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What Is Chemosynthesis In Biology

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Definition: What Are Chemosynthetic Bacteria

Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8

Essentially, chemosynthetic bacteria include a group of autotrophic bacteria that use chemical energy to produce their own food. Like , chemosynthetic bacteria need a carbon source as well as an energy source in order to manufacture their own food.

For the most part, these bacteria are aerobic and therefore rely on oxygen to complete this process successfully. However, some species have been associated with anaerobic chemosynthesis.

Because of their ability to manufacture their own food using chemical energy, these organisms are able to survive in a variety of habitats/environments including harsh environments with extreme conditions as free-living organisms or in association with other organisms through symbiosis with other organisms.

* Unlike which is common in eukaryotic organisms and cyanobacteria, chemosynthetic reactions are mostly carried out by prokaryotic microorganisms

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Examples of chemosynthetic bacteria include:

  • T. novellus
  • ferrooxidans

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of Chemosynthesis In Aquatic Environments

Chemosynthesis depends on the presence of both reduced and oxidized compounds to be used as electron donors and acceptors, respectively. At oxicanoxic interfaces, the simultaneous access to, e.g., S2, NH4+ or CH4, and O2 can support chemosynthesis. However, electron acceptors other than O2, such as NO3, SO42 , and Fe3+, can also be used and thereby other interfaces may also be important . Therefore, in general terms, chemosynthesis is expected to be most extensive at sites with steep redox gradients. Such redox interfaces are common in sediments and stratified water cohlumns and can also exist over small scales within microbial mats and biofilms . Sites with seepage of reduced compounds of geochemical origin can also be important for chemosynthesis. Examples include hot springs, lakes fed by sulfide-rich ground water, and marine vent environments.

Figure 4. Concentrations of H2S and O2, and PAR , and light versus dark CO2 fixation in Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, September 13, 1999, at noon. represent detailed rates from between 10 and 13 m. Reproduced from Camacho A, Erez J, Chicote A, Florín M, Squires MM, Lehmann C, and Bachofen R Microbial microstratification, inorganic carbon photoassimilation and dark carbon fixation at the chemocline of the meromictic Lake Cadagno and its relevance to the food web. Aquatic Sciences 63: 91106.

Alex Enrich-Prast, … Camila Negrão Signori, in, 2022

What Is Chemosynthesis Class 10 Biology

The process of making food by utilizing chemical energy is known as fermentation. Fermentation is the process by which food is produced by the action of microorganisms. Microorganisms are microscopic organisms that live in and on the surface of plants and animals. They are responsible for the production of sugars, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other substances that are essential to life on Earth.

Fermentation also producescarbondioxide, water, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia, nitrous oxide, ethane, acetone, acetic anhydride, propylene glycol, ethanol, butanol, methanol, formic acid, 2-methylbutane-1-carboxylic acid , and acetaldehyde. These substances are used in a wide variety of products, including food, beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, industrial solvents, petrochemicals, paints, plastics, rubber, paper, textiles, ceramics, electrical equipment, medical devices, pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and insect repellents.

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What Is Chemosynthesis In Microbiology

Chemosynthesis can be defined as the biological production of organic compounds from C-1 compounds and nutrients, using the energy generated by the oxidation of water and carbondioxide. In the present invention, the term organic compound is used to refer to any organic compound, including, but not limited to, amino acids, carbohydrates, sugars, fats, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides, and the like.

In some embodiments, a compound is organic if it contains at least one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom in addition to the carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms that are present in the compound.

For example, an amino acid is considered to be organic when its carbon-to-hydrogen atom ratio is greater than 1:1, or when it has a hydrogen to carbon ratio of more than 0.9.

The term also includes a carbohydrate, sugar, fat, fatty acid, lipid, peptide, polypeptide and/or polysaccharide that is not organic, as long as it does not contain a carbonyl group or a carboxylic acid group.

How Is Chemosynthesis Different From Photosynthesis Quizlet


Both processes also need an energy source to fuel the reactions. And most important both photosynthesis and chemosynthesis result in food for the organisms which in turn becomes food for other organisms supporting the circle of life. What are the differences between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis?

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What Is Chemosynthesis Which Plant Produce Their Food By Chemosynthesis

There are rare autotrophs that producefood through a process called chemosynthesis. The suns energy is not used to producefood by autotrophs. Instead, they make food using energy from chemical reactions, often combining two or more chemicals to create a new compound.

Autotrophic organisms are found in a wide range of environments, including deserts, oceans, forests, and grasslands. They can be found on land, in water, or in the air. Some species, such as algae and cyanobacteria, are able to convert carbondioxide and water into food, while others are unable to do so.

What Are Chemosynthetic Bacteria

In simple words, these bacteria capture energy and make it available for everyone in the ecosystem thriving at the ocean floor. The bacteria essentially derive energy from chemical nutrients through oxidation. Also referred to as autotrophs, the bacteria get energy from breaking chemical bonds during a chemical reaction. The energy released is then used by them to manufacture glucose .

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Difference Between Photosynthesis And Chemosynthesis

Although photosynthesis and chemosynthesis are both processes that help organisms produce their food, there are certain differences between them.

  • Chemosynthesis occurs in bacteria and several other organisms and always involves the use chemical reactions between inorganic compounds to make sugars. Unlike photosynthetic organisms however, these chemical pathways differ between different types of organisms.

  • Since there is a difference in both of their workings, their equations will differ also.

The formula for the photosynthesis equation is:

  • 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

The formula for chemosynthesis equation is:

  • CO2 + O2 + 4H2S CH2O + 4S + 3H2O

References And Further Reading

  • Biotechnology for Environmental Management and Resource Recovery. Springer. 2013. p. 179. ISBN 9788132208761.
  • Campbell N.A. e.a. Biology 8. ed. Pearson International Edition, San Francisco. ISBN 978-0-321-53616-7
  • The purple phototrophic bacteria. Hunter, C. Neil, 1954-. Dordrecht: Springer. 2009. ISBN 9781402088148. OCLC 304494953.
  • Kellerman, M.Y., G. Wegener, M. Elvert, M.Y. Yoshinaga, Y-S. Lin, T. Holler, X.P. Millar, K. Knittel, and K-U. Hinrichs . Autotrophy as a predominant mode of carbon fixation in anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:19321-19326

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Carbon Assimilation In Chemosynthetic Bacteria

Depending on the type of bacteria, their habitat, and carbon source, there are a number of metabolic pathways used for fixation.

Some of the most common pathways include:

Calvin-Benson Cycle – In this cycle, the enzyme RuBisCo facilitates the addition of molecular carbon dioxide to ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate. This process generates a six-carbon compound that is, in turn, converted into two molecules of 3-PGA . This process is referred to as carbon fixation given that it involves the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic molecules.

Through the energy stored in ATP and NADPH , the carbon compound is again converted into another carbon compound to form G3P in the reduction phase.

As one of these molecules leaves the Calvin chain , the other is involved in the generation of RuBP.

Krebs Reverse Cycle – As compared to the Calvin cycle, carbon fixation in Krebs Reverse Cycle results in the production of pyruvate. Also known as the Reductive Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, this cycle starts with the fixation of two molecules of carbon dioxide. It results in the production of acetyl coenzyme A that is in turn reductively carboxylated to produce pyruvate.

The pyruvate produced through the process is then used for the synthesis of the organic cell materials.

Some of the other processes used by these bacteria include:

Main Difference Chemosynthesis Vs Photosynthesis

Chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are the two primary production mechanisms where organisms produce their own food. Both processes are involved in the production of simple sugars like glucose starting from carbon dioxide and water. The main difference between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis is that chemosynthesis is the process which synthesizes the organic compounds in the cell by the energy generated from chemical reactions whereas

This article looks at,

3. What is the difference between Chemosynthesis and Photosynthesis

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Is Carbon A Cycle

The carbon cycle describes the process in which carbon atoms continually travel from the atmosphere to the Earth and then back into the atmosphere. Carbon is released back into the atmosphere when organisms die volcanoes erupt fires blaze fossil fuels are burned and through a variety of other mechanisms.

What Is The Light

What is chemosynthesis? The process of carbohydrate synthesis in which ...

The photosynthesis process involves two stages. The light-dependent stage and light-independent stage. The light-independent stage is also known as Calvins cycle. This cycle is seen in most of the photosynthetic eukaryotes, and also in some photosynthetic bacteria.

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Examples Of Chemosynthesis In A Sentence

chemosynthesisLos Angeles Timeschemosynthesis The ConversationchemosynthesisScientific AmericanchemosynthesisThe Christian Science MonitorchemosynthesisNational Geographic

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘chemosynthesis.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

What Is Chemosynthesis Definition And Examples

What is Chemosynthesis?

Chemosynthesis is defined as a process in which the preparation of organic materials originating from H2O and Co2 using chemical energy. Organisms or living things that carry out this chemosynthesis process are those who do not have chlorophyll, for example sulfur bacteria such as bergiatoa as well as thiotrix and also nitrifying bacteria such as nitrosomonas, nictobacter, bactoderma, and iron bacteria such as cladotrix.

Chemosynthesis itself is actually a reaction with the mechanism of anabolism. It is a biological conversion procession of a carbon molecule or it can be more, nitrogen compounds are also a source of food converted into organic compounds by oxidation. Chemosynthesis is an anabolic reaction using chemical energy. Energy is a type of energy obtained from chemical reactions namely oxidation. Organisms that carry out the chemosynthesis process are themselves called chemoautotrophs, especially for auotrophic organisms.

Secondly, chemosistesis that occurs in the ocean occurs because there is a reaction between O2 and also the hydrogen substance between sufida and ammonia. In this condition, micro-organisms that do chemosynthesis depend heavily on photosynthetic activity that occurs elsewhere, where photosynthesis produces the O2 molecules they need to carry out their chemosynthetic processes

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Functional Genomics And Ecology Of Chemosynthetic Symbioses

The functionality of the chemosynthetic symbioses relies on both the availability of substrates for chemosynthetic metabolism and the existence of particular metabolic pathways in the symbiont to utilize those substrates. There is a link, therefore, between geochemistry and the type of symbiosis that can colonize a particular environment . Hosts have adapted in a variety of ways to provide their symbionts with these essential substrates , but environmental concentrations are likely to dominate any ecological framework determining the localization and abundance of these symbioses.

Similarities And Differences With Photosynthesiss


Let us now analyze the similarities of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, and what is the differences between them.


  • Both chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are types of autotrophic nutrition, when the body releases organic matter from inorganic.
  • The energy of such a reaction is stored in adenosine triphosphoric acid and subsequently used for the synthesis of organic substances.
  • The difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis:

    • They have a different source of energy, and as a result, different redox reactions. During chemosynthesis, the primary source of energy is not sunlight, but a chemical reaction of oxidation of certain substances.
    • During chemosynthesis, the bacterial cells dont have the chlorophyll during photosynthesis, on the contrary, they have the chlorophyll.
    • In chemosynthesis, the source of carbon for the synthesis of organics can be not only carbon dioxide but also carbon monoxide , formic acid, acetic acid, methanol, and carbonates.

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    Why Is Chemosynthesis Important

    In an unlit world without access to the Suns energy, chemosynthesis provides the basis for the development of rich, diverse communities. Chemosynthetic deep-sea bacteria form the base of a food web that includes a significant variety of marine life including shrimp, tubeworms, clams, crabs, fish, and octopods, just to name a few.

    Fact Sheet

    What Is Chemosynthesis In Biology Class 11

    Chemosynthesis is the process of synthesis of organic compoundsbybacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from sunlight, carbondioxide, and water. Bacteria are the most common form of life on Earth. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, where they are restricted to the polar regions. Bacteria can be divided into two major groups: aerobic and anaerobic.

    Anaerobic bacteria are able to break down organic matter, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, into simple sugars. These sugars are then used by other bacteria to make more complex molecules, including amino acids and nucleic acids. Anaerobes, on the other hand, do not have the ability to synthesize sugars, but instead use energy from the sun to produce hydrogen and oxygen, which they then use to grow and reproduce.

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    What Is Chemosynthesis Short Answer

    Chemosynthesis is a process in which energy is released by chemical reactions to producefood. The energy released by chemical reactions is used by organisms to make a variety of products. Bacteria are the most common form of life on Earth. They are found on all continents except Antarctica, where they are restricted to the polar regions. Bacteria can be divided into two major groups: aerobic and anaerobic.

    Anaerobic bacteria are those that do not use oxygen as an energy source, but instead use carbondioxide, hydrogen, or other organic compounds as energy sources. In contrast, aerobic bacteria require oxygen to survive and produceenergy. The two types of bacteria differ in their ability to utilize energy from the environment, as well as their metabolic rate, which is the rate at which the organism uses energy to grow and reproduce.

    How Is Chemosynthesis Used In Molecular Nanotechnology


    In molecular nanotechnology chemosynthesis is any chemical synthesis where reactions occur due to random thermal motion a class which encompasses almost all of modern synthetic chemistry. In this case synthesis is most efficiently performed through the use of molecular building blocks with a small amount of linkages.

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    What Is Chemosynthesis Nutrition

    Chemosynthesis is a type of autotrophic nutrition in which organisms use the suns energy to synthesise organic materials. Bacteria A group of organisms that includes bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Bacteria are the most abundant organisms on Earth and are responsible for the majority of life on the planet. They are found in all of the worlds oceans, lakes, rivers, soils, plants, animals, fungi, protozoa, bacteria and viruses.

    The term bacteria is often used interchangeably with protozoa or zooplankton in the scientific literature, but the two terms are not synonymous. Proteobacteria, for example, are a class of single-celled microorganisms that are capable of producing a wide variety of organic compounds, including amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and nucleotides, as well as DNA and RNA.

    In contrast, prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria or viruses, do not have the ability to produce any of these types of compounds.

    Interesting Information About The Rare Chemosynthetic Bacteria

    Chemosynthetic bacteria oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain energy without using sunlight. Thiobacillus, Beggiatoa, Nitrobacter, and Nitrosomonas are the best examples of chemosynthetic bacteria.

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    Chemosynthetic bacteria oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain energy without using sunlight. Thiobacillus, Beggiatoa, Nitrobacter, and Nitrosomonas are the best examples of chemosynthetic bacteria.

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    Learn What Chemosynthesis Means In Science

    • Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville
    • B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College

    Chemosynthesis is the conversion of carbon compounds and other molecules into organic compounds. In this biochemical reaction, methane or an inorganic compound, such as hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen gas, is oxidized to act as the energy source. In contrast, the energy source for uses energy from sunlight to power the process.

    The idea that microorganisms could live on inorganic compounds was proposed by Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradnsii in 1890, based on research conducted on bacteria which appeared to live from nitrogen, iron, or sulfur. The hypothesis was validated in 1977 when the deep sea submersible Alvin observed tube worms and other life surrounding hydrothermal vents at the Galapagos Rift. Harvard student Colleen Cavanaugh proposed and later confirmed the tube worms survived because of their relationship with chemosynthetic bacteria. The official discovery of chemosynthesis is credited to Cavanaugh.

    Organisms that obtain energy by oxidation of electron donors are called chemotrophs. If the molecules are organic, the organisms are called chemoorganotrophs. If the molecules are inorganic, the organisms are terms chemolithotrophs. In contrast, organisms that use solar energy are called phototrophs.

    Chemosynthesis As An Innovation For Researches

    Chemosynthesis vs photosynthesis

    Despite the fact that the process of chemosynthesis has been known for more than a hundred years, its significance and importance are still relevant today in the transformation of chemical elements in biogeochemical cycles. Today, the vital processes of nitrifying bacteria, which lead to the oxidation of ammonia to nitric acid, require scientific substantiation and additional research. The ability of bacteria to convert inorganic substances into organic ones suggests that chemosynthetics can accumulate valuable resources for human needs.

    Chemosynthetic communities in different environments are important biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, as well as their potential as indicators of the availability of permanent hydrocarbon- based energy sources. In the process of chemosynthesis, bacteria produce organic matter where photosynthesis is impossible. Isolation of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii and other types of chemosynthetics provides prospects for further research. Thus, the importance of chemosynthesis remains relevant for use in innovative technologies, conservation of ecosystems, human life in general. The role of Sergey Winogradsky in discovering the phenomenon of chemosynthesis is underestimated and needs further research and popularization.

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