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What Does Oh Mean In Biology

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Phase 2 Enzymes Or Proteins

What Does a Charge in Chemistry Mean? : Chemistry & Biology Concepts

Phase 1 and phase 2 reactions are related to biotransformation of xenobiotics. Phase 1 biotransformation reactions include oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Phase 2 biotransformation involves primarily conjugation reactions, such as conjugation with endogenous cellular ligands . Glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase catalyze conjugation with glutathione and glucuronic acid, respectively. These enzymes along with many others involved in phase 2 biotransformation reactions of xenobiotics are classically referred to as phase 2 proteins or enzymes. Recently, the term phase 2 proteins is expanded to include not only the above xenobiotic-conjugating enzymes, but also NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, -glutamylcysteine ligase, heme oxygenase-1, leukotriene B4 dehydrogenase, aflatoxin B1 dehydrogenase, and ferritin . Some of the above phase 2 proteins, such as -glutamylcysteine ligase, heme oxygenase-1, and ferritin are typically classified as antioxidants. As such, the compound term antioxidative/phase 2 proteins is frequently encountered in biology and medicine. Indeed, many phase 2 proteins possess significant antioxidant activities.

What Is A Base In Biology


In chemistry, a base is a chemical species that donates electrons, accepts protons, or releases hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Types of bases include Arrhenius base, Bronsted-Lowry base, and Lewis base.

Furthermore, what is an acid and a base in biology? A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that has the same composition throughout. Some solutions are acids, some are bases. Acids have a higher concentration of hydronium ions than pure water, and a pH lower than 7. Bases have a lower concentration of hydronium ions than pure water, and a pH higher than 7.

Also, what is an example of a base in biology?

Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and potassium oxide. A base is a substance that can neutralize the acid by reacting with hydrogen ions. Most bases are minerals that react with acids to form water and salts.

What is pH biology?

PH, quantitative measure of the acidity or basicity of aqueous or other liquid solutions. The term, widely used in chemistry, biology, and agronomy, translates the values of the concentration of the hydrogen ionwhich ordinarily ranges between about 1 and 1014 gram-equivalents per litreinto numbers between 0 and 14.

Examples Of Hydroxyl In A Sentence

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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘hydroxyl.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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Add Some Cell Biology

Iain Fraser, a biochemist and molecular biologist interested in the mechanisms of cell signaling, arrived at NIH in 2008. As the lead high-throughput member of the lab, he has several powerful tools on hand to generate key data sets. These data sets ultimately feed into Meier-Schellersheims software to produce quantitative models.

Frasers tools include in-house genome-wide RNAi screens to characterize signaling network relationships in hematopoietic cells. Such screens are beginning to identify key components in innate immune pathogen-sensing networks. He interacts closely with the NIH-wide RNAi screening group at the NIH Chemical Genomics Center and also with the RNAi Global consortium.

Fraser said immune-system signaling networks can be unraveled by using proper systematic approaches to interpret complex data sets. He offers the example of Toll-like receptors , which trigger an intricate cellular response that activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways.

Excessive activation can lead to chronic inflammatory disorders insufficient activation can render the host susceptible to infection. Unbiased screening approaches can help identify the components that allow the immune system to maintain a homeostatic balance in the face of microbial challenges.

One of Frasers early successes, using a systems biology approach, was demonstrating how a single protein kinase can mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in its crosstalk with TLR4.

Basic Salts Containing Hydroxide

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In some cases the products of partial hydrolysis of metal ion, described above, can be found in crystalline compounds. A striking example is found with zirconium. Because of the high oxidation state, salts of Zr4+ are extensively hydrolyzed in water even at low pH. The compound originally formulated as ZrOCl2·8H2O was found to be the chloride salt of a tetrameric cation 8+ in which there is a square of Zr4+ ions with two hydroxide groups bridging between Zr atoms on each side of the square and with four water molecules attached to each Zr atom.

The mineral malachite is a typical example of a basic carbonate. The formula, Cu2CO32 shows that it is halfway between copper carbonate and copper hydroxide. Indeed, in the past the formula was written as CuCO3·Cu2. The crystal structure is made up of copper, carbonate and hydroxide ions. The mineral atacamite is an example of a basic chloride. It has the formula, Cu2Cl3. In this case the composition is nearer to that of the hydroxide than that of the chloride CuCl2·3Cu2. Copper forms hydroxyphosphate , arsenate , sulfate , and nitrate compounds. White lead is a basic lead carbonate, 2·Pb2, which has been used as a white pigment because of its opaque quality, though its use is now restricted because it can be a source for lead poisoning.

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Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity Of Sweet Potato Protein

Hydroxyl radicals are a type of free radical with the most active chemical properties. They have a high reaction rate constant and cause the most harm among the free radicals. In a biological body, hydroxyl radicals attack the cell membrane, causing membrane damage and destroying sugar groups and DNA base sequences, inducing the disintegration of the double-helix structure, even causing cell death and mutations. Therefore, the scavenging activity of the hydroxyl radical is commonly used to evaluate the ability of scavenge free radicals of substance. Sweet potato protein has a strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rate of hydroxyl radicals amounted to 17.5% at a 2% protein concentration and continuously increased as sweet potato protein concentration increased. When sweet potato protein concentration was 6%, the scavenging rate reached 91.5% and was maintained at a similar level at higher concentrations .

Figure 2.17. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of sweet potato protein.

Pawan Kumar Maurya, in, 2014

Why Is Hydroxide Negatively Charged

In this compound two electrons share oxygen bonds with hydrogen. Hydroxide bears a negative charge, since an electron has been absorbed. Oxygen, depicted as O, is bound to hydrogen, depicted as H, so we can see that the negative sign is the most negative component of the product.

Learn more about the different applications, structure, and properties of Hydroxide from the expert faculties at BYJUS Indias largest education company.

Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click Start Quiz to begin!

Select the correct answer and click on the Finish buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz

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Measurement Of Interactions Of Encapsulation Systems With Hydroxyl Radicals

Hydroxyl radicals are generated within food systems through the action of metal ions and are responsible for oxidation of diverse sensitive compounds . To measure interactions of hydroxyl radicals with the encapsulation core, we have developed a non-invasive and a real-time spectroscopy and imaging approach . This novel approach is based on an encapsulation of a hydroxyl radical-sensitive dye, carboxy-H2DFFDA carboxy-2,7-difluorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate) in the lipid core of the encapsulation system. This dye is converted from non-fluorescent form to fluorescent form upon interaction with hydroxyl radicals. Thus, the rate of increase of fluorescence intensity of this fluorescent dye acts as a good indicator of measurement of hydroxyl radical transport rate across the interface. It is important to note that sensitivity of carboxy-H2DFFDA towards hydroxyl radicals is significantly higher than that towards other free radicals such as superoxide and peroxyl radicals. Thus, the change in fluorescence intensity can be specifically attributed to transport of hydroxyl radicals across the interface. The hydroxyl radicals were generated using the well-established Fenton reaction. The reaction mechanism that generates hydroxyl radicals from Fentons reagents is given in Eq. :

Pilsener beer 1.63
Incubation time

Table 78.3. Second order rate constants for trolox, melanoidins from beer and coffee brew determined by the competitive assay of the deoxyribose method


What Is The Oh Functional Group Called

What Is Biology?
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  • Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College

It’s important to know the names of the organic functional groups since they appear again and again in structures. Here’s a look at what the OH functional group is called.

Question: What Is the OH Functional Group Called?

Answer: The -OH functional group is the hydroxyl group. OH is an alcohol consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. When this functional group appears in a molecule, the prefix used is “hydroxy”.

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Water Is An Excellent Solvent

Because water is polar, with slight positive and negative charges, ionic compounds and polar molecules can readily dissolve in it. Water is, therefore, what is referred to as a solventa substance capable of dissolving another substance. The charged particles will form hydrogen bonds with a surrounding layer of water molecules. This is referred to as a sphere of hydration and serves to keep the particles separated or dispersed in the water. In the case of table salt mixed in water, the sodium and chloride ions separate, or dissociate, in the water, and spheres of hydration are formed around the ions. A positively charged sodium ion is surrounded by the partially negative charges of oxygen atoms in water molecules. A negatively charged chloride ion is surrounded by the partially positive charges of hydrogen atoms in water molecules. These spheres of hydration are also referred to as hydration shells. The polarity of the water molecule makes it an effective solvent and is important in its many roles in living systems.

What Do Elements And Mixtures Have In Common

Elements and compounds are purely homogeneous substances and they have a constant composition throughout. … A compound can be broken down into its constituents. Some examples of compounds are sodium chloride , water, etc. A mixture is composed of two or more elements or compounds in a non-fixed ratio.

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As A Nucleophilic Reagent

The hydroxide ion is intermediate in nucleophilicity between the fluoride ion F, and the amide ion NH2. The hydrolysis of an ester


also known as saponification is an example of a nucleophilic acyl substitution with the hydroxide ion acting as a nucleophile. In this case the leaving group is an alkoxide ion, which immediately removes a proton from a water molecule to form an alcohol. In the manufacture of soap, sodium chloride is added to salt out the sodium salt of the carboxylic acid this is an example of the application of the common ion effect.

Other cases where hydroxide can act as a nucleophilic reagent are amide hydrolysis, the Cannizzaro reaction, nucleophilic aliphatic substitution, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, and in elimination reactions. The reaction medium for KOH and NaOH is usually water but with a phase-transfer catalyst the hydroxide anion can be shuttled into an organic solvent as well, for example in the generation of the reactive intermediate dichlorocarbene.

Hydrogen Bonds Between Functional Groups

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Hydrogen bonds between functional groups are important to the function of many macromolecules and help them to fold properly into and maintain the appropriate shape for functioning. Hydrogen bonds are also involved in various recognition processes, such as DNA complementary base pairing and the binding of an enzyme to its substrate, as illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Hydrogen bonds connect two strands of DNA together to create the double-helix structure.

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Ecology And Biology: An Overview

Ecology and biology: An overview Ecology has been defined as “the branch of biological sciences dealing with the interactions between living beings and their environment,” versus the study of the morphology or behavior of species in isolation . Another definition of ecology is that it is “the scientific study of interactions of organisms with one another and with the physical and chemical environment” . Ecology has become associated with the

Double Helix And Antiparallel Strands

The image is a simplified representation of a short DNA molecule, with deoxyribose sugar molecules in orange, linked to phosphate molecules through a special type of covalent linkage called the phosphodiester bond. Each nitrogenous base is represented by a different color thymine in purple, adenine in green, cytosine in red and guanine in blue. The bases from each strand form hydrogen bonds with one another, stabilizing the double-stranded structure.

The structure of the sugar phosphate backbone in a DNA molecule results in a chemical polarity. Each deoxyribose sugar has five carbon atoms. Of these, the third and the fifth carbon atoms can form covalent bonds with phosphate moieties through phosphodiester bonds. A phosphodiester linkage essentially has a phosphate molecule forming two covalent bonds and a series of these bonds creates the two spines of a double-stranded DNA molecule.

Alternating sugar and phosphate residues results in one end of every DNA strand having a free phosphate group attached to the fifth carbon of a deoxyribose sugar. This is called the 5 end. The other end has a reactive hydroxyl group attached to the third carbon atom of the sugar molecule and makes the 3 end.

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What Classes Would I Take

The Applied Biology major is unique in that each and every course will include concrete, real-world examples and exercises that illustrate how working professionals make use of biological information and techniques. The biology faculty at the Regionals offer a wide range of courses that provide a solid background in two primary concentrations, Environmental Biology and Human Biology and Health Sciences.

The Applied Biology features 7 new courses in biological sciences, two professional certificates, and a “tool” requirement. Students will earn a 10 hour OSHA certification in their sophomore year and in the senior seminar course they will earn the 40 hour OSHA – HAZWOPER certification that will prepare students to be professional biologists. The “tool:” requirement is a non-biology minor or certificate that provides the student with additional skills that are useful to professional biologists. Furthermore, the BS degree with a major in Applied Biology may be completed entirely on the Miami Regional campuses.

View the curriculum requirements for Environmental Biology and Human Biology and Health Sciences concentrations.

An Intellectual Resource For Integrative Biology

Introduction to Biology: What is Life?

Seth Berger, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

It used to be as simple as the knee bone connected to the thigh bone. Now scientists use systems biology approaches to understand the big picture of how all the pieces interact in an organism. The above illustration depicts an interactome, the whole set of molecular interactions in cells. The interactome is considered an essential systems biology resource.

Ask five different astrophysicists to define a black hole, the saying goes, and youll get five different answers. But ask five biomedical researchers to define systems biology, and youll get 10 different answers . . . or maybe more.

Systems biology is an approach in biomedical research to understanding the larger picturebe it at the level of the organism, tissue, or cellby putting its pieces together. Its in stark contrast to decades of reductionist biology, which involves taking the pieces apart.

Yet with its complicated flow charts that can follow like a tedious argument of insidious intent, systems biology has scared away more than a few researchers. Still others fail to fully appreciate its usefulness because it lacks a concise, unified definition.

Some people think of it as bioinformatics, taking an enormous amount of information and processing it, Germain said. The other school of thought thinks of it as computational biology, computing on how the systems work. You need both of these parts.

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Similarities Between Biology And Biology

Felicia AnaneEnglish Composition 1Compare and Contrast 09 October 2017Biology and Chemistry Education is now the order of the day. Many people aim at continuing their education after high school. After high school, some students enter directly to college whiles others go to universities to read different course of their choice. Among these courses, some prefer to read mathematics, literature, science, economics, and others. Every student has his / her own career path in life. Some aim

One Generous Serving Of Proteomics

Aleksandra Nita-Lazar is developing new methods to obtain quantitative data that improve our understanding of cell biology and also funnel key information into model building. Her domain is the system-wide analysis of the proteome, which has fallen behind DNA analysis partly for want of the necessary tools.

The difference stems from the accommodating nature of DNA. DNA is easily recognized, replicable, and relatively stable, whereas the folded structure of proteins cant be amplified. Yet protein studies are essential in developing useful models for many reasons, Nita-Lazar said. Such studies can reveal the molecular constituents of a cell provide information about the biochemical state of the proteins and determine catalytic rates and the association and disassociation rates for molecular pairs.

Nita-Lazar uses mass spectrometry to investigate protein phosphorylation, the process of binding with a phosphate group, one of the most common modes of protein-function regulation. She can use the same protocols that Fraser helped develop, and the same cell types, to determine which proteins are phosphorylated in response to a particular stimulus, when they are phosphorylated, and how those data fit into what is known about the transcriptional response.

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