How Does Your Brain Process Contextual Cues In Social Scenarios
To interpret context in social settings, your brain relies on a network of brain regions, including the frontal, temporal, and insular regions. Figure 2 shows the frontal regions in light blue. These regions help you update contextual information when you focus on something . That information helps you anticipate what might happen next, based on your previous experiences. If there is a change in what you are seeing , the frontal regions will activate and update predictions . These predictions will be influenced by the context and your previous experience . If a persons frontal regions are damaged, he/she will find it difficult to recognize the influence of context. Thus, the Doberman may not be perceived as a threat, even if this person has been attacked by other dogs before! The main role of the frontal regions is to predict the meaning of actions by analyzing the contextual events that surround the actions.
Lastly, Figure 2 shows the temporal regions marked with orange. The temporal regions associate the object or person you are focusing on with the context. Memory plays a major role here. For instance, when the Doberman breaks loose, you look at his owner and realize that it is the kind man you met last week at the pet shop. Also, the temporal regions link contextual information with information from the frontal and insular regions. This system supports your knowledge that Dobermans can attack people, prompting you to seek protection.
Mental Health Promotion And Prevention
Promotion and prevention interventions work by identifying the individual, social and structural determinants of mental health, and then intervening to reduce risks, build resilience and establish supportive environments for mental health. Interventions can be designed for individuals, specific groups or whole populations.
Reshaping the determinants of mental health often requires action beyond the health sector and so promotion and prevention programmes should involve the education, labour, justice, transport, environment, housing, and welfare sectors. The health sector can contribute significantly by embedding promotion and prevention efforts within health services and by advocating, initiating and, where appropriate, facilitating multisectoral collaboration and coordination.
Suicide prevention is a global priority and included in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much progress can be achieved by limiting access to means, responsible media reporting, social and emotional learning for adolescents and early intervention. Banning highly hazardous pesticides is a particularly inexpensive and costeffective intervention for reducing suicide rates.
Promoting and protecting mental health at work is a growing area of interest and can be supported through legislation and regulation, organizational strategies, manager training and interventions for workers.
A Systems Neurogenomic Network Of Alcoholism
Topological Analysis of the Alcohol Neurogenomic Network
With a list of nodes constructed from gene expression analyses and relations among them defined by temporal, spatial, genetic, or functional correlation, one may construct a network graph. The nodes and edges of any given genomic network may have specific inherent characteristics unique to the domain of interest, reflecting the biological content of the experimental analyses used to define them. For example, in GWAS data, both SNPs and biological traits can be visualized as nodes in a complex graph in which their edges represent the strength of that association. The global and local topological organization of the nodeedgenode graph has deeply studied characteristics rooted in mathematics. This topology can be used to gain insight into the length of paths between nodes , identify subgraphs as a tool for local environment clustering , find nodes with shared connectivity to a selected node or its neighbors , and describe central nodes of interest that act as critical junctures in large paths . For example, the identification of cliques or paracliques are known to indicate informative regions within the local context of a global graph. These techniques were used to identify novel ethanol-responsive genes from coexpression data in mice, highlighting the connection between emergent network topology and functional response .
Data Integration and the Neurogenomic Network Graph
Network Analysis of Alcohol Dependence
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Iv Other Family Relationships
Behavioral geneticists have also studied family relationships beyond that of the parent and child. Sibling interactions, for example, have been examined in both twin and non-twin siblings. Unlike parents and children, who always share exactly half of their genes, siblings vary in their degree of genetic relatedness. MZ twins are genetically identical DZ twins and non-twin siblings share about half of their genes, although some pairs may share more or less genetic material. This variation in genetic relatedness could explain why some siblings have a more cooperative and close relationship than others. Genetic similarity among siblings has been shown to affect both their positive and negative interactions with one another,28 as well as levels of mutual competition and cooperation.29 In general, siblings who share a stronger genetic makeup demonstrate a closer, more cooperative and positive relationship with one another.
Genetic variations among siblings living in the same family have also been suggested as an important source of differential parenting. The differential parenting of two siblings, albeit stemming originally from their genetic differences, has an environmental effect on the childrens psychological outcomes and may amplify sibling differences over time.
Exercises And Critical Thinking
Family Influence On Drug Use
Family is also a significant influencing factor in drug use and misuse. This is mainly the focus of social learning theory.
The social learning theory is the theory that explains drug use as a learned behavior.
The idea behind this theory is primarily that people learn drug use behavior from other drug users, usually from a primary social group like family, peers, or significant others. Primary social group influence is strong because it normalizes the behavior, and in a practical sense, it can provide someone access to the drug. Often teens who have grown up with parents who over-consume alcohol accept this behavior as standard, which can build patterns of learned family behavior.
Researchers have found that negative family dynamics can play a significant role in the potential for developing drug use behaviors. For example, children of divorced or separated parents are at a higher risk for developing substance abuse and addictive behaviors than their peers from stable homes.
Why The Contribution Of Biology To Human Behavior Is Always 100%
“Is that human characteristic biologically or environmentally determined?”
How many times have you heard that question or its equivalent ?
If you read about psychological topics, which I would guess is likely because you are reading this, I would further guess that you’ve heard this question literally hundreds of times.
I would also guess that you are familiar with the “correct” answer, which experts invariably say is “both.” Yes, interview most psychologists or read any psychology textbook and you will find that our thoughts, feelings, and behavior are the result of an interaction between biological factors and environmental factors.
However, you will also find that psychologists often like to apportion credit to biology and environment to varying degrees. “Yes,” they will say, “It is always a combination of biology and environment, but sometimes biology is more important. Or sometimes the environment is more important. They will sometimes be more specific, saying things like “Genetic differences account for 70% of the differences in IQ scores.” Or, “environmental factors account for 80% of the differences in personality traits associated with secure attachment.”
To see why I say that biology contributes 100%, to any psychological phenomena, let us look at my favorite example of a phenomenon where environmental factors are said to play a crucial role: the impact of caretaking behaviors on the development of attachment-related traits.
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Are You Really Just A Pile Of Genes
Technically, yes. But embedded within your genome, there are many potential versions of you. The person you see in the mirror is just one of them, fished out by the unique things youve been exposed to since conception. The new science of epigenetics is the study of how chemical changes made to DNA, or proteins that interact with DNA, can affect gene activity. DNA can be modified by environmental factors in ways that can profoundly affect development and behavior. Recently, its also been shown that the microbes in your bodyaka your microbiomecan be a significant environmental factor that affects myriad behaviors, from overeating to depression. In sum, we are our genesbut our genes cannot be evaluated outside the context of our environment. Genes are the piano keys, but the environment plays the song. BS
This explanation of why I hate broccoli is both vindicating and disturbing. I am relieved that my distaste for cruciferous vegetables is not my faultI did not get to go gene shopping before I was conceived. But the relief soon turns to alarm as I wonder: What other things that define who I am are beyond my command? How much of me is really due to me?
BSBill SullivanPleased to Meet Me: Genes, Germs, and the Curious Forces That Make Us Who We Areshopng.com/books.
Perceptions Of Nature Nurture And Behaviour
While researchers are aware of the complexity of gene-environment interaction, the nature and nurture model persists as a simple way of framing discussion on the causes of behaviours. It is also a site of struggle between academic disciplines and, through influence on policy, has consequences for those whose behaviours are investigated. There is general agreement between social scientists and geneticists about the past abuses of genetics but disagreement over whether it will be possible for the new behavioural genetics to avoid discrimination and eugenic practices, and about the likely benefits that society will gain from this research . In a special issue of the American Journal of Sociology Exploring genetics and social structure, Bearman considers the reasons why sociologists are concerned about genetic effects on behaviour first they see it as legitimating existing societal arrangements, which assumes that genetic is unchangeable. Second, if sociologists draw on genetic research it contaminates the sociological enterprise and, third, whatever claims are made to the contrary, it is a eugenicist project . As we will see all these concerns were expressed by the publics in this study. Policy makers and publics are interested in explaining problem behaviour in order to change/control it, not in respecting disciplinary boundaries, and will expect the role of genetics to be considered alongside social factors.2
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When Context Cannot Be Processed
Our model helps to explain findings from patients with brain damage. These patients have difficulties processing contextual cues. For instance, people with autism find it hard to make eye contact and interact with others. They may show repetitive behaviors or excessive interest in a topic. They may also behave inappropriately and have trouble adjusting to school, home, or work. People with autism may fail to recognize emotions in others faces. Their empathy may also be reduced. One of our studies showed that these problems are linked to a decreased ability to process contextual information. Persons with autism and healthy subjects performed tasks involving different social skills. Autistic people did poorly in tasks that relied on contextual cuesfor instance, detecting a persons emotion based on his gestures or voice tone. But, autistic people did well in tasks that didnt require analyzing context, for example tasks that could be completed by following very general rules . Thus, the social problems that we often see in autistic people might result from difficulty in processing contextual cues.
In sum, the problems with social behavior seen in many diseases are probably linked to poor context processing after damage to certain brain areas, as proposed by our model . Future research should explore how correct this model is, adding more data about the processes and regions it describes.
Mental Health Conditions The Complex Result Of Several Factors
According to the biopsychosocial model, mental health is the result of many forces occurring at different which have a cumulative effect on the individual. These forces can be positive or negative. If the negatives outway the positives then a person could develop a mental illness.
Its unlikely to be one specific thing that causes mental ill-health, but rather a mixture of negative circumstances that have built up. There might be one thing that pushes a person too far, but its unlikely to be this alone that caused a disorder.
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Influence Of Drug Use On The Brain
Though it is postulated that people may be more predisposed to developing addiction, it is also theorized that using drugs also affects addiction as well. It seems there is a feedback loop the more substance taken in, the greater the possible addiction. It may even be that addiction can physically change certain areas of the brain, basically destroying the proper physiologic functions.
Certain conditions such as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome are severe,as seen in patients with chronic alcoholism. The patient may develop severe amnesia among other problems. However, there are more subtle changes that occur with drug use as well.
In a healthy person who does not have an addiction, the brain rewards behaviors like exercising, or engaging in relationships with friends or family. It is also true that the brain has impulses, but these impulses can be mitigated by the frontal cortex, which is the area mainly responsible for decision-making.
When a person becomes addicted to drugs, their reward system is affected. The reward they feel from relationships or exercise, for example, dont compare to the reward they may feel from drugs. They continue using drugs to feel that reward.
Brain imaging has even shown the decreased volume of the frontal cortex in people affected by addiction, indicating less of a decision-making capacity.
Risk And Protective Factors
Researchers have also identified a variety of protective factors across the cultural/social, interpersonal, and intrapersonal domains that influence the likelihood of substance use initiation or reduce level of drug use. These factors may moderate the relationship between risk factors and use/abuse, or may have a direct effect on reducing drug involvement . Sanctions against drug use, family support, self-acceptance, and religiosity are but a few of the protective factors that have been identified .
E.J. Chesler, E.J. Baker, in, 2014
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Myth: Mental Health Problems Don’t Affect Me
Fact: Mental health problems are actually very common. In 2020, about:
- One in five American adults experienced a mental health issue
- One in 6 young people experienced a major depressive episode
- One in 20 Americans lived with a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression
Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States. In fact, it was the 2nd leading cause of death for people ages 10-24. It accounted for the loss of more than 45,979 American lives in 2020, nearly double the number of lives lost to homicide. Learn more about mental health problems.
Programmed Theories Of Aging
Programmed aging theories say that people are designed to age and that our cells have a predetermined lifespan thats encoded into our bodies.
Also called active, or adaptive, aging theories, they include:
- Gene theory. This theory suggests that specific genes turn on and off over time, causing aging.
- Endocrine theory. According to this theory, aging is caused by changes in hormones, which are produced by the endocrine system.
- Immunological theory. Also called the autoimmune theory, this is the idea that the immune response is designed to decline. The result is disease and aging.
Programmed theories have many supporters. However, they suggest that habits linked to longevity, like quitting smoking and exercise, are useless. This is likely inaccurate, as research has continuously proven that these habits affect life expectancy.
Biological Factors Influence Human Relationships
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Abraham Maslow, a humanist psychologist claimed that a basic human being desires to be accepted by others as relationships are a significant source of happiness or unhappiness. People live in families and form other groups such as friendships and partnerships to define themselves in terms of being important to others as relationships tend to influence our emotional state as well as our health .
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Different types of relationships have different effects on an individual a close relationship is one where a partners actions, thoughts, behaviors and emotions influence their spouses. When studying loving relationships, Berscheid and Hatfield have come up with a theory that distinguishes between two kinds of love: passionate and companionate love. Passionate involves sexual feelings of attraction and intense emotions, while compassionate is a trusting warm and tolerate affection for their partner.
An anthropologist, Helen E. Fischer , argues that adrenaline, serotonin and dopamine play a large role in ones biology in creating a biochemical reaction that leads to human romance and passion. Fischer claims that romantic love is not necessarily an emotion and that it has been engraved into our brains as a result of millions of years of evolution.
Biological Influences On The Development Of Challenging Behavior
Biological influences on challenging behavior include genetic/neurological abnormalities, illness, and injury . For example, dysregulation of specific regions of the brain has been implicated in the emergence and expression of SIB . Similarly, abnormalities in neurotransmission may be contributing factors to the emergence of stereotypy and SIB in some genetic syndromes . However, the most commonly studied biological influence on challenging behavior appears to be genetic abnormality .
In his description of the compulsive SIB often observed in individuals with the LeschNyhan syndrome, Nyhan suggested that the term behavioral phenotype should be used to describe genetically influenced syndrome-specific patterns of behavior . Challenging behavior might therefore be considered part of a syndromes behavioral phenotype if an increased probability of challenging behavior is identified in people with one specific syndrome compared to people without that syndrome when other factors are accounted for in the analysis .
Amy E. Heberle, … Alice S. Carter, in, 2020
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