Exercise: Very Short Answer
Quantitative techniques/statistical techniques.
Q5. Explain different branches of geography under Biogeography.
Answer: Biogeography has emerged as a result of the interface between physical geography and human geography. It has three branches: Plant Geography, Zoo Geography and Ecology.< br> Different branches of Biogeography are as follows:< br> Plant Geography: It studies the spatial pattern of natural vegetation in their habitats.< br> Zoo Geography: It studies the spatial patterns and geographic characteristics of animals and their habitats.< br> Ecology: It is concerned with the scientific study of the habitats characteristic of species.< br> Environmental Geography: It is concerned with environmental problems such as land gradation, pollution and environment conservation.
What Does The Word Geography Mean
The word geography is of Greek origin and can be divided into two parts, geo, meaning the Earth, and graphy, which refers to writing. So geography can be loosely translated to “writing about the Earth.” Ancient geography was often descriptions of far away places, but modern geography has become much more than writing about the Earth. Contemporary geographers have a difficult time defining the discipline. Some of my favorite definitions include “the bridge between the human and the natural sciences,””the mother of all sciences,” and “anything that can be mapped.”
Cultural Geography Take One: In The Beginning
Our first take follows a conventional narrative plot that begins with origins and a classical period, then unfolds in a linear narrative of ongoing progress of new, newer, and newest cultural geography. This will give the reader a sense of comfort typical with linear, progressive stories, and it will suggest that the boundaries of cultural geography are knowable, periodic, and fixed. This will be deliberately challenged in the takes that follow.
Classical cultural geography is conventionally traced back to origins in the 1920s, with the work of Carl Sauer and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, United States of America. The Berkeley School, as it would become known, embedded an understanding of culture as both cultivation to grow or rear and as way of life. Carl Sauer coined the term cultural landscape to describe the manner in which place was fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. For Sauer,
culture was the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result . Under the influence of a given culture , itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development. With the introduction of a different that is alien culture , a rejuvenation of the cultural landscape sets in, or a new landscape is superimposed on remnants of an older one.
H. Ernste, L. Smith, in, 2009
D. Bell, in, 2009
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Th~18th Centuries In The West
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Geography as a science experiences excitement and exerts influence during the Scientific Revolution and Religion Reformation. In the Victorian period, the oversea exploration gave it institutional identity and geography was “the science of imperialism par excellence.” Imperialism is a crucial concept for the Europeans, as the institution become involved in geographical exploration and colonial project. Authority was questioned, and utility gained its importance. In the era of Enlightenment, geography generated knowledge and made it intellectually and practically possible as a university discipline. The natural theology required geography to investigate the world as a grand machine from the Divine. Scientific voyages and travels constructed geopolitical power from geographical knowledge, partly sponsored by Royal Society. John Pinkerton appraised the eighteenth century had “the gigantic progress of every science, and in particular of geographical information” and “alteration has taken place in states and boundaries.”
Over the past two centuries the quantity of knowledge and the number of tools has exploded. There are strong links between geography and the sciences of geology and botany, as well as economics, sociology and demographics.
The Emergence Of National Schools: The Role Of Human Geography In Germany And France
Human geography appeared in the 1880s and 1890s. Ratzel coined the term anthropogeographie in 1882. French geographers began to speak of la géographie humaine from 1895.
Human distributions were studied by geographers since a long time. Thanks to the progress of ethnography and folklore studies, the knowledge of the diversity of tools, know-hows, techniques, and human settlements had much progressed from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Ritters position analysis did not stress only the role of atmospheric and oceanic currents in the shaping of the diversity of the Earth, it focused also on the significance of circulation and the role of steamships in contracting the Earths surface.
What motivated the birth of human geography as a semiautonomous field of enquiry within geography was, however, Darwins interpretation of evolution. Human geography was born as a kind of ecology of human groups in their relations to environments. The main aim of the new discipline was to answer a fundamental question: up to what point were human beings and human activities a reflection of environmental conditions? Human geography was born from a deterministic interpretation of man/milieu relationships.
A. Saldanha, in, 2009
Is Rashmika Mandanna National Crush
Rashmika Mandanna, who made her acting debut with the 2016 Kannada film Kirik Party has been declared as a ‘national crush‘ by Google. The actress with close to 18 million followers on Instagram is ruling the hearts of the audience not only down South but even in the North. … The film is being helmed by Sukumar.
Urban And Regional Planning
Urban planning and regional planning use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, etcetera.
The planning of towns, cities and rural areas may be seen as applied geography although it also draws heavily upon the arts, the sciences and lessons of history. Some of the issues facing planning are considered briefly under the headings of rural exodus, urban exodus and Smart Growth.
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What Is An Example Of A Pattern In Geography
A spatial pattern is a perceptual structure, placement, or arrangement of objects on Earth. It also includes the space in between those objects. Patterns may be recognized because of their arrangement maybe in a line or by a clustering of points.
Likewise, what is pattern example? The definition of a pattern is someone or something used as a model to make a copy, a design, or an expected action. An example of a pattern is the paper sections a seamstress uses to make a dress a dress pattern. An example of a pattern is polka dots.
Also Know, what is pattern in human geography?
Grid Pattern reflects a rectangular system or land survey adopted in much of the country under the Ordinance of 1785. Human Geography. a branch of geography that focuses on people, dealing with how human activity affects or is influenced by the earth’s surface.
What are the two different types of patterns in geography?
There are three types of settlement patterns– dispersed, linear and nucleated. Dispersed settlement patterns are made up of individual buildings scattered over a wide area. These buildings mat be separated by large open spaces, farmlands, forests or grasslands.
What Was The First Civilization
The Mesopotamian CivilizationThe Mesopotamian Civilization. And here it is, the first civilization to have ever emerged. The origin of Mesopotamia dates back so far that there is no known evidence of any other civilized society before them. The timeline of ancient Mesopotamia is usually held to be from around 3300 BC to 750 BC.Dec 21, 2019
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Is Aristotle The Father Of Geography
Aristotle He was a disciple of Plato, the main disciple of the great philosopher Socrates. He had a keen interest in Physics, biology and philosophy. But he has not done any remarkable work in the field of Geography. He was the founder of Geography and holds the credit to calculate the circumference of the Earth.
What Is Human Geography
Defining human geography is especially difficult because of complicating factors like the relationship between human geography and geography the rather late professionalization of the discipline variations in human geography written in different languages and the difficulty of being able to identify definitive research questions, sequential paradigms, or key thinkers. It is tempting to define a common ground for human geography’s intellectual core , and wish to enforce this. Such a common ground might provide human geography with a sense of unity. But the reality of how human geography is practiced simply cannot sustain this. As David Livingstone so powerfully put it in The Geographical Tradition , The idea that there is some eternal metaphysical core to geography independent of historical circumstances will simply have to go.
Table 1. Contents of Progress in Human Geography, 19782007 numbers of articles by subdisciplinary themea
C. Gibson, G. Waitt, in, 2009
What Do Modern Geographers Do
While there are a few jobs with the title of “geographer,” many geography students use their analytical ability and knowledge of the world to work in a variety of fields. Geography students often take jobs in fields such as city planning, cartography, marketing, real estate, environment, and teaching.
What Is Geography In 11th Class
Geography is the description of the earth. It is derived from two roots from Greek language: Geo meaning earth and graphos meaning description. Scholars defined Geography as the description of the earth as the abode of human beings. Geography draws its subject matter from the natural sciences and social sciences.
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A Move Toward Regional Science
In the 1950s the regional science movement arose, led by Walter Isard to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the more qualitative tendencies of traditional geography programs. Regional Science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as regional economics, resource management, location theory, urban and regional planning, transportation and communication, human geography, population distribution and environmental quality.
Why Geography Is Called Mother Of All Science
Geography is often times called the mother of all sciences because geography is one of the earliest known scientific disciplines that date back to the original Homo-sapiens who migrated out of eastern Africa, into Europe, Asia, and beyond. A cartographer is someone who is skilled in the science and art of map-making.
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A Brief History Of Geography As A Field Of Study
The Greeks are the first known culture to actively explore geography as a science and philosophy, with major contributors including Thales of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Aristotle, Dicaearchus of Messana, Strabo, and Ptolemy. Mapping by the Romans as they explored new lands added new techniques.
During the Middle Ages, Arabs such as Idrisi, Ibn Battuta, and Ibn Khaldun built on and maintained the Greek and Roman learnings. Following the journeys of Marco Polo, interest in geography spread throughout Europe.
During the Renaissance and into the 16th and 17th centuries the great voyages of exploration revived a desire for solid theoretical foundations and accurate detail. The Geographia Generalis by Bernhardus Varenius and Gerardus Mercators world map are prime examples.
How Do We Use The Three Laws Of Motion In Everyday Life
Examples of Newtons third law of motion are ubiquitous in everyday life. For example, when you jump, your legs apply a force to the ground, and the ground applies and equal and opposite reaction force that propels you into the air. Engineers apply Newtons third law when designing rockets and other projectile devices.
Exercise: Long Answer Type
Q1. What is the importance of Physical Geography?
Q2. Physical and human factors both are dynamic not static. Explain.
Q3. Explain different branches of Physical geography.
Answer: It has four sub-branches which are as follows:-Geomorphology: It is concerned with the study of landforms, their evolution and related processes.-Climatology: It is concerned with the study of structure of atmosphere and elements of weather and climates and climatic types and regions.-Hydrology: It studies the realm of water over the surface of the earth including oceans, lakes, rivers and other water bodies and its effect on different life forms including human life and their activities.-Soil Geography: It is concerned with the study of the processes of soil formation, soil types, their fertility status, distribution and use.
Q4. What matters are studied under Human Geography?
Measuring The Earth’s Circumference
Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth without leaving Egypt. He knew that on the summer solstice at local noon at the Syene on the Tropic of Cancer, the sun would appear at the directly overhead. He also knew, from measurement, that in Alexandria, the angle of elevation of the sun would be 1/50 of a full circle ” rel=”nofollow”> °12‘) south of the zenith at the same time.
Assuming that Alexandria was due north of Syene he concluded that the distance from Alexandria to Syene must be 1/50 of the total circumference of the Earth . His estimated distance between the cities was 5000 stadia by estimating the time that he had taken to travel from Syene to Alexandria by camel. He rounded the result to a final value of 700 stadia per degree, which implies a circumference of 250,000 stadia. The exact size of the stadion he used is frequently argued. The common Attic stadium was about 185 metres , which would imply a circumference of 46,250 kilometres or 28,740 miles, which is 6,250 kilometres different from the currently accepted circumference of the Earth . The method is an early application of trigonometry in the measurement science of geodesy.
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What Is An Example Of Newtons Second Law In Everyday Life
Following are Newtons second law examples in everyday life: Pushing a car is easier than pushing a truck with the same amount of force as the mass of the car is lesser than the mass of the truck. In golf game, acceleration of the golf ball is directly proportional to the force with which it is hit by the golf stick.
From The Nature Of Geography:
The ultimate purpose of geography, the study of areal differentiation of the world, is most clearly expressed in regional geography only by constantly maintaining its relation to regional geography can systematic geography hold to the purpose of geography and not disappear into other sciences. On the other hand, regional geography in itself is sterile without the continuous fertilization of generic concepts and principles from systematic geography, it could not advance to higher degrees of accuracy and certainty in interpretation or its findings.
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Who Invented Geography
The Greek philosopher Thales was one of the first to argue about the shape of the world in the sixth century b.c.e. And Chinese texts of the fifth century b.c.e. describe the provinces of China in great detail. However, the Greek scholar Eratosthenes is credited with the first use of the word geography in the third century b.c.e. He is also known as the “father of geography” for his geographical writing and accomplishments, including the measurement of the circumference of the Earth.
What Is Geologic Time
Geologic time is a time scale that divides the history of the planet Earth into eras, periods, and epochs from the birth of the planet to the present. The oldest era is the Precambrian, which began 4.6 billion years ago and ended about 570 million years ago. Next came the Paleozoic Era, which lasted from 570 to 245 million years ago, followed by the Mesozoic Era, from 245 to 66 million years ago. We’re now living in the
When did geography begin?
We must assume that one of the earliest questions human beings asked was “What’s over that hill?” Geographic thought has been present for thousands of yearsmaps drawn in the sand or etched in stone, as well as explorations to distant lands, were made by the earliest civilizations. Geographic knowledge has been accumulating since the beginning of humankind.
Cenozoic Era, which began 66 million years ago. The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras are each divided into periods. Additionally, the Cenozoic Era is divided into even smaller units of time called epochs. The last ten thousand years is called the Holocene Epoch.
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What Is Studied In Geography
Therefore, Geography is the science that deals with the description of the Earths surface. Geography is a multi disciplinary fields that studies spatial patterns and phenomenon.
Geography is much more than cartography, the study of maps or simply knowing the capitals of every country. The field of geography not only investigates what is where on the Earth, but also why its there and not somewhere else, sometimes referred to as location in space.
Geography studies this whether the cause is natural or human. It also studies the consequences of those differences.
Who Discovered Diameter Of Earth
Eratosthenes of CyreneThe first person to determine the size of Earth was Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who produced a surprisingly good measurement using a simple scheme that combined geometrical calculations with physical observations. Eratosthenes was born around 276 B.C., which is now Shahhat, Libya. He studied in Athens at the Lyceum.Jun 21, 2006
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