Understanding Distribution And City Size
Under very unusual circumstances, one might find that among a group of cities, no single city has unique site location advantages over others. This might happen out on a vast plain, like in Kansas, where there are no navigable rivers, waterfalls or ports. In instances like this, situation advantages come to the fore, and a regular, geometric pattern of cities may emerge. This process was more pronounced when transportation was primitive, and the friction of distance was considerable, but it can still be witnessed by picking up a map of almost any flat region of the earth. Geographer Walter Christaller noticed the pattern and developed the Central Place Theory to explain the pattern and the logic driving it forward.
Each merchant and service provider also requires a minimum number of regular customers in order to stay in business. Christaller called this number the threshold population. A major-league sports franchise has a threshold population of probably around a million people, most of whom must live in that teams range. There are only 30 Major League Baseball teams in the United States, and the team with the smallest market has a threshold population of 2 million people. An ordinary Wal-Mart store probably has a threshold of about 20,000 people, so they are far more numerous. Starbucks Coffee shops probably have a threshold of about 5,000 people or less, because there are so many locations.
What Is Meant By Site Of A Settlement
The site of a settlement is the land upon which it was built. There is a range of human and physical factors that determine the site of a settlement. The factors that affect the site of a settlement include: relief the shape of the land affects where buildings are constructed and flat land is preferable for building.
Site And Situation In Urban Geography
- M.A., Geography, California State University – East Bay
- B.A., English and Geography, California State University – Sacramento
The study of settlement patterns is one of the most important subjects of urban geography. Settlements can range in size from a small village with a few hundred residents to a metropolitan city of over one million people. Geographers often study the reasons why cities develop where they do and what factors lead to a settlement becoming a large city over time or remaining as a small village.
Some of the reasons behind these growth patterns are related to the area’s site and its situation. “Site” and “situation” are two essential concepts in the study of urban geography.
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What Is Site In Human Geography
Site is the exact location of a city you can find it on a map. The situation of a city relates to its surrounding features both human-made and natural. The situation of the city includes characteristics that are external to the settlement. The site is the land that the city was built upon.Jun 1 2020
What Is An Example Of Site In Geography
The site is the actual location of a settlement on the Earth and the term includes the physical characteristics of the landscape specific to the area. New York City for example is located where it is because of several site factors. See also what comprises the physical environment in which we live
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Slums And Shanty Towns
Some of these inner-city areas are slums, which is a densely populated urban informal settlement consisting of poor, inadequate living standards. Most slums lack proper sanitation services, access to clean drinking water, law enforcement, or other necessities of living in an urban area.
A shanty town, also known as a squatter, is a slum settlement that usually consists of building material made from plywood sheets of plastic, cardboard boxes, and other cheap material. They are usually found on the periphery of cities or near rivers, lagoons, or city trash dumps.
When residents in a neighborhood lack the money, political organizational skills, or the motivation to protect themselves from disamenities, defined as drawbacks or disadvantages, especially about location, significant neighborhood degradation is possible. Poor people of all ethnicities can rarely afford to live in neighborhoods that have the outstanding schools, parks, air quality, etc., and so they are often able to afford to live only in the most dangerous, toxic, degraded neighborhoods. Racism is undoubtedly a common variable in the poverty equation, but it is rarely the only one.
Scope Of Urban Geography
The scope of urban geography encompasses most aspects of what urban planners and geographers need to study. This includes the origin and evolution of cities including models of city structure, links between infrastructure and transportation, demographic makeup, and development . To better understand these concepts, it’s useful to create links to the historical context of when and why cities evolved. Here are some questions you can ask yourself to help you make those links:
- How old is this city? Was it built before or after the automobile?
- What kind of historical , social , and economic forces influenced the development of a city?
- As an example, take a closer look at your nearest city. How and why do you think it was built? What are the challenges it faces?
Some of these questions can also appear on the AP Human Geography exam!
What Is The Site Of A City
Site is the exact location of a city you can find it on a map. The situation of a city relates to its surrounding features both human-made and natural. The site of a city has features that are inherent to its location. The site is the land that the city was built upon. See also how far is mt mckinley from anchorage
Presentation On Theme: Site And Situation Ap Human Geography Presentation Transcript:
1 Site and SituationAP Human Geography
2 BR: What is the best location for a large city?
3 Near WaterNear ResourcesWhere else?
4 Where it is and whats around it.Patterns of urban development occur according to the site and situation of locations:Where it is and whats around it.
5 Site and SituationPatterns of urban development occur according to the site and situation of locations: Where it is and whats around it.
6 What is meant by site?
7 Site is the actual location of a city.Cities will grow and prosper in locations that offer some advantages.
8 Examples of Site Harbor sites: the site of a natural harborIsland sites: the site of islands in strategic locationsConfluence sites: the site where rivers convergeHilltop sites: the site at the top of a hillOasis sites: the site in the desert where caravans stopped for water
9 New York City became a major city because it is located on a natural harbor.
10 Paris, France became a major city because it is located on an Island in the Seine River.
11 Hong Kong, China became a major city because it is located on an Island.
12 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania became a major city because it is located at the site where three rivers converge .
13 Rome, Italy became a major city because it is located at on a hill overlooking the city.
14 Athens, Greece became a major city because it is located at on a hill overlooking the city.
15 Damascus, Syria became a major city because it is located at the site of an oasis.
16 What is meant by situation?
Connecting With Space And Place
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earths surface and the human societies spread across it. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Read More…
Economic Development And City Infrastructure
The evidence of the definite link between urban areas and economic development is overwhelming. With just 54 percent of the worlds population, cities account for more than 80 percent of global GDP. Figure 7.24 and Figure 7.25 respectively show the contribution of cities in developed and developing countries to national income. In virtually all cases, the contribution of urban areas to national income is more significant than their share of the national population. For instance, Paris accounts for 16 percent of the population of France, but generates 27 percent of GDP. Similarly, Kinshasa and metro Manila account for 13 percent and 12 percent of the population of their respective countries, but generate 85 percent and 47 percent of the income of the democratic republic of Congo and Philippines respectively. The ratio of the share of urban areas income to share of the population is more considerable for cities in developing countries vis-à-vis those of developed countries. This is an indication that the transformative force of urbanization is likely to be higher in developing countries, with possible implications for harnessing the positive nature of urbanization.
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Understanding Internal City Structure And Urban Development
Most urban centers begin in the downtown region called the central business district . The CBD tends to be the node or of transportation networks along with commercial property, banking, journalism, and judicial departments like City Hall, courts, and libraries. Because of high competition and limited space, property values for commercial and private ownership tend to be at a premium. CBDs also tend to use land above and below ground in the form of subways, underground malls, and high- rises. Sports facilities and convention centers also tend to be dominating forces in CBDs.
Urban planning is a sub-field of geography and until recently was part of geography departments in academia. An urban planner is someone trained in multiple theories of urban development along with developing ways to minimize traffic, decrease environmental pollution, and build sustainable cities. Urban planners, sociologists, along with geographers, have come up with three models to demonstrate and explain how cities grow.
The third and final urban design is called the multiple nuclei model. In this model, the city is more complex and has more than one CBD. A node could exist for the downtown region, another where a university is situated, and maybe another where an international airport may be. Some clustering does exist in this model because some sectors tend to stay away from other sectors. For example, the industry does not tend to develop next to high-income housing.
Urban And Suburban Sprawl
Not all of a citys residents live within the urban cores. Over half of all people live in the suburbs rather than in the city or rural areas. There was a suburban sprawl model developed to explain U.S. development called the peripheral model. This model states that urban areas consist of a CBD followed by large suburban are of business and residential developments. The outer regions of the suburbs become transition zones of rural areas.
The attraction to suburbs is low crime rates, lack of social and economic problems, detached single-family housing, access to parks, and usually better schooling. These are nationwide generalizations and not necessarily true everywhere. Suburbs also tend to create economic and social segregation, where tax revenues and social resources provide better funding opportunities than in inner cities.
Of course, there is also a cost to suburban sprawling. Developers are always looking for cheaper land to build, which usually means developing rural areas and farmland rather than expanding next to existing suburbs. Air pollution and traffic congestion also become a problem as working households are required to travel farther to and from work. Suburbs tend to be less commuter friendly to those who walk or bike because the model of development is based around vehicle transportation.
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Are Site And Situation Still Important Today
We saw that in the case of Paris, a citys site and situation play an important role in its growth and these factors play out again and again throughout the history of urban development as factors in making great cities the prosperous urban centers that they are today. This will be true as we move forward as well. Whether a city grows or becomes another victim of urban decay, still depends on their site and situation. Technological advances in transportation and communication may help to mitigate some of the negative aspects of a citys site or situation, by bringing countries closer together.
The Nature And Function Of Cities
Urban settlements date back more than 5,000 years. You will find the worlds first cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt, China, and Meso-America . Why did cities first develop in those areas? There was a combination of factors like agricultural surplus, access to a water source, increasing population, defense, religion, and trade.
The center of every advanced civilization is the city. The city acts as the hub of a geographic region or area and is the agent for political, economic and social activities. The larger the city becomes, the more it serves as a powerful force within its sphere of influence. There is a myriad of functions that the city provides its residents. Those functions include transportation, communication, retail and wholesale operations, political, medical, safety, defense, legal and financial services.
A city does not operate independently but relies on other cities within the region, and often has a particular role or purpose, within that region. Almost all cities were well planned out before being built, taking into account two crucial locational aspects. Those aspects were site and situation two terms that are important in the study of geography.
How Do You Describe Place In Geography
Geographers describe a place by two kinds of characteristics: physical and human. The physical characteristics of a place make up its natural environment and include landforms bodies of water climate soils natural vegetation and animal life. The human characteristics of a place come from human ideas and actions.
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Difference Between Site And Situation
Site vs Situation
Site and situation are words that are used very commonly in the field of geography while talking about settlements. The growth of a particular settlement hinges upon both its site as well as its situation. There are students of geography and also laymen who remain confused between site and situation because of the similarities in these two concepts. This article attempts to find out the differences between site and situation to make them clear for the readers.
Site of a settlement or for that matter any structure is its exact location. If you know the coordinates of a site, you can easily trace it on the map of the place. People choose a particular location for their settlement if it has favorable conditions for living such as the availability of water, building material, fuel for their energy requirements, barrier to defend themselves from aggressors and natural calamities, and land that is safe for dwelling units to be built on it. The site of a settlement is also dependent upon whether it is suitable for trading or not. In ancient times, settlements often resulted because of their proximity to water bodies to allow the inhabitants to trade through the port.
What is the difference between Site and Situation?
Situation is in relation to the surrounding physical features while site is the exact location of a structure or settlement.
If you know the site, you can easily locate a settlement on the map.
What Factors Should You Look For When Trying To Identify The Site And Situation Factors That Impacted The Location Of A Settlement
Situations are typically defined by the physical elements of a location that helped determine it as good for settlement which can include factors such as availability of building materials and water supply the quality of soil the climate of the region and opportunities for shelters and defense for this reason
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What Is Space In Geography Example
To geographers a space is a general objective location or area. For example when Dustin is studying the languages humans speak he might look at America or he might compare residents of Texas to residents of Nevada or Massachusetts. The U.S. as well as the states of Texas Nevada and Massachusetts are all spaces.
What Is The Difference Between Site And Location
As nouns the difference between site and locationSee also what height above sea level is my house is that site is sorrow grief or site can be the place where anything is fixed situation local position as the site of a city or of a house while location is a particular point or place in physical space.
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What Is The Site And Situation Of Barcelona
Barcelona facing the Mediterranean to the southeast is located on a plain generally confined by the Besós River the Llobregat River the rocky outcrop of Montjuich and the semicircle of mountains of which Tibidabo is the highest point. See also matter changes state because of pressure temperature and what