Features Of Gibson’s Theory
The starting point for Gibsonâs Theory was that the pattern of light reaching the eye, known as the optic array, containing all the visual information necessary for perception
This optic array provides unambiguous information about the layout of objects in space. Light rays reflect off of surfaces and converge into the cornea of your eye.
Perception involves âpicking upâ the rich information provided by the optic array in a direct way with little/no processing involved.
Because of movement and different intensities of light shining in different directions it is an ever changing source of sensory information. Therefore, if you move, the structure of the optic array changes.
According to Gibson, we have the mechanisms to interpret this unstable sensory input, meaning we experience a stable and meaningful view of the world.
Changes in the flow of the optic array contain important information about what type of movement is taking place. The flow of the optic array will either move from or towards a particular point.
If the flow appears to be coming from the point, it means you are moving towards it. If the optic array is moving towards the point you are moving away from it.
the optic array contains invariant information that remains constant as the observer moves. Invariants are aspects of the environment which donât change. They supply us with crucial information.
Two good examples of invariants are texture and linear perspective.
Inductive And Deductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning emerges in childhood and is a type of reasoning that is sometimes characterized as bottom-up- processing in which specific observations, or specific comments from those in authority, may be used to draw general conclusions. However, in inductive reasoning, the veracity of the information that created the general conclusion does not guarantee the accuracy of that conclusion. For instance, a child who has only observed thunder on summer days may conclude that it only thunders in the summer. In contrast, deductive reasoning, sometimes called top-down-processing, emerges in adolescence. This type of reasoning starts with some overarching principle and, based on this, propose specific conclusions. Deductive reasoning guarantees an accurate conclusion if the premises on which it is based are accurate.
Figure 3.8.6. Models of inductive and deductive reasoning.
Zero Base Training Report
More specifically, we sought to use brain activity measurements of ERPs to reconstruct images. A recent study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity in visual cortex as a person looked at several hours of movies. We then used these data to develop computational models that could predict the pattern of brain activity that would be elicited by any arbitrary movies (i.e., movies that were not in the initial
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Iiicovert Attention Operates In Conjunction With Saccadic Eye Movements
Enhanced visual processing at a peripheral location is a hallmark of covert visual attention, attending while looking elsewhere. Hence one account of the phenomenon described in the previous paragraph is to say that attention is moved covertly to the saccade target before the eyes move. It might then be claimed that covert attention is primary, with the eyes following. However, there is a danger here in letting the tail wag the dog by shifting the emphasis to the covert processes and forgetting the significance of the overt movements. Much writing about visual attention has adopted this emphasis and takes little account of eye mobility. This is surely misguided. In what circumstances would it make sense for covert attention to operate without being linked to the overt scanning process? Outside the laboratory, it is very unusual to attend without looking. Although situations are described in Section VI where attending covertly without moving the eyes is worthwhile, such situations are comparatively rare and it seems more plausible to suppose that covert attention co-evolved with eye scanning to support active vision.
Jessica Agostinone, Adriana Di Polo, in, 2015
Applying Gestalt Principles To Data Visualization
The human brain is wired to see structure, logic, and patterns. It helps us make sense of the world. Even where there is none. Gestalt principles were developed by a group of German psychologists in the 1920s as a theory of how people perceive the world around them. Gestalt theory is the idea that the human brain will make sense of complex images consisting of various elements by subconsciously organizing the parts of the images into an organized system. Even if the parts are just pure unrelated collections of objects.
A human eye sees a triangle rather than circles, angles and dots. These images illustrates how our brains strive to fill in the gaps and bring order to the world around us.
Gestalt principles can aid data visualization, but they can also break it. The principle sets might be slightly different depending on the source. Wikipedia outlines one set of principles, Scholarpedia outlines another, and some design website use others. Some sources list just five of the principles, while others can go up to ten. However, the following graphic outlines the most commonly used principles:
- Law of Figure and Ground
- Law of Symmetry
- Few refer to the principle of Focal Point as another gestalt law
Gestalt principles are not just academic terms; they can be widely used as pragmatic and helpful tools for creating visuals that are clear, informative, and appealing to your audience.
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Perception And Attention Paper
AbstractIn this paper, you will find the answer to the phenomena of perception and attention. Attention is the process of concentrating on specific objects of the environment or on certain thoughts or activities . Selective hearing is the exclusion of other features of the environment where limited hearing is in capacity and timing. There are a few theories of attention such as the Broadbents filter model, which we will be discuss in this paper. Perception is the process
What Is The Difference Between The Processing Of Visual Information And Auditory Information
We can read:
The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is primarily responsible for interpreting and processing visual information received from the eyes. The amount of visual information received and processed by the visual cortex is truly massive. Nearly half of the brain is in some way dedicated to visioneither direct communication pathways from the retina of the eyes to the occipital lobe, or to indirect visual processing and visual skills. The visual cortex is divided into six critical areas depending on the structure and function of the area. These are often referred to as V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, and the inferotemporal cortex. The primary visual cortex is the first stop for visual information in the occipital lobe.
We can read:
The primary auditory cortex is the first region of cerebral cortex to receive auditory input.
The primary auditory cortex is surrounded by secondary auditory cortex, and interconnects with it. These secondary areas interconnect with further processing areas in the superior temporal gyrus, in the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus, and in the frontal lobe. In humans, connections of these regions with the middle temporal gyrus are probably important for speech perception. The frontotemporal system underlying auditory perception allows us to distinguish sounds as speech, music, or noise.
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Visual Information Processing Paper
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I need help with the following assignment that is due TODAY at 19:30PMAre you able to HELP?;Write a 1,200 to 1,500-word paper in which you examine visual information processing.Address the following in your paper:;Describe visual information processing.Explain two conditions that impair visual information processing.Discuss current trends in the research of visual information processing and how they advance understanding of visual information processing.;Include at least two scholarly articles.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.;;
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Does Dendritic Pathology Contribute To Vision Loss In Glaucoma
During normal visual processing, retinal ganglion cell dendrites receive synaptic inputs from bipolar and amacrine cells in the inner plexiform layer. This information is integrated, processed, and sent via RGC axons in the optic nerve to visual centers in the brain . The structural integrity of dendrites is essential for vision. Dendrites allow communication between RGCs and other retinal neurons via synapses. Furthermore, dendrites integrate and propagate input signals to the RGC soma before action potentials can be generated at the axon hillock, a prerequisite for successful transmission of visual information.
In glaucoma, progressive RGC degeneration results in irreversible vision loss. The optic nerve head has been identified as a critical point of initial axonal damage in glaucoma. The arcuate pattern of RGC and visual field loss correlates with the topographic organization of axons within the ONH and alterations in the lamina cribrosa . Importantly, it is increasingly recognized that injury to RGC axons triggers rapid changes in dendrites. Pathological changes in RGC dendritic arbors include branch retraction, reduced complexity, and synapse loss . Furthermore, high intraocular pressure , a major risk factor in glaucoma, has been recently shown to dramatically alter retinal function before irreversible structural damage in the optic nerve occurs, suggesting early synaptic defects .
Denis Tsygankov, … Klaus M. Hahn, in, 2014
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Information Processing And Selective Attention
When we are selectively attending to one activity, we tend to ignore other stimulation, although our attention can be distracted by something else, like the telephone ringing or someone using our name.
Psychologists are interested in what makes us attend to one thing rather than another ; why we sometimes switch our attention to something that was previously unattended , and how many things we can attend to at the same time .
One way of conceptualizing attention is to think of humans as information processors who can only process a limited amount of information at a time without becoming overloaded.
Broadbent and others in the 1950s adopted a model of the brain as a limited capacity information processing system, through which external input is transmitted.
Information processing models consist of a series of stages, or boxes, which represent stages of processing. Arrows indicate the flow of information from one stage to the next.
- Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli.
- Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli.
- Output processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate response to a stimulus.
Age And Performance On Fastareada
Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in performance on the FastaReada task between young and older adults, and thus, results are not in line with findings from past research that report an age-related slowing in reading speed . Past researchers have also suggested that compared to silent reading, reading aloud is slower given that readers are required to articulate each word and thus, visual fixations remain in the same place for longer . This suggestion is also persuant to data indicating that talking speed or orofacial movement decline with normal aging . Results from the current study also reject such inferences, however, it is important to note that although in the current study older adults were required to read sentences aloud, we did not measure the speed of verbal articulation, given that the task itself varied in presentation time for each sentence. Specifically, after articulation of a sentence, a button press triggered the exposure of the next six words which became faster or slower depending on each participantsâ accuracy performance.
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Age And Performance On The Change Detection Task
Consistent with predictions, performance on the CD task was significantly different between age groups, with younger adults detecting change between two visual arrays significantly faster than older adults. Furthermore, moderate significant correlations were also exhibited between age and threshold exposure duration on the CD, implicating that as age increases, exposure time required to detect change also increase. Again considering the categories of attentional control , it may also be the case that deficits in the alerting system demonstrated with aging are associated with more extensive difficulties in orienting and executive control of attention that are required for the CD task: a suggestion put forward by Kaufman et al. . However, as alluded to above, it may be more appropriate to consider the extent or load of task demands on each of the attentional networks, as opposed to explicitly differentiating them when using behavioral measures. More specifically, the task demands for the CD are undoubtedly more complex than those of the IT and have a greater load on executive control of attention, however, both measures still require alerting, orienting, and executive control for accurate task performance, though to different degrees.
First Strip In Sts: Actions
Visual processing of observed actions originates in the MT complex and proceeds along the two banks of the STS . These two banks project independently to PPC, with the lower bank projecting to AIP . As stated, the two banks have become separated during evolution . As a result, observed actions are processed in two distinct occipitotemporal regions in humans . The posterior part of MTG and neighboring ITS and STS/STG corresponds to the upper bank of monkey STS. This branch is shorter on the left side and interrupted by cortex processing intelligible speech . The lower bank moves ventrally and occupies much of the posterior and middle OTS in humans. This part of lateral occipitotemporal cortex, processing action, has received much attention .
We have proposed that while the projections to the PPC are concerned by the what of an action, the additional processing within the STS relates to the how of the action . This provides information about the state, emotional, social, and physical nature of the actor . The lower branch may integrate the action with the context and process identity-related aspects of the action. Facial expressions are to the face what actions are to the;body, and there is clear evidence that facial expressions are also processed in the STS . Again, this may provide emotional information which seems to be better developed in humans .
Zoë Terpening, John D.G. Watson, in, 2007
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Understanding And Guiding Developmental Processes
locomotive movement and manipulative movement.The information sensory processing theory tells us that we all have an innate learning ability. Children are born with specialised information processing abilities that enable them to figure out structure of motor development. Information processing describes how childrens body performs; take in large amounts of information from the environment which are and analyse and interpret the information then make decisions about what response to make therefore
Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience
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The Role Of Sensory And Memory Cortices In Thoughts
When we remember something or someone, e.g., the face of a loved person, there is the subjective impression of seeing with the mind’s eye. The phenomenological similarity between visual imagery and visual perception has been noted long ago and suggests that at least some of the same neural bases are underlying both processes.
Studies in mental imagery have shown that visual imagery and visual perception share specialized brain areas . Results have even shown that visual imagery activates most of the same areas that visual perception does, although some sensory processes may be engaged differently . Even when the content is specific, as in the case of a face compared with an object, the content-related activation in the ventral extrastriate visual cortex follows the same patterns when people are imagining faces or objects compared with when they are being perceived .
In the case of auditory imagery, neuroimaging studies have shown that, during inner speech and auditory imagery, the same brain regions related to auditory perception are activated, but visual areas show no activation .
In the same way that sensory cortices are involved in self-generated activity, memory systems also play an important role in the generation, maintenance, and manipulation of mental representations during mental imagery and mind wandering.
Lois Isenman, in, 2018
Visual Information Processing Assessment
Visual Information Processing Assessment. Many children have difficulties with some aspect of learning in the classroom. As vision is widely recognized as the most critical sense when it comes to gathering information, it is not surprising that some children experiencing learning problems are brought for an eye exam.
The quality and efficiency of vision and visual skills can have a tremendous impact on how well any of us function in our environment. That is why a comprehensive eye exam is a critical component in the overall evaluation of any child’s readiness to learn. Unlike vision screenings, which are often very limited in scope and frequently unreliable, a complete vision exam will assess all aspects of basic visual functions. This will include the health of the eyes as well as visual acuity or clarity of vision at distance and at near, refraction to determine if compensatory lenses may be helpful, and a careful assessment of focusing accuracy and efficiency, alignment precision, and eye movement skills.
- sloppy handwriting or problems copying;
- trouble remembering what was read;
- confusion of similar looking words;
- losing place or skipping words while reading;
- trouble maintaining attention;
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