Research Focus: Do We Have Free Will
The behaviourist research program had important implications for the fundamental questions about nature and nurture and about free will. In terms of the nature-nurture debate, the behaviourists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments. They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviours are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are a lot like puppets in a show who dont realize that other people are controlling them. Furthermore, although we do not cause our own actions, we nevertheless believe that we do because we dont realize all the influences acting on our behaviour.
The behaviourists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviourists were incorrect in their beliefs that it was not possible to measure thoughts and feelings, their ideas provided new ideas that helped further our understanding regarding the nature-nurture debate and the question of free will. The ideas of behaviourism are fundamental to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of prior experiences in a variety of areas of psychology.
Boredom And Maladaptive Behavior
Boredom and BP were found to be linked with maladaptive behavior in several domains.
Whereas boredom was not found to be significantly related to levels of intelligence and education , it is recognized as a widespread and significant problem. Boredom and lack of curiosity were reported to be the most common cause of drug use , and has been associated with eating disorders for both obese and non-obese persons .
Bored students were rated more often as maladjusted by teachers in comparison to other students . In work-life, job dissatisfaction and diminished performance efficiency, tend to be highly correlated with boredom and BP . BP was found to be a predictor of aggressive and risky driving .
Evidences of an inverse relationship between the ability to cope adaptively with boredom and psychopathology were reported by Hamilton et al. . High boredom- copers reported better well-being and greater compliance with organizational safety rules, compared with low boredom- copers .
Positive correlations between boredom and BP and between level of hopelessness in a hopelessness scale and negative correlations with personal life satisfaction across many dimensions were reported .
Which Of The Following Best Reflects Psychology’s Goal Of Explanation
A) Researchers have developed a test that shows which individuals are likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease.B) Researchers have studied how smoking habits develop so that they may develop techniques to prevent teenagers from starting the habit.C) Researchers have identified a gene involved in many cases of obesity.D) Researchers have examined hundreds of cases of dissociative identity disorder in order to provide a clear picture of the disorder.
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Beginning Of Experimental Psychology
Gustav Fechner began conducting psychophysics research in Leipzig in the 1830s. He articulated the principle that human perception of a stimulus varies logarithmically according to its intensity. The principle became known as the WeberFechner law. Fechner’s 1860 Elements of Psychophysics challenged Kant’s negative view with regard to conducting quantitative research on the mind. Fechner’s achievement was to show that “mental processes could not only be given numerical magnitudes, but also that these could be measured by experimental methods.” In Heidelberg, Hermann von Helmholtz conducted parallel research on sensory perception, and trained physiologist Wilhelm Wundt. Wundt, in turn, came to Leipzig University, where he established the psychological laboratory that brought experimental psychology to the world. Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of materials.Paul Flechsig and Emil Kraepelin soon created another influential laboratory at Leipzig, a psychology-related lab, that focused more on experimental psychiatry.
Laws And Theories As Organizing Principles
One goal of research is to organize information into meaningful statements that can be applied in many situations. Principles that are so general as to apply to all situations in a given domain of inquiry are known as laws. There are well-known laws in the physical sciences, such as the law of gravity and the laws of thermodynamics, and there are some universally accepted laws in psychology, such as the law of effect and Webers law. But because laws are very general principles and their validity has already been well established, they are themselves rarely directly subjected to scientific test.
The next step down from laws in the hierarchy of organizing principles is theory. A theory is an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all, observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry. One example of an important theory in psychology is the stage theory of cognitive development proposed by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget. The theory states that children pass through a series of cognitive stages as they grow, each of which must be mastered in succession before movement to the next cognitive stage can occur. This is an extremely useful theory in human development because it can be applied to many different content areas and can be tested in many different ways.
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The Four Goals Of Psychology: What Are They
Medically Reviewed By: Rachael Lee
Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior. It is a multifaceted discipline of the sciences and includes many sub-fields of study, such as human development, social behavior, and cognitive processes. Psychology focuses on understanding a person’s emotions, personality, and mind through scientific studies, experiments, observation, and research. The study of psychology has four goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, and Change/Control.
We describe things every day with no conscious thought or effort, but the describing of psychology has a slightly different meaning than the describing we do in our day-to-day lives. Accurately describing a problem, an issue, or a behavior is the first goal of psychology. Descriptions help psychologists to distinguish between typical and atypical behaviors and gain more accurate understandings of human and animal behaviors and thoughts. A variety of research methods, including case studies, surveys, self-tests, and natural observation allow psychologists to pursue this goal.
Making predictions about how humans and animals willthink and act is the third goal of psychology. By looking at past observed behavior , psychologists aim to predict how that behavior may appear again in the future, as well as whether others might exhibit the same behavior.
How Can the Four Goals of Psychology Help You?
How Can You Use the Four Goals in Your Life?
Boredom Bp And Psychological Time
Based on the former review of prospective timing and attentional model like the AGM, the state of boredom can be defined as a mental state characterized by low level of non-temporal information processing load. The negative emotion which accompanies boredom leads one to wish for the ending of the situation, and therefore, like in waiting, most of a persons available attentional resources are allocated for prospective timing. The result is a feeling of duration lengthening or slowing of the pace of the flow of time . Note, that even if the feeling of the flow of time might be considered a perceptual illusion , it is still a source of information. This is similar to perceptual illusions like apparent motion or the phi phenomenon which provide significant information, albeit an illusionary one. Not much research has tested the relation between perceived duration and boredom. In one of the BP scales three items out of 28 relate to time. Watt found that highly boredom- prone individuals perceived time as passing more slowly during a boring task than low boredom-prone persons, but the two groups did not differ in their objective or chronometric time-passage estimates. Similarly, Wittman and Paulus report that high boredom-prone individuals perceive a slowing of the pace of time and overestimated durations in time-estimation tasks, when a reproduction method was used. .
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The Perspectives Of Psychology
Structuralism and functionalism have since been replaced by several dominant and influential approaches to psychology, each one underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it.
Psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud was the dominant paradigm in psychology during the early twentieth century.Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight.
Freudâs psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach as a whole includes all theories that were based on his ideas, e.g., , Adler and Erikson .
The classic contemporary perspectives in psychology to adopt scientific strategies were the behaviorists, who were renowned for their reliance on controlled laboratory experiments and rejection of any unseen or unconscious forces as causes of behavior.
Later, the humanistic approach became the ‘third force’ in psychology and proposed the importance of subjective experience and personal growth.
During the 1960s and 1970s, psychology began a cognitive revolution, adopting a rigorous, scientific, lab-based scientific approach with application to memory, perception, cognitive development, mental illness, and much more.
Developments In Humanistic Psychology
In the late 1950s, a group of psychologists convened in Detroit, Michigan, to discuss their interest in a psychology that focused on uniquely human issues, such as the self, self-actualization, health, hope, love, creativity, nature, being, becoming, individuality, and meaning. These preliminary meetings eventually culminated in the description of humanistic psychology as a recognizable third force in psychology, along with behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Humanisms major theorists were Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May, and Clark Moustakas it was also influenced by psychoanalytic theorists, including Wilhelm Reich, who discussed an essentially good, healthy core self, and Carl Gustav Jung, who emphasized the concept of archetypes.
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The Many Disciplines Of Psychology
Psychology is not one discipline but rather a collection of many subdisciplines that all share at least some common approaches and that work together and exchange knowledge to form a coherent discipline . Because the field of psychology is so broad, students may wonder which areas are most suitable for their interests and which types of careers might be available to them. Table 1.5, Some Career Paths in Psychology, will help you consider the answers to these questions. You can learn more about these different fields of psychology and the careers associated with them at http://www.psyccareers.com/.
Functionalism And Evolutionary Psychology
In contrast to Wundt, who attempted to understand the nature of consciousness, William James and the other members of the school of functionalism aimed to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess . For James, ones thinking was relevant only to ones behaviour. As he put it in his psychology textbook, My thinking is first and last and always for the sake of my doing . James and the other members of the functionalist school were influenced by Charles Darwins theory of natural selection, which proposed that the physical characteristics of animals and humans evolved because they were useful, or functional. The functionalists believed that Darwins theory applied to psychological characteristics too. Just as some animals have developed strong muscles to allow them to run fast, the human brain, so functionalists thought, must have adapted to serve a particular function in human experience.
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Which Of The Following Are The Goals Of Psychology
4/5goals of psychology
Furthermore, which is a correct list of the goals of psychology?
There are four basic goals of psychology: to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior .
One may also ask, which of the following are the goals of psychology Brainly? There are primarily four goals of psychology that are to describe, to explain, to predict, and to control the mental processes as well behavior people.
In this regard, what are the 5 main goals of psychology?
The study of psychology has five basic goals:
- Describe The first goal is to observe behavior and describe, often in minute detail, what was observed as objectively as possible.
What are the goals of psychology PDF?
5 Goals of Psychology. pdf – 5 Goals of Psychology Observe describe explain predict and control Observe and describe watch and summarize I.e Measure | Course Hero.
Types Of Research Errors
Whilst the scientific method attempts to obtain accurate and reliable information, sometimes it is possible that the information collected was wrong. This is known as a decision error, of which there are two types.
Type I Error
A type I error occurs when a hypothesis has been accepted when it should have been rejected.
A famous example of a type I error occurred when the astronomer Percival Lowell concluded that there were canals on Mars, when later research showed that this was not the case. He made a type I error, because what his evidence told him was correct was actually incorrect.
Type II Error
A type II error occurs when a hypothesis is rejected when it should have been accepted.
For example, before the research done by Louis Pasteur, many doctors rejected the idea that invisible germs cause disease and so saw no point in washing their hands before operating on patients. They made a type II error, because they rejected something which was correct.
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This Is For Psychologywhich Of The Following Best Represents The Connection Between The Definition Of The Greek Word That Is
This is for psychology
Which of the following best represents the connection between the definition of the Greek word that is the basis for the word psychology and the goals ofmodern psychology?A. Psyche can be translated as conscious self and the most basic goal of psychology is for humans to have a better understanding of their ownthoughts, feelings, and behaviors, or to be conscious of themselves.B. Psyche can be translated as life, and the goal of psychology is a contemplation of the meaning of life.C. Psyche is the root of the word psychic, and the goal of psychology is to intuitively know how other people feel.D. Psyche is the name of a Greek maiden who had trouble with the goddess Venus, and the goal of psychology is to fix relationships.
Ivan Pavlov And Classical Conditioning
The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was widely known for describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning. In his famous 1890s experiment, he trained his dogs to salivate on command by associating the ringing of a bell with the delivery of food. As Pavlovs work became known in the West, particularly through the writings of John B. Watson, the idea of conditioning as an automatic form of learning became a key concept in the development of behaviorism.
Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov is best known for his classical conditioning experiments with dogs.
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Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs
Abraham Maslow is considered the founder of humanistic psychology, and is noted for his conceptualization of a hierarchy of human needs. He believed that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potentialor to reach what he called self-actualization. Unlike many of his predecessors, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. Through his research he coined the term peak experiences, which he defined as high points in which people feel at harmony with themselves and their surroundings. Self-actualized people, he believed, have more of these peak experiences throughout a given day than others.
Maslows hierarchy of needs In Maslows hierarchy of needs, a person must first have their lower-level, physical needs met before they can progress to fulfilling higher-level, psychological needs.
History Of Social Psychology
The discipline of social psychology began in the United States in the early 20th century. The first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, Gestalt psychologists such as Kurt Lewin were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time.
During World War II, social psychologists studied the concepts of persuasion and propaganda for the U.S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems including gender issues, racial prejudice, cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, aggression, and obedience to authority. During the years immediately following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists however, the two disciplines have become increasingly specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing more on macro-level variables .
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Putting It All Together
If we put all this information together using the example I gave previously about omega 3 and test scores, you may be able to gain a better understanding of the experimental method in action.
Hypothesis : Omega 3 supplements will have an effect on test results.
The first thing we need to do is to create two groups, a control group and an experimental group .
In order for these groups to be fair, we need to divide them by random. This could involve each student writing their name down on paper and being randomly drawn. This randomization process will help to cancel out individual differences between the students which may give inaccurate or biased results.
The independent variable which we are testing is omega 3, because we predict that it will have an effect on test scores. This will be given to the experimental group at a predetermined dose.
The dependent variable is the test score, because we are seeing how students are affected by the omega 3 and recording these results via a test score.
If we find that after the experiment omega 3 supplementation results in higher test scores in the experimental group , we can perform a statistical analysis to see if the results occurred due to chance. If they are not, we can then conclude with some degree of certainty that omega 3 supplementation results in better grades.
Reviewed 26th March 2016