Is Your Telltale Sign

    There is no better proof of real chemistry that can say more than a simple smile. Every time the object of your affection crosses your path, you cant help but smile.

    You could be having the worst possible day but the moment they enter the room, its like sunshine came in and chased away all the clouds. Its impossible for you to feel down whenever theyre around.;

    The best part is that they dont have to do anything to light up your mood- their presence is more than enough. They dont have to say a single word- their energy alone lifts you up in a second.;

    The thing is you smile with your heart and your soul and not just your face, so the endearment you feel toward each other is undeniable.

    Everything this special person says is funny and you cant help but laugh at all of their jokes, including the cheesiest ones.;

    Its funny how somebody who is practically a stranger can make your entire day brighter and thats what true chemistry is all about.

    Of course, it goes the other way around, as well. When you come to think of it, whenever they see you, their entire face starts to shine.;

    New Elements And Gas Laws

    English chemist Humphry Davy was a pioneer in the field of electrolysis, using Alessandro Volta’s voltaic pile to split up common compounds and thus isolate a series of new elements. He went on to electrolyse molten salts and discovered several new metals, especially sodium and potassium, highly reactive elements known as the alkali metals. Potassium, the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis, was discovered in 1807 by Davy, who derived it from caustic potash . Before the 19th century, no distinction was made between potassium and sodium. Sodium was first isolated by Davy in the same year by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide . When Davy heard that Berzelius and Pontin prepared calcium amalgam by electrolyzing lime in mercury, he tried it himself. Davy was successful, and discovered calcium in 1808 by electrolyzing a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. He worked with electrolysis throughout his life and, in 1808, he isolated magnesium, strontium and barium.

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    Angelina Jolie And Brad Pittmr & Mrs Smith

    This was the film that sparked a virtual supermarket tabloid-gossip industry. Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie play an outwardly respectable married couple, each with a secret kept from the spouse: they are both professional assassins. Then each gets a commission to kill the other. The film is a bit silly, but you can see the dark and dangerous spark between the since-estranged Jolie-Pitts.

    Body Language Speaks Volumes

    Correction – 2-propylheptane should never be the name! | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy

    Sometimes, non-verbal signals talk louder than words. Lets not forget that you can choose what youll say but most of the time, you cant control your body gestures.;

    This is exactly what happens when there is chemistry between two people. There is no need to declare love to each other- your actions will speak on your behalf.;

    Its not just locking eyes and exchanging looks; if you look close enough, you will see that their pupils get dilated.

    According to scientists, this happens when we are in close proximity to the person we like and we are extremely excited to see them.

    There are a lot of non-verbal signs that can tell in-depth stories about chemistry, such as taking deep breaths, having rosy cheeks, mimicking each others moves, licking your lips, leaning toward you, slightly touching your arm, and so on.

    Whenever your chemical half is around, youll blush and your blood pressure will rise. There is nothing strange about this- its your bodys normal reaction to seeing your crush.;

    The same happens to them. Their palms get sweaty or they get tongue-twisted. As much as they try to hide it, everyone, including you, notices how nervous they get in your presence.;

    The bottom line is that body language cant conceal true chemistry, it only amplifies it.

    And lets not forget about all those accidental touches you two share all the time. Most of the time, you do it unknowingly- its like your bodies have this uncontrollable urge to be as close as possible to each other.;

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    Classical Antiquity And Atomism

    Philosophical attempts to rationalize why different substances have different properties , exist in different states , and react in a different manner when exposed to environments, for example to water or fire or temperature changes, led ancient philosophers to postulate the first theories on nature and chemistry. The history of such philosophical theories that relate to chemistry can probably be traced back to every single ancient civilization. The common aspect in all these theories was the attempt to identify a small number of primary classical elements that make up all the various substances in nature. Substances like air, water, and soil/earth, energy forms, such as fire and light, and more abstract concepts such as thoughts, aether, and heaven, were common in ancient civilizations even in the absence of any cross-fertilization: for example ancient Greek, Indian, Mayan, and Chinese philosophies all considered air, water, earth and fire as primary elements.

    Ancient world

    With the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience, the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius wrote De rerum natura in 50 BC. In the work, Lucretius presents the principles of atomism; the nature of the mind and soul; explanations of sensation and thought; the development of the world and its phenomena; and explains a variety of celestial and terrestrial phenomena.

    The Inevitable Sexual Attraction Between You

    The sexual chemistry you share makes every situation you are in incredibly tense. You feel attracted to each other in every sense, so sex isnt excluded.

    Through all the signs mentioned above, your lust for each other is intertwined somehow. Your jokes are filled with sexual implications.

    Your bodies are filled with a sexual attraction that is just waiting to be relieved.

    Physical attraction and tension surely arent the most important signs of chemistry but are equally important as the rest.

    The best type of chemistry is the one that includes all the components of body, soul, and mind, and with these, you will find that you are one step closer to finding someone to spend your forever with.

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    Different Branches Of Chemistry

    The study of chemistry can be organized into distinct branches that emphasize subsets of chemical concepts. Analytical chemistry seeks to determine the exact chemical compositions of substances. Biochemistry is the study of chemicals found in living things . Inorganic chemistry studies substances that do not contain carbon. Organic chemistry studies carbon-based substances. Physical chemistry is the study of the physical properties of chemicals. Biophysical chemistry is the application of physical chemistry in a biological context.

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    The Five Main Branches Of Chemistry

    This new Periodic Table shows the astounding origins of ...

    Traditionally, chemistry is broken into five main branches, according to the online chemistry textbook published by LibreText. There are also more specialized fields, such as food chemistry, environmental chemistry and nuclear chemistry, but this section focuses on chemistry’s five major subdisciplines.

    Analytical chemistry involves the analysis of chemicals, and includes qualitative methods like looking at color changes, as well as quantitative methods like examining the exact wavelength of light that a chemical absorbed to result in that color change.;

    These methods enable scientists to characterize many different properties of chemicals, and can benefit society in a number of ways. For example, analytical chemistry helps food companies make tastier frozen dinners by detecting how chemicals in food change when they are frozen over time. Analytical chemistry is also used to monitor the health of the environment by measuring chemicals in water or soil, for example.

    Biochemistry, as mentioned above, uses chemistry techniques to understand how biological systems work at a chemical level. Thanks to biochemistry, researchers have been able to map out the human genome, understand what different proteins do in the body and develop cures for many diseases.

    Related: Unraveling the human genome: 6 molecular milestones

    Inorganic chemistry is used to create a variety of products, including paints, fertilizers and sunscreens.;

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    Chemistry Was Derived From An Arabic Word

    When we speak of “chemistry”, we refer to the modern, scientific study of matter and the changes that it undergoes. Still, its no coincidence that the word “chemistry”, looks a lot like the word “alchemy”. Early alchemists were commonly known as ‘chemists’, and over time, people started referring to their work, particularly the more legitimate forms of it, as chemistry. In many ways, its appropriate that our word for the present-day study of matter comes from the early practice of alchemy because a lot of the techniques and equipment fundamental to modern chemistry were actually developed by early alchemists.

    The origin of the word “alchemy” is something of a mystery. Certainly, early Europeans borrowed “alchemy” from the Arabic word “al-kimia“, meaning “the art of transformation” . Most of what we know today about early alchemy is based on translations of Arabic documents. Thats because Muslim alchemists were some of the first to keep careful notes about their experiments.

    Three Failures Of Classical Physics

    Isaac Newton’s masterwork, Pincipia, published in 1687, can be considered to mark the beginning of modern physical science. Not only did Newton delineate the fundamental laws governing motion and gravitation but he established a general philosophical worldview which pervaded all scientific theories for two centuries afterwards. This system of thinking about the physical world is known as “Classical Physics.” Its most notable feature is the primacy of cause and effect relationships. Given sufficient information about the present state of part of the Universe, it should be possible, at least in principle, to predict its future behavior This capability is known as determinism. For example, solar and lunar eclipses can be predicted centuries ahead, within an accuracy of several seconds. The other great pillar of classical physics is Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism.

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    Alchemy In The Islamic World

    In the Islamic World, the Muslims were translating the works of ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers into Arabic and were experimenting with scientific ideas. The Arabic works attributed to the 8th-century alchemist JÄbir ibn HayyÄn introduced a systematic classification of chemical substances, and provided instructions for deriving an inorganic compound from organic substances by chemical means. Some Arabic Jabirian works were later translated into Latin under the Latinized name “Geber”, and in 13th-century Europe an anonymous writer, usually referred to as pseudo-Geber, started to produce alchemical and metallurgical writings under this name. Later influential Muslim philosophers, such as AbÅ« al-RayhÄn al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« and Avicenna disputed the theories of alchemy, particularly the theory of the transmutation of metals.

    Chemistry And The Natural World

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    Chemistry has the power to explain innumerable phenomena in the world, from the ordinary to the bizarre. Why does iron rust? What makes propane such an efficient, clean-burning fuel? How can soot and diamond be so different in appearance yet so chemically similar? Chemistry has the answer to these questions and many more. Understanding chemistry is the key to understanding the world as we know it.

    Chemistry

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    Jennifer Lopez And George Clooneyout Of Sight

    George Clooney is the easy-going, roguish, amiably incompetent bank robber who is quite good at everything to do with his job except getting away with it. Jennifer Lopez plays the federal marshal with a soft spot for the type of guys shes supposed to be arresting. The flame of love between the two of them is ignited when theyre locked in the back of a car.

    Little Or No Eye Contact

    When there is little or no eye contact from two people who are dating, the chemistry between them is absent. You cant make eye contact for long with someone you dont like or love; instead you keep taking a glance.;

    You dont seem comfortable when your eyes turn four with that of your partner.; This shows that you dont have anything in common. Therefore there is no form of chemistry at all.;

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    Can Other People See Chemistry Between Two People

    You might think that nobody notices whats going on between you and the object of your infatuation but trust me, everyone around you sees the obvious chemistry between you two. Its enough to pay attention to the way your eyes lock, to the way you both smile when youre together, and the way you two flirt, without even being aware of doing it.;

    Trust me: there is no point in hiding this attraction. Even if you give it a shot, your efforts will be in vain.;

    You can try lying to yourself but whoever knows you even superficially, will see that someone special entered your life and that your head is in the clouds. You dont have to confess your feelings- your face and body language will say more than enough.;

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