Why Are Some Chemicals Coloured
A typical experiment that is carried out to attract students to chemistry is one that involves a colour change. The demonstrator will mix two colourless liquids together, and they will miraculously change colour, or a coloured precipitate will appear. This is one of the most obvious illustrations of a chemical reaction but its all down to physics, the structure of the atom, and the arrangement of its electrons.For instance, lets take these two clear liquids: potassium iodide and lead nitrate. When they are mixed, a yellow precipitate of lead iodide forms.Pb2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3Obviously, a chemical reaction has occurred, but the colour change is all down to physics. Electrons in atoms and molecules stay in quantised energy levels, so the atoms or molecules will only absorb light photons of specific energy the energy required to take an electron from one allowed quantum state to another. That is, a specific frequency of white light will be absorbed because energy is directly proportional to frequency .The new molecule will take on the complementary colour to the wavelength of light most strongly absorbed.This phenomenon of colour changing has many applications: testing solutions for their acidity or alkalinity usually involves a colour change of an indicator. Colour changes in titrations are another much-used method used in chemical analysis but its all down to physics.
What Is Physical Chemistry
Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry devoted to the study of the behavior of matter at an atomic or molecular level. It also involves the study of the properties of substances at different scales, from the macroscopic scale which includes particles that are visible to the naked eye, to the subatomic scale involving extremely small subatomic particles such as electrons.
Physical chemistry differs from other branches of chemistry because it employs the concepts and principles of physics to understand chemical systems and reactions. The different scales that this branch of chemistry deals with are described below.
How Are Chemistry And Microbiology Related
Also asked, how are chemistry and biology related?
Biology, the study of living organisms and their life including their structure, function, growth and evolution. Chemistry is the study of composition, structure, properties and change of matter. The study of various cells, their activity and function at molecular level is dependent on biochemistry.
Also, is microbiology a chemistry? Microbiology as the name suggests is the study of microorganisms no doubt. Chemistry: For estimation of metabolites produced in a microbial fermentation we need chemical methods such as titrations, to measure the quantity of metabolite produced.
Just so, do you need chemistry for microbiology?
To get onto a degree in microbiology you will usually need five GCSEs , including science, English and maths, as well as at least two A levels, including biology and preferably chemistry.
How is chemistry important to biology?
Chemistry helps to protect our environment and searches for new sources of energy. Food science deals with the three biological components of food carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches, the chemical fuels needed for our cells to function.
Read Also: Ccl4 Lewis Structure Molecular Geometry
How Did It Get That Way
In order for physics to be useful to other sciences in atheoretical way, other than in the invention of instruments, thescience in question must supply to the physicist a description of theobject in a physicists language. They can say why does a frogjump?, and the physicist cannot answer. If they tell him what a frogis, that there are so many molecules, there is a nerve here, etc., thatis different. If they will tell us, more or less, what the earth or thestars are like, then we can figure it out. In order for physical theoryto be of any use, we must know where the atoms are located. In order tounderstand the chemistry, we must know exactly what atoms are present,for otherwise we cannot analyze it. That is but one limitation, ofcourse.
There is no historical question being studied in physics at the presenttime. We do not have a question, Here are the laws of physics, how didthey get that way? We do not imagine, at the moment, that the laws ofphysics are somehow changing with time, that they were different in thepast than they are at present. Of course they may be, and themoment we find they are, the historical question of physics willbe wrapped up with the rest of the history of the universe, and then thephysicist will be talking about the same problems as astronomers,geologists, and biologists.
What Can I Do After Bsc Physical Science
After completing your BSc Course in Physics, there are many career opportunities open for you, such as research analyst, a teacher, lab assistant etc. But, if you go with further study such as MSc degree, MSc PhD dual degree, Joint MSc PhD courses then you can become a scientist and apply for CSIR NET Exam also.
You May Like: Behaviorism Was Founded By
What Makes A Reaction Suddenly Happen
The study of chemistry involves the study of chemical reactions. But what makes a reaction happen?The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution helps explain how a reaction can suddenly reach the required activation energy, and how temperature also affects the likelihood of a reaction taking place. It refers specifically to the speed of particles in a gas: the particles are all moving at different speeds, a few moving slowly, some very fast, but the majority of them at intermediate speeds. As the energy of a particle depends on its speed, the particles also have different energies the peak on the Maxwell-Boltzmann curve represents the most probable energy.The graph, derived from statistical mechanics, illustrates how particles must have a certain activation energy before they are able to react . If the temperature is increased from T1 toT2, the shape of the curve changes : its peak becomes lower, and moves to the right. The activation energy remains the same, but more particles have this required activation energy, and therefore the reaction proceeds at a faster rate.All reactions depend on the particles having sufficient activation energy, and therefore all chemical reactions depend on physics.
Why Do Ionic Compounds Conduct Electricity Only When Molten
Ionic compounds conduct electricity when they are molten or in solution, but typically not when they are in the solid form. Why should this be? Well, the answer lies in the physics of the chemical bonding.Bonding is all about electrons. With ionic bonding, electrons are swapped from one atom to another in such a way that each atom has a full outer shell, either by gaining or losing electrons. Electrostatic attraction between the anions and cations formed typically results in a giant crystalline lattice of closely stacked ions, in which individual molecules cannot be distinguished. In the solid form, the ions are not free to move, and the electrons are also held tightly, so the compound cannot conduct electricity.However, when molten or in solution, the ions are free to move and can transport electrons between the cathode and the anode so they can conduct electricity.As a counter-example, a few ionic compounds can conduct electricity in the solid state. Here, the silver ion is relatively mobile within the crystal lattice due to vacant ion-spaces in the lattice, and thus is an electrical conductor.
Recommended Reading: Define The Goals Of Psychology
Overlap Between Computer Science And Chemistry
This isn’t particularly a question about chemistry itself, but more-so the prospect of chemistry.
What kind of opportunities arise when you overlap chemistry and computer science? I’m a computer science major, but prior to going to university I had a deep passion for chemistry. My highest marks were always in chemistry, but I decided to go down the compsci route because likewise it is a passion of mine. An opportunity has presented itself to double major in compsci and chemistry and I’m curious to know whether it’s worth it.
My knowledge of chemistry is fairly barebones , but as I said, it was my strongest subject and for some reason it just clicks with me. I’d often spent sleepless nights perusing chemistry textbooks and online periodicals because it fascinates me to no end.
I’m not looking for greater job prospects , I’m more-so looking for a more fulfilling pursuit of knowledge. While irrelevant, my university recently opened a new building dedicated primarily to chemistry, so facilities are recent and faculty is adept and education is modern. I’d very much like to take advantage of the opportunity, but I’m just unsure if a university-level chemistry program will scratch that itch for me.
- $\begingroup$ Gaussian ChemOffice/ChemSketch Scifinder. Not much. And there are millions of chemists competing for positions in these companies.$\endgroup$
In long:Quantum chemistry / molecular simulations is nice and interesting, but there are two main possible cons :
Relationship Between Chemistry And Other Branches Of Science
Science can be defined as the systematic study of the natural universe, its structure, and everything it encompasses. Due to the immensity of the natural universe, science has been divided into several disciplines that deal with certain aspects of the universe. The three primary subcategories of science under which these disciplines can be grouped are:
- The Formal Sciences: Involves the study of the language disciplines that concern formal systems. Examples of scientific disciplines that fall under this category include logic and mathematics. Can be thought of as the language of science.
- The Natural Sciences: Involves the study of natural phenomena through experiments and observations. Chemistry, physics, and biology fall under this category of science.
- The Social Sciences: Involves the study of human societies and the relationships between the humans that dwell in these societies. Examples of scientific disciplines that fall under this category include psychology, sociology, and economics.
When the relationships between the major branches of science are considered, chemistry is found to lie close to the centre .
Thus, chemistry can be viewed as a central science whose roots bore into several other subdisciplines of science.
Recommended Reading: Paris Jackson Biological
Why Is Biology More Difficult Than Physics
From their experience in high school, physics has math and formulae that must be understood to be applied correctly, but the study of biology relies mainly on memorization. But in reality biology is much more complex than the physical sciences, and understanding it requires more, not less, brain work.
How Physics Applies To Environmental Science
No other science can get away from physics because all matter is made up of molecules. As physics is the study of how matter acts and reacts to various forcings and aspects of the world and the universe, physics has massive implications for the environmental sciences.
Climate change: Although few physicists deliberately aim to become climatologists, many today are working on some of the fundamental problems caused by our changing climate and examining potential solutions . The physics of our environment, atmosphere and ocean cycle system temperature rises all dictate a number of things such as the fluid movements of water systems such as oceanic oscillations, and how environments will react to atmospheric chemistry changes. Physics will show how climates will change and the long-term effects on both land and aquatic ecologies.
Renewable energy: The contribution of physics to the environmental sciences is no better demonstrated than in the development of renewable energy. For example, solar panels and solar arrays convert light and heat into electricity through chemical processes that we have identified through physics . Also, physics has been fundamental in developing turbines – the science behind wind farms that also generate electricity. Finally, physics can be used to calculate the amount of energy produced by the processing and burning of biofuel just as it has for fossil fuels.
You May Like: Holt Mcdougal Geometry Worksheets
Words Related To Physics
Hi there! Below is a massive list of physics words – that is, words related to physics. There are 483 physics-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being purgative, thermodynamics, astrophysics, cathartic and aperient. You can get the definition of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. The words at the top of the list are the ones most associated with physics, and as you go down the relatedness becomes more slight. By default, the words are sorted by relevance/relatedness, but you can also get the most common physics terms by using the menu below, and there’s also the option to sort the words alphabetically so you can get physics words starting with a particular letter. You can also filter the word list so it only shows words that are also related to another word of your choosing. So for example, you could enter “purgative” and click “filter”, and it’d give you words that are related to physics and purgative.
You can highlight the terms by the frequency with which they occur in the written English language using the menu below. The frequency data is extracted from the English Wikipedia corpus, and updated regularly. If you just care about the words’ direct semantic similarity to physics, then there’s probably no need for this.
How Is Physics Applied To Biology
Physics provides the basis for biology. Without space, matter, energy and time components that make up the universe living organisms would not exist. Since biology has its foundation in physics, it applies physical natural laws to the study of living organisms, according to Muskegon Community College.
Read Also: Holt Mcdougal Geometry Test Answers
Why Does Carbon Exist In Such Different Forms
Carbon is one of the basic elements of life and of all chemistry. Organic chemistry would be nowhere without it. Yet, as an element, carbon exists in two very different forms: diamond and graphite. If you didnt know they were made from the same element, you would hardly guess it. Diamond is extremely hard, transparent, shiny, is insulating, and is a precious material graphite is soft, opaque, conducts electricity, and is so far from precious as to be used in pencils.Here physics steps in once more to explain the difference, which is due to the arrangement of the atoms. In diamond, each carbon atom is strongly bonded to four others in a tetrahedral arrangement. The four valence electrons of each carbon atom create very strong covalent bonds, of the same strength in all four directions, which is why diamond is so hard. There are no free electrons, so diamond is an insulator. The very high refractive index gives diamond its treasured brilliance.Graphite is arranged quite differently. Here, the carbon atoms are arranged in layers. Every carbon atom in each layer is bonded to three other atoms in the same plane, as if to the corners of an equilateral triangle. Three of each atoms valence electrons are involved in these three covalent bonds the fourth electron is delocalised, which is why graphite conducts electricity . The layers are held together by weak Van der Waals forces, so they can easily slide over each other, which explains graphites lubricating properties.
How Physics Is Related To Mathematics And Chemistry
For physicists, math is a tool used to answer questions. For example, Newton invented calculus to help describe motion. For mathematicians, physics can be a source of inspiration, with theoretical concepts such as general relativity and quantum theory providing an impetus for mathematicians to develop new tools.
You May Like: How To Find Half Life Of A Reaction
Is The Math In Chemistry Hard
The math needed for organic chemistry, at least for most synthetic organic and for what you will run into in undergraduate schools, is no harder than high school math. Algebra and simple solving for one unknown is all you need and most of that is needed in lab to convert gram to moles or to calculate percent yield.
Branches Of Physical Chemistry
The manner in which physics can be applied to explain or solve chemical problems make up the important concepts of physical chemistry. Some of the branches of physical chemistry that study these problems are described below.
- The interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation is studied in the branch of physical chemistry known as spectroscopy.
- The strength and shapes of chemical bonds and the manner in which the nuclei of atoms move are studied in quantum chemistry.
- The spontaneity of a chemical reaction and the properties of chemical mixtures are studied in chemical thermodynamics.
- Chemical kinetics deals with the feasibility and rate of chemical reactions, along with many other factors that affect the rate of reaction such as the presence of a catalyst or the concentration of reactants.
It can be understood from the concepts discussed above that physical chemistry is a very diverse branch of chemistry which has been split into several disciplines in order to employ physics in the study of specific aspects of chemistry.
Also Check: Glencoe Mcgraw Hill Geometry Workbook Answers
Comparison Of Chemistry And Physics
Chemistry and physics are branches of science that both study matter. The difference between the two lies in their scope and approach. Chemists and physicists are trained differently, and they have different professional roles, even when working in a team. The division between chemistry and physics becomes diffuse at the interface of the two branches, notably in fields such as physical chemistry, chemical physics, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics/chemistry, materials science, spectroscopy, solid state physics, solid-state chemistry, crystallography, and nanotechnology.
Ancient Greek Natural Philosophy
Before physics would become the hard science with all its subdisciplines and subtleties, underpinned by math and underpinning virtually every other science, it would become a way of thinking about the world through natural means. This natural philosophy was of great use to the protoscience. No longer were phenomena considered part of the work of magic or supernatural means. Put simply, natural philosophy determined that every event, no matter the size or significance, must have a natural explanation. This was an important and fundamental shift away from a mystical or supernatural view of the world although it was not based on experimentation or observation as the later science of physics would become. These early thinkers were Thales who created natural philosophy and theorized that seismological events such as earthquakes had a natural cause but assumed that landmasses were giant rafts that reacted to ocean ripples which caused the quakes.
You May Like: Holt Pre Algebra Answers