Wednesday, February 1, 2023

What Does Endo Mean In Biology

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Enhanced Translation Expands The Endo

  • Victoria E. B. Hipolito,

    Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing original draft

    Affiliations Graduate Program in Molecular Science, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  • Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology

    Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  • Kristofferson V. Tandoc,

    Roles Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology

    Affiliations Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, The Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

  • Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Writing original draft

    Affiliation Department of Oncology-Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

  • Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Software

    Affiliation Department of Oncology-Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

  • Roles Investigation, Methodology

    Current address: Graduate Program in Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Affiliation Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Macromolecules Can Be Transferred Across Epithelial Cell Sheets By Transcytosis

Some receptors on the surface of polarized epithelial cells transfer specific macromolecules from one extracellular space to another by . These receptors are endocytosed and then follow a pathway from endosomes to a different . A newborn rat, for example, obtains antibodies from its mother’s milk by transporting them across the epithelium of its gut. The of the gut is acidic, and, at this low , the antibodies in the milk bind to specific receptors on the surface of the gut epithelial cells. The -antibody complexes are internalized via -coated pits and vesicles and are delivered to early endosomes. The complexes remain intact and are retrieved in transport vesicles that bud from the early and subsequently fuse with the basolateral domain of the plasma membrane. On exposure to the neutral pH of the extracellular fluid that bathes the basolateral surface of the cells, the antibodies dissociate from their receptors and eventually enter the newborn’s bloodstream.

Transcytosis. Recycling endosomes form a way-station on the transcytotic pathway. In the example shown here, an antibody receptor on a gut epithelial cell binds antibody and is endocytosed, eventually carrying the antibody to the basolateral plasma membrane

Storage of plasma membrane proteins in recycling endosomes. Recycling endosomes can serve as an intracellular pool for specialized plasma membrane proteins, enabling them to be mobilized when needed. In the example shown here, insulin binding to the insulin

Specialized Phagocytic Cells Can Ingest Large Particles

is a special form of in which large particles such as microorganisms and dead cells are ingested via large endocytic vesicles called . In , is a form of feeding: large particles taken up into phagosomes end up in lysosomes, and the products of the subsequent digestive processes pass into the to be utilized as food. However, few cells in multicellular organisms are able to ingest such large particles efficiently. In the gut of animals, for example, the particles of food are broken down extracellularly and their hydrolysis products are imported into cells.

Phagocytosis is important in most animals for purposes other than nutrition, and it is mainly carried out by specialized cellsso-called professional phagocytes. In mammals, three classes of white blood cells act as professional phagocytes, , and . These cells all develop from hemopoietic stem cells , and they defend us against infection by ingesting invading microorganisms. Macrophages also have an important role in scavenging senescent cells and cells that have died by . In quantitative terms, the latter function is by far the most important: our macrophages phagocytose more than 1011 senescent red blood cells in each of us every day, for example.

Phagocytosis by a macrophage. A scanning electron micrograph of a mouse macrophage phagocytosing two chemically altered red blood cells. The red arrows point to edges of thin processes of the macrophage that are extending as collars to engulf

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What Is The Root Word Of Endo

Endo is the Greek word for inside and odont is Greek for tooth. Endodontic treatment, or root canal treatment, treats the soft pulp tissue inside the tooth. An endodontist is a dentist who specializes in saving teeth.

What does Endo mean in slang?

Endo is a slang term used by the Resistance to describe an Endoskeleton Terminator.

What Are The Symptoms Of Endometriosis


The vast majority of endometriotic lesions are found in the female pelvis. These can have very different appearances, shapes and colours. They can be very superficial or deeply invading the abdominal lining and organs such as the bowel, the bladder and the ureters . The lesions can be red, blue, brown, white, vascular, and look like adhesions, small vesicles, spots of different sizes or very hard nodules. There is some evidence that red lesions are more active, but it remains unclear what clinical impact this might have.

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What Are The Treatments For Endometriosis

There is no cure for endometriosis, but there are treatments for the symptoms. Your provider will work with you to decide which treatments would be best for you.

Treatments for endometriosis pain include:

  • Pain relievers, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and a prescription medicine specifically for endometriosis. Providers may sometimes prescribe opioids for severe pain.
  • Hormone therapy, including birth control pills, progestin therapy, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. GnRH agonists cause a temporary menopause, but also help control the growth of endometriosis.
  • Surgical treatments for severe pain, including procedures to remove the endometriosis patches or cut some nerves in the pelvis. The surgery may be a laparoscopy or major surgery.

Treatments for infertility caused by endometriosis include:

  • Laparoscopy to remove the endometriosis patches

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

When Was The Endoplasmic Reticulum Discovered

The ER was first noted in the late 19th century, when studies of stained cells indicated the presence of some type of extensive cytoplasmic structure, then known as the gastroplasm. The electron microscope made possible the study of the morphology of the ER in the 1940s, when it was given its present name.

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What Does Prefix Epi Mean

a prefix occurring in loanwords from Greek, where it meant upon, on, over, near, at, before, after on this model, used in the formation of new compound words . Also ep-, eph-.

What is EPI in biology?

In biology, epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. The Greek prefix epi- in epigenetics implies features that are on top of or in addition to the traditional genetic basis for inheritance.

What does the endo stand for in science?

Endo- Prefixes indicating within, inner, absorbing, or containing.

What Does The Prefix Endo Mean In Biology

Sugar puckering

withinEndo- Prefixes indicating within, inner, absorbing, or containing.

What does the prefix endo and exo mean?

The prefix endo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located closest, or syn, to the longest bridge. The prefix exo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located farthest, or anti, to the longest bridge.

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What Does The Prefix Endo Stand For In Isomerism

The prefix endo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located closest, or syn, to the longest bridge. The prefix exo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located farthest, or anti, to the longest bridge. Here longest and shortest refer to the number of atoms that comprise the bridge.

What does the suffix end mean in biology?

Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: end- or endo-. Definition: The prefix means within, inside or internal.

Which is the best description of an endo morph?

Endomixis reorganization of the nucleus that occurs within the cell in some protozoans. Endomorph an individual with a heavy body type predominated by tissue derived from the endoderm.

Not All Pinocytic Vesicles Are Clathrin

In addition to -coated pits and vesicles, there are other, less well-understood mechanisms by which cells can form pinocytic vesicles. One of these pathways initiates at caveolae , originally recognized by their ability to transport molecules across endothelial cells, which form the inner lining of blood vessels. Caveolae are present in the of most cell types, and in some of these they are seen as deeply invaginated flasks in the . They are thought to form from rafts, which are patches of the plasma membrane that are especially rich in , glycosphingolipids, and GPI-anchored membrane proteins . The major structural in caveolae is caveolin, a multipass that is a member of a heterogeneous protein family.

Caveolae in the plasma membrane of a fibroblast. This electron micrograph shows a plasma membrane with a very high density of caveolae. Note that no cytosolic coat is visible. This rapid-freeze deep-etch image demonstrates the characteristic cauliflower

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Multivesicular Bodies Form On The Pathway To Late Endosomes

It is still uncertain how endocytosed molecules move from the early to the late endosomal so as to end up in lysosomes. A current view is that portions of the early endosomes migrate slowly along microtubules toward the cell interior, shedding tubules of material to be recycled to the . The migrating endosomes enclose large amounts of invaginated membrane and internally pinched-off vesicles and are therefore called multivesicular bodies . It is unknown whether multivesicular bodies eventually fuse with a late endosomal compartment or if they fuse instead with each other to become late endosomes. At the end of this pathway, the late endosomes are converted to lysosomes as a result of their fusion with hydrolase-bearing transport vesicles from the trans Golgi network and their increased acidification .

The endocytic pathway from the plasma membrane to lysosomes. Maturation from early to late endosomes occurs through the formation of multivesicular bodies, which contain large amounts of invaginated membrane and internal vesicles . These

The sequestration of endocytosed proteins into internal membranes of multivesicular bodies. Eventually, all of the internal membranes produced by the invaginations shown are digested by proteases and lipases in lysosomes. The invagination is essential

In addition to endocytosed proteins, multivesicular bodies also contain most of the soluble content of early endosomes destined for digestion in lysosomes.

When Does Endometriosis Develop

Biology, The Cell, Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes, Bulk ...

This is another area that is still entirely unclear. Endometriosis is almost exclusively found in women who produce sufficient levels of the hormone oestrogen. Some young girls have painful periods, but it is unclear whether these are endometriosis related. Theories exist that connect the onset of endometriosis as far back as to the embryonic or perinatal period. It is unclear why endometriosis suddenly develops, over what time frame, and whether and in whom it gets worse, stays the same or potentially even gets better spontaneously.

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What Is The Difference Between Smooth And Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

The ER can be classified in two functionally distinct forms: smooth endoplasmic reticulum and rough endoplasmic reticulum . The morphological distinction between the two is the presence of protein-synthesizing particles, called ribosomes, attached to the outer surface of the RER. The functions of the SER, a meshwork of fine tubular membrane vesicles, vary considerably from cell to cell, one important role being the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol, which are major components of the plasma and internal membranes. The RER is generally a series of connected flattened sacs. It plays a central role in the synthesis and export of proteins and glycoproteins and is best studied in secretory cells specializing in these functions. The many secretory cells in the human body include liver cells secreting serum proteins , endocrine cells secreting peptide hormones , pancreatic acinar cells secreting digestive enzymes, and cartilage cells secreting collagen.

A Womens Thing Worth Doing

The turning point came in 2007, when a member of M.I.T.s board of trustees, Susan Whitehead, asked her to speak at a Women in Science and Engineering luncheon about how her work on tissue engineering could benefit women.

Dr. Griffith was annoyed. I was working on all the things that guys were working on, she later recalled at a 2018 scientific meeting. It didnt ever occur to me to work on a womens thing. But Whitehead was a friend, so she agreed.

Near the end of the event, the moderator asked her where she saw herself in 10 years. Something welled up inside her. She had just had her eighth surgery for endometriosis, and had helped her 16-year-old niece, Caitlin, receive a diagnosis for endometriosis after years of having doctors attribute her symptoms to stress. Watching Caitlin go through the same ordeal made lava shoot out of my head, Dr. Griffith recalled recently.

I have a chronic disease called endometriosis, she blurted out to the luncheon audience, and mentioned her niece. Theres no better treatment for her, 30 years younger than me, than there was for me when I was 16. If a major breakthrough in treatment didnt come soon, thats where Im going to be in 10 years, she said. Maybe itll be solved, but I dont think so.

The audience broke into applause.

In 2009, she used it toward opening the Center for Gynepathology Research, the only engineering lab in the nation to focus on endometriosis.

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Epithelial Cells Have Two Distinct Early Endosomal Compartments But A Common Late Endosomal Compartment

In polarized epithelial cells, occurs from both the basolateral and the domain of the . Material endocytosed from either domain first enters an early endosomal that is unique to that domain. This arrangement allows endocytosed receptors to be recycled back to their original membrane domain, unless they contain signals that mark them for to the other domain. Molecules endocytosed from either plasma membrane domain that are not retrieved from the early endosomes end up in a common late endosomal compartment near the cell center and are eventually degraded in lysosomes .

What Does Exo And Endo Mean

Endocytosis, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis | Biology | Khan Academy

The prefix endo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located closest, or syn, to the longest bridge. The prefix exo is reserved for the isomer with the substituent located farthest, or anti, to the longest bridge. Here longest and shortest refer to the number of atoms that comprise the bridge.

What does Endo girl mean?

Endometriosis, frequently referred to as just endo, is a genetic disease that affects women and causes pain, inflammation, and infertility. The severity of pain varies from person to person, just as the severity of disease does, however they are not linked.

Why do we get endometriosis?

Retrograde menstrual flow is the most likely cause of endometriosis. Some of the tissue shed during the period flows through the fallopian tube into other areas of the body, such as the pelvis. Genetic factors. Because endometriosis runs in families, it may be inherited in the genes.

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Difference Between Endoskeleton And Exoskeleton

Endoskeleton and Exoskeleton are the parts of the body of living organisms which possess a body with a complicated network of various organs.

The hard part which is the internal support of the structure is called an endoskeleton. It is developed from endoderm and is called a living structure. Some examples of endoskeleton are cartilage, bone, etc. The hard part present outside the body which protects the soft tissues and muscles is called the exoskeleton. It is developed from ectoderm and is mostly called a non-living structure. Some examples of the exoskeleton are hair, feather, scales, horns, etc.

What Does The Golgi Apparatus Do

The Golgi apparatus functions as a molecular assembly line in which membrane proteins undergo extensive post-translational modification. Many Golgi reactions involve the addition of sugar residues to membrane proteins and secreted proteins. The carbohydrates that the Golgi attaches to membrane proteins are often quite complex, and their synthesis requires multiple steps.

In electron micrographs, the Golgi apparatus looks like a set of flattened sacs. Vesicles that bud off from the ER fuse with the closest Golgi membranes, called the cis-Golgi. Molecules then travel through the Golgi apparatus via vesicle transport until they reach the end of the assembly line at the farthest sacs from the ER called the trans-Golgi. At each workstation along the assembly line, Golgi enzymes catalyze distinct reactions. Later, as vesicles of membrane lipids and proteins bud off from the trans-Golgi, they are directed to their appropriate destinations either lysosomes, storage vesicles, or the plasma membrane .

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What Is Endometriosis

The uterus, or womb, is the place where a baby grows when a person is pregnant. The uterus is lined with tissue . Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue that is similar to the lining of the uterus grows in other places in your body. These patches of tissue are called “implants,” “nodules,” or “lesions.” They are most often found:

  • On or under the ovaries
  • On the fallopian tubes, which carry egg cells from the ovaries to the uterus
  • Behind the uterus
  • On the tissues that hold the uterus in place
  • On the bowels or bladder

In rare cases, the tissue may grow on your lungs or in other parts of your body.

Why Is It Called Endo

What are common mistakes students make with endocytosis and exocytosis ...

The dictionary definition of the term endo means internal or within. In the cannabis world, the term endo either refers to premium grade marijuana that has been cured by hanging it upside down, or to high-quality flower that has been grown indoors using hydroponics equipment.

What is Endo anatomy?

The prefix means within, inside or internal.

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Endocrine System In The Brain

Starting from the brain, the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands are involved in the regulation of other endocrine organs and in the regulation of circadian rhythms, changing the metabolic state of the body. The pineal gland is located near the center of the brain, in a region called the epithalamus. The pituitary gland is seen very near the hypothalamus and has some direct interactions and feedback loops with the organ for the production of hormones.

Together, the hypothalamus and pituitary can regulate a number of endocrine organs, particularly the gonads, and the adrenals. In fact, the hypothalamus can be considered as the nodal point that integrates two major pathways for regulation the nervous and endocrine systems. It is made of a collection of neurons that collect information from the body through the nervous system and integrate it into a response through the endocrine system, especially the anterior and posterior parts of the pituitary gland.

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