Crop Alteration And Biotechnology
Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests. Significant advances in plant breeding ensued after the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel. His work on dominant and recessive alleles, although initially largely ignored for almost 50 years, gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and breeding techniques. Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits, self-pollination and cross-pollination, and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism.
Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance, eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. Plant selection and breeding in the 1920s and 1930s improved pasture in New Zealand. Extensive X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts during the 1950s produced the modern commercial varieties of grains such as wheat, corn and barley.
Top 13 Types Of Agriculture
Although agriculture is not uniform across the world, it is the most widespread activity. It is classified based on the type of crop being grown, scale of cultivation, intensity, mechanization level, combinations of livestock and how farm produce is distributed. The following are the different types of agricultural activities worldwide:
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Definition And Meaning Of Topographic Map
A topographic map is a map that represents the locations of geographical features. Furthermore, these geographical features can be mountains, valleys, plain surfaces, water bodies and many more.
Topographic maps refer to maps at large and medium scales that incorporate a massive variety of information. All the components of topographic maps carry equal importance.
Topographic maps refer to a graphical representation of the three-dimensional configuration of the surface of the Earth. Moreover, such maps show the size, shape, and distribution of landscape features.
Also, such maps present the vertical and horizontal positions of those features whose representations take place. Most noteworthy makes use of contour lines so as to show different elevations on a map.
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Board Exam Questions Interpretation Of Topographical Maps Icse Class 10 Geography
Question. Study the extract of the Survey of India Map Sheet and answer the following questions:
Give the six figure grid reference for: The highest point in this map extract. Surveyed tree north of Rampura Khera.
Answer: The highest point- 078065 Surveyed tree north of Rampura Khera 072074.
On which bank of Sukli Nadi lies: Butri
Dattani from Marol- South West. Dhavli from Makawal- North East.
Mention the social activity of people living in Marol. What is the main occupation of the people living in this region?
Answer: Monthly fair at Marol. Agriculture/Farming.
What do you understand by: The black broken line in 0807 The vertical black line close to Easting 10
Answer: The black broken line in 0807- Disappearing drainage pattern. The vertical black line close to Easting 10- Longitude line- 72°35 E.
What is the main source of water supply to Bhatana? Give reason.
Answer:Presence of Lined perennial wells all around the settlement.
Name one natural feature in the grid square 0905. Identify one man made feature in the grid square 1003.
Answer: 0905- Broken ground, seasonal streams. 1003- PO, Temple, cart track, seasonal tank, Lined perennial well.
Question. Study the extract of the Survey of India Map Sheet and answer the following questions:
Give six figure grid reference for: Surveyed tree 219 north east of Pirojpura settlement. Triangulated height 364 in the southern part of the map extract.
What is the direction of flow of Banas river? Give one evidence for your answer.
Mcq Interpretation Of Topographical Maps For Icse Geography Class
MCQ Interpretation of Topographical Maps for ICSE Geography Class-10. These MCQ / Objective Type Questions is based on latest reduced syllabus according 2021-22 session on bifurcated pattern. Main motto of MCQ Type Question is cracking the next upcoming exam of council. Visit official website CISCE for detail information about ICSE Board Class-10 Geography .
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Main Objectives Of Agricultural Geography
Six main objectives of agricultural geography are as follows:
To examine the spatial distribution of crops, livestock and other agricultural activities. The cropping patterns and crop and livestock combinations vary in space and time. For example, the crop associations of Punjab and Haryana are different from those of Rajasthan, Bihar and West Bengal. The causes of such variations and their systematic explanation are one of the primary objectives of agricultural geographers.
To ascertain the spatial concentration of agricultural phenomena. There are certain crops which have very high concentration in one area and low or insignificant concentration in other areas. The reasons for such spatial densities are examined by agricultural geographers.
Crop associations and crop-livestock combinations change in space and time. What was the crop combination in Punjab in the, pre-Green Revolution period has changed in the post- Green Revolution period. In fact, the wheat and rice combination in Punjab and Haryana is a recent development in the crop land use history of these states.
This association is not going to last as many of the farmers and scientists are rightly challenging its sustainability. There is a strong possibility of the farmers to adopt a new combination in the coming decades. The farmers always try to optimize their agricultural returns and adopt new innovations. The temporal change in cropping patterns deserves investigation and explanation.
Cbse Notes Class 8 Geography Chapter 4
The word agriculture is derived from the Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning, cultivation. Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. In the world, 50% of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. Two-thirds of Indias population is still dependent on agriculture. Further details about this concept can be drawn from Chapter 4 of CBSE Class 8 Geography. We have also provided CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography Chapter 4-Agriculture for the students to prepare most competently for the exam.
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Landscape Analysis Through Maps Evaluation Questions
Question 1.The toposheets belongs to India adjacent countries map series are called million sheet write the reason.Answer:The scale of each map sheet is 1 : 1000000 in India and adjacent countries. So they are called Million sheets.
Question 2.What does 45 D/10 on a toposheet indicate? Ans.Index number of the million sheet is 45. The million sheet numbered 45 is divided into 16 sheets from 1 .to 16. Each sheet has 15 latitudinal and longitudinal extent. Thus the topographical map got the number 45 D/10
Question 3.Some parts of a toposheets are seen in green color. What does the green color representAnswer:
What does blue color on a toposheet represents?Answer:Oceans, Rivers, Wells, Tube wells
Question 6.How is the height represented on a toposheet if the actual height of an area is not available through survey as the area is inaccessible ?Answer:When it is difficult to measure the elevation of places through land surveys due to rugged terrain, the elevation is represented with help of broken lines.These lines are Form lines.
Question 7.Distinguish between Triangulated height and Bench Mark in a toposheet?Answer:Triangulated height Heights of place estimated through trigonometric surveys are recorded in in maps using symbol.
Bench mark The height of reservoirs and prominent buildings are recorded along with the letters BM.
Question 9.From the contour lines given below find out the value of the contour line which representsAnswer:
- Bench marks etc.
Icse Class 10 Geography Interpretation Of Topographical Maps Last Year Questions
Students should learn the important questions and answers given below for Chapter Interpretation of Topographical Maps in Geography for ICSE Class 10. These board questions are expected to come in the upcoming exams. Students of ICSE Class 10th should go through the board exams questions and answers for ICSE Class 10 Geography which will help them to get more marks in exams.
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Icse Class 10 Geography Interpretation Of Topo Graphical Maps Revision Notes
Students can refer to the quick revision notes prepared for Chapter Interpretation of Topo Graphical Maps in Class 10 ICSE. These notes will be really helpful for the students giving the Geography exam in ICSE Class 10. Our teachers have prepared these concept notes based on the latest ICSE syllabus and ICSE books issued for the current academic year. Please refer to Chapter wise notes for ICSE Class 10 Geography provided on our website.
Notes Interpretation Of Topo Graphical Maps Icse Class 10 Geography
Students should refer to Interpretation of Topo Graphical Maps ICSE Class 10 Geography notes provided below designed based on the latest syllabus and examination pattern issued by ICSE. These revision notes are really useful and will help you to learn all the important and difficult topics. These notes will also be very useful if you use them to revise just before your Geography Exams. Refer to more ICSE Class 10 Geography Notes for better preparation.
Is The Most Important Line In A Survey
B. The line on which the framework of the survey is built is known as the base line. It is the most important line of the survey. Generally, the longest of the main survey lines is considered the base line. This line should be taken through fairly level ground, and should be measured very carefully and accurately.
What Is Meant By Topography
The detailed study of different types of landforms and their attributes is known as topography. The term is also present in biology and it falls under the chapter of microscopy. However, the topography biology definition has similarities with the geographic one as it means the study of the physical properties of an object.
Here, we will discuss geographical topography. The ways of handling the topographic maps are discussed here. Moreover, you can define topography easily as you know the process of using it to solve different problems related to it. As a school student of any education board, you would have to study topography along with geography in the secondary and higher-secondary standards.
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Are These Contour Lines Mountains Or Depressions
When you have a closed contour like the one below, this means there is a hill/mountain or depression.
You dont really know unless there is a label on the contour line. In the example below, weve added labels and it should be clear that its a depression.
And this isnt just any depression. This is the massive meteor crater that struck Arizona a long time ago.
On some maps, cartographers use teeth marks or hachures for depressions at craters or volcanoes because it marks the elevation goes up or down.
Structure Of Topographic Map
Topographic maps have a detailed and compendious structure. The various aspects of a topographic map can be divided into three major groups:
Relief: The depiction of the relief aspect is with brown contour lines that represent the mountains, hills, valleys, plains, etc. The elevations are available in meters above the mean sea level.
Furthermore, there are also spot elevations are shown in the black colour. Moreover, in these spot elevations, the marking of the lake level, the summit of a hill, or the road intersections takes place for the purpose of elevation.
Water: The depiction of the water aspects takes place in the blue colour. Moreover, the water aspects represent the oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, swamps etc.
Cultural: The depiction of these aspects takes place in the black colour. Furthermore, they are representative of all man-made features.
Above all, these man-made features include the roads, railroads, land boundaries, buildings, airports, urban development etc.
Contour line: A contour line refers to a type of isoline. In such a case, it is a line of equal elevation. Moreover, if one walks along a contour line, then one would not go uphill or downhill.
Mathematically speaking, a contour line refers to a curve in two dimensions on which the value of a function f happens to be a constant.
Compatible With The Following Exam Boards
- Agriculture involves rearing of animals and crop cultivation
- Agriculture aims at providing enough, healthy food to feed the population worldwide
- Different types of agricultural activities are practiced in different regions across the world
- Factors such as climate affect the type of agricultural activity a farmer can practice
- Types of agricultural activities include subsistence farming, nomadic herding, commercial plantation, livestock rearing, etc.
Agriculture involves plants and animals breeding and land cultivation to offer fiber, food and medicine. It also provides other products necessary for life enhancement and sustenance. During the sedentary human civilization, agriculture was a critical aspect of development. Domesticated plant and animal species were farmed for food surpluses to sustain people living in cities.
Agricultural science is the study of agriculture, a field whose history dates back thousands of years. People began planting grains about 11,500 years ago prior to their domestication. On the other hand, wild grains were gathered over 105,000 years ago. However, sheep, pigs and cattle were first domesticated more than 10,000 years ago.
Crops have their origin in about 11 regions across the world. Within the previous century, large-scale monoculture has driven the growth of industrial agriculture and thus its domination of agricultural output. However, more than 2 billion people worldwide rely on subsistence agriculture for sustenance.
What Is The Meaning Of Topography In Agriculture
Consequently, why is topography important in agriculture?
Topography: ADVERTISEMENTS: Topography affects agriculture as it relates to soil erosion, difficulty of tillage and poor transportation facilities. In areas where the pressure on soil is great, even the slopes of mountains are terraced into small farms to provide agricultural land.
Beside above, what does topography mean? Topography is a detailed map of the surface features of land. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. Topography represents a particular area in detail, including everything natural and man-made hills, valleys, roads, or lakes.
Correspondingly, what is the role of topography?
An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more generally any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude, longitude, and altitude. Identifying features, and recognizing typical landform patterns are also part of the field.
What are the three main types of topography?
Topographic maps depict four main types of features: Landforms: hills, valleys, gullies, ridges Water courses: rivers, swamps, coastalThe three types of contour lines used on a standard topographic map are index, intermediate, and supplementary.
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Approaches To Agricultural Geography
A legion of literature has been produced about the nature, methodology and approaches of agricultural geography. If one review the mounting literature on agricultural geography, two major approaches to the subject matter can be detected :
The empirical approach attempts to describe what actually exists in the agricultural landscape. It gives special privilege to empirical observations. According to empiricists, the facts speak for themselves. In this approach explanation of the patterns is sought by inductive methods and generalizations are made on the basis of results from numerous studies.
For example, for the delineation of crop combinations of a given region, crop land use data is gathered from the farms and villages over a period of time. This data is processed and plotted on maps and then an explanation of the combinations is made which ultimately lead to generalization and model building.
The normative or deductive approach is more concerned with what the agricultural landscape should be like, given a certain set of assumptions. This approach leads to the derivation and testing of hypotheses and, theoretically, to the development of an ideal model of agricultural location. The model of von Thunen in which several assumptions, like isomorphic surface, economic farmer, isolated state, etc., have been made is based on deductive approach.
What Do We Use Contour Lines For
In our example, contour lines represented constant elevation and showed the topography of the landscape.
But meteorology , magnetism and even drive-time also use contours for different purposes.
The closeness of contours indicates slope. Irregular contours mean rugged terrain. Its rare in nature for contours to cross. But they can for overhangs and cliffs.
What are some other types of contours youve seen in nature?
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Why Do Contour Lines Never Cross
Its unlikely that contours cross, but sometimes they do. When the terrain is an overhang or cliff, contour lines will cross or touch.
The cliffs in Látrabjarg, Iceland are up to 440 meters tall. When you generate 100-meter contours, they are very close to converging.
In 3D, you can see how steep these cliffs are. So if these contours did cross, its very likely an overhang. Or it could be an error in the program.
If you use your imagination, picture an overhang where the terrain hangs outward. This would be a rare exception when two contours that cross.
How Are Topographic Maps Used
A topographic map is a map illustrating the topography or shape of the land surface. Topographic maps show the locations and form of hills, valleys, streams, and other features as well as many man-made landmarks. They illustrate the shape and elevation of surface features by the use of contour lines.
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What Are Topographic Maps Used For
Geoscience Australia develops and maintains topographic maps and data for a variety of applications. Of course, topographic maps are used for recreational purposes, such as travelling, hiking and orienteering, but they are also used by government and industry to assist with urban planning, mining, emergency management and the establishment of legal boundaries and land ownership.