The Origins Of Behavioral Psychology
The origins of behavioral psychology start with John B. Watson in 1913, who proposed that psychologists should focus on the observable behavior of individuals, rather than the invisible, inner workings of their minds .
Later on, B. F. Skinner developed this theory and showed evidence in favor of it becoming one of the most important psychologists of the 20th century in the process. He theorized that all of human behavior was shaped by our environment, that we could be made to act in certain ways depending on the prior consequences of previous actions.
B. F. Skinner essentially proposed that positive consequences to prior actions would lead to an individual carrying out more of those actions, while negative consequences would lead to an individual completing those actions less.
He famously stated Give me a child and Ill shape him into anything a paraphrasing of his belief in the power of the environment to impact who we become. Behaviorism was essentially an argument entirely in favor of nurture, in the nature vs. nurture debate.
How Do We Signal To Our Partner That We Want To Start Talking
We have all had the experience of speaking with someone who has made a point that we wish to respond to, and we somehow must communicate our intention to take the floor and have our turn to speak.
Watch other people as they have a conversation. There are telltale signs that a listener is becoming impatient. The individual may start fidgeting around, preening their hair, or tugging at their clothing. They may start nodding their head rapidly as if to say OK, OK, OK, and they may even grunt or make fake sounds of agreement to get the speaker to shut up.
Eventually, the listener may become more direct, making exaggerated inhalations as if taking a deep breath, and may raise an index finger or even a hand as if they were a student in school trying to get a teachers attention. If all else fails, the person may simply begin talking before the other person has finished.
What Parts Of Your Eye Make Up Vision
There are many different parts of your eye and brain that work together to help you see. The main components of your vision include:
- Cornea: This is the front layer of your eye. The cornea is dome-shaped and it works by bending the light that enters your eye.
- Pupil: The pupil is the black dot in the center of your eye that acts as a gateway for light. It expands in dim light and shrinks in bright light. Its controlled by the iris.
- Iris: This part is typically referred to as your eye color. The iris is a muscle that controls the size of your pupil and the amount of light that enters your eye.
- Lens: The lens is behind the iris and pupil. It works with your cornea to focus the light that enters your eye, much like a camera. The lens brings the image in front of you into a sharp focus, which allows you to see the details clearly.
- Retina: Located at the back of the eye, the retina is a layer of tissue that transforms the light coming into your eye into electrical signals. These signals are sent to the brain where they are recognized as images.
- Optic nerve: This part of your vision works as the connecting element between the retina and the brain. Your optic nerve transmits the electrical signals formed in the retina to the brain. Once there, the brain creates images.
- Tears: Though they are most commonly thought of in relation to crying, tears are meant to keep your eyes wet and help you focus clearly. They also help protect your eyes from irritation and infection.
Also Check: What Is Figure Ground Perception Psychology
What Can Eye Tracking Be Used For
Eye tracking is used across a range of different research fields, and for various different applications within the commercial realm too.
Obtaining detailed information about where an individual or group of people look is useful in a range of contexts, from psychological research, to medical diagnosis, neuromarketing applications and beyond.
What Do You See
The Hermann grid was first discovered by a physiologist named Ludimar Hermann in 1870. When the viewer looks at the grid, the white dots and the center of each ‘corridor’ seem to shift between white and gray. When the viewer focused his or her attention on a specific dot, it is obvious that it is white. But as soon as attention is shifted away, the dot shifts to a gray color.
You May Like: Eoc Fsa Warm Ups Algebra 1 Answers
Woman Shares Simple Eye Trick That Makes People Fall In Love With You In Seconds And Claims It Works Every Time
- Katie Storey
- 7:07 ET, Jul 15 2021
- Katie Storey
- Invalid Date,
EVER wondered how you can get your crush to instantly fall in love with you? What if we told you that all it takes is one longing look.
A video doing the rounds on TikTok reveals the psychology eye trick that one woman claims is the key to getting the person you like to like you back.
TikTok user Sophie-Rose swears by it and says the simple trick, that lasts only a few seconds, can work on anyone you’re interested in.
In her post, that has been watched over 808k times online, she explains: “You’re going to want to do this on somebody that you know you really like and have a mutual interest with.
“It might not necessarily work on strangers or people that you’ve never spoken to before up until this point, but it’s really good for you’re crush or somebody you like – and it’s a really good way for making them clear on how you feel and for them to stop in their tracks and be like, ‘woah.'”
Explaining when the look works best, she says: “You want to make sure you’re in a one-on-one conversation with this person.
“It might not work if you’re in a group because their attention might be on all the people around the table, they might not be looking at you for the duration of the time you do it.”
Background Of Trichromatic Theory
Color is a pervasive part of our visual experience. It can influence our moods, affect how we interpret things about the world, and even carry symbolic meaning. But what exactly explains our experience of color? A number of theories have emerged to explain this phenomenon, and one of the earliest and best-known was the trichromatic theory.
Renowned researchers Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz contributed to the trichromatic theory of color vision. The theory began when Thomas Young proposed that color vision results from the actions of three different receptors. As early as 1802, Young suggested that the eye contained different photoreceptor cells that were sensitive to different wavelengths of light in the visible spectrum.
It was later in the mid-1800s that researcher Hermann von Helmholtz expanded upon Young’s original theory and suggested that the cone receptors of the eye were either short-wavelength , medium-wavelength , or long-wavelength . He also proposed that it was the strength of the signals detected by the receptor cells that determined how the brain interpreted color in the environment.
Helmholtz discovered that people with normal color vision need three wavelengths of light to create different colors through a series of experiments.
Don’t Miss: Holt Geometry Workbook Answer Key
How Does The Ames Room Illusion Work
The effect works by utilizing a distorted room to create the illusion of a dramatic disparity in size. While the room appears square-shaped from the viewer’s perspective, it is actually has a trapezoidal shape. The woman on the right hand side of the image above is actually standing in a corner that is much further away than the woman on the left.
The illusion leads the viewer to believe that the two individuals are standing in the same depth of field when in reality the subject is standing much closer. The woman on the left in the image above appears at a much greater visual angle, but the fact that she appears to be at the same depth of field as the figure on the right makes the closer individual look much larger.
The effect can be observed in a number of films, including The Lord of the Rings trilogy. Note the early scenes in The Fellowship of the Ring where the effect is prominently used to make Gandalf appear larger than the hobbits.
You can see more examples of Ames rooms in these YouTube videos.
The Eyes Have Itor Do They
Emmelyn A. J. Croes et al. examined the role of eye contact within the context of initial romantic attraction .i They described eye contact as one of the most important nonverbal cues used to communicate affection within romantic attraction and relational development dynamics. Recognizing its role within impression formation, they explain that eye contact plays a role in reducing uncertainty within initial romantic interactions because with more eye contact comes more nonverbal affiliative expressiveness. Accordingly, they recognized eye contact as a critical, natural component of communication used to convey liking and attraction and note that perhaps not surprisingly, mutual romantic attraction sparks more eye contact. But how does it work?
Croes et al. used speed-dating methodology to investigate the impact of eye contact on the development of romantic attraction and the role of interactive uncertainty reduction strategies in the form of self-disclosure and asking questions. Surprisingly, their results found that eye contact had no direct effect on romantic attraction. They did find, however, that within initial interactions, eye contact prompts less uncertainty, and more intimacy, as compared to communications without eye contact.
What Is Behavioral Psychology
Behavioral psychology is the study of how our behaviors relate to our mind it looks at our behavior through the lens of psychology and draws a link between the two.
Understanding why we act in certain ways has always been a central task for psychologists, who have attempted to peer into the mind and brain to uncover what lies behind. While modern research often uses neuroimaging methods to find data that demonstrates the link between the brain and actions, behavioral psychology has its own roots in a time before such methods were commonplace.
But how did it all come together, and what does the theory really look like?
Emdr Therapy For Ptsd
Traumatic experiences can derail your life unless you have a way to process the event. EMDR Therapy helps you work through these difficult feelings and gets you back on the right track. The developer of this approach to trauma treatment, Francine Shapiro, says that we all have an innate capacity to process information and learn from all experiences, even difficult ones. She calls this process Adaptive Information Processing model. However, trauma can interrupt this natural process and can lead to distressing symptoms unless you have an opportunity to process the emotions and memories related to the event.
How does EMDR Therapy work? In order to better understand this process, we turn our attention to the way that memories are stored in the brain as a form of neural networks. A neural network is a group of interconnected brain cells that fire together. Traumatic memories are maintained as maladaptive neural networks that result in a limited ability to adapt, process, and resolve traumatic stress. You can think of this like a record that has a scratch in it. The needle will skip on that spot repeatedly unless we intervene. .
EMDR Therapy changes maladaptive neural networks by connecting the traumatic memory with new information. The distressing thoughts and emotions are blended with new positive thoughts and emotions embodied awareness allows frozen sensations in the body to resolve through healing movements.-Arielle Schwartz
You May Like: Does Mj Have Any Biological Kids
The Power Of Seeing And Believing
The sense organs receive patterns of energy, but we seldom see mere patterns: we see objects. A pattern is a relatively meaningless arrangement of marks, but objects have a host of characteristics beyond their sensory features. They change and influence each other and have hidden aspects, which emerge under different conditions. We do not generally define objects by how they appear, but rather by their uses and their causal characteristics. The importance of relations in perceptions was studied by Albert Michotte at Louvain, who for many years investigated the perception of causality .
The perceptual system has been of biological significance for far longer than the calculating intellect. The regions of the cerebral cortex concerned with thought are comparatively juvenile. They are self-opinionated by comparison with the ancient regions of the brain giving survival by seeing. The perceptual system does not always agree with the rational thinking cortex. For the cortex educated by physics, the moons distance is 390000 km to the visual brain it is a few hundred meters. Though in this example the intellectual cortical view is the correct one, the visual brain is never informed and we continue to see the moon as though it is located a few hundred meters away from the Earth .
A man born blind never learns to interpret facial expressions, though he can read a mood from the sound of a voice.
Diseases Disorders And Age
The stye is a common irritating inflammation of the eyelid.
There are many diseases, disorders, and age-related changes that may affect the eyes and surrounding structures.
As the eye ages certain changes occur that can be attributed solely to the aging process. Most of these anatomic and physiologic processes follow a gradual decline. With aging, the quality of vision worsens due to reasons independent of aging eye diseases. While there are many changes of significance in the nondiseased eye, the most functionally important changes seem to be a reduction in pupil size and the loss of accommodation or focusing capability . The area of the pupil governs the amount of light that can reach the retina. The extent to which the pupil dilates also decreases with age. Because of the smaller pupil size, older eyes receive much less light at the retina. In comparison to younger people, it is as though older persons wear medium-density sunglasses in bright light and extremely dark glasses in dim light. Therefore, for any detailed visually guided tasks on which performance varies with illumination, older persons require extra lighting. Certain ocular diseases can come from sexually transmitted diseases such as herpes and genital warts. If contact between eye and area of infection occurs, the STD will be transmitted to the eye.
Also Check: Who Are Paris Jackson’s Biological Parents
The Structure Of The Eye
Retina: The light-sensitive cells in the eye are in the retina, a layer at the back of the eye.
Rods and Cones: They are two types of retina cells. Rods are able to work in dim light, and only detects black and white. Cones are able to work in bright light, and can detect different colours
Optic Nerve To help us see, nerve impulses are sent from the retina to the brain. They travel down the optic nerve and to our brain.
Blind spot: At the point on the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye, there is no space for any rods or cones. This little area is therefore blind. The blind spots dont overlap, if one eye cant see something, the other one can.
The optic chiasma: Information from the left and right eye crosses over at a point called the optic chiasma. This is the shape of the nerves as they cross over on the way to the opposite side of the brain. Information in the right eye goes to the left side of the brain, information in the left eye goes to the right side of the brain.Visual cortex: From the optic chiasma, visual information is carried to the back of the brain. Many perceptual processes happen in an area of the brain called the visual cortex. The job of the visual cortex is to interpret the information from the rods and cones.The visual cortex uses this information in perception to understand shapes and distances, and filling in the gap left by the blind spot in each eye. This is why a pattern looks complete even though part of it may fall on the blind spot.
The Iris Pupil And More
Going more internally, we come to the iris. Just like a camera shutter, it is composed of two kinds of muscle fibers. When a muscle contracts, it contracts in only one direction. It can only shorten and then relax to its usual length, but it cant forcibly lengthen. To be able to open and close the iris, you need two sets of muscles. In the iris, we have radial fibers and circular fibers.
The pupil is really nothing its just the hole in the iris. If you need more light, the sympathetic fibers of the nervous system will fire or if you put a drop of adrenaline in the eye, it will diffuse right across the cornea. It will cause contraction of the radial fibers and open the pupil, allowing in more light. If, on the other hand, you fire the parasympathetic fibers, you get constriction of these muscles and relaxation of the radial fibers and these circular muscles will narrow the pupil.
In this area, we also have the ciliary body. We have a ciliary process and ciliary muscles that attach to the lens.
The lens is the second avascular structure in the eye. Its metabolically inactive and receives all of its nutrition and excretion of waste from diffusion. It has shape and it focuses light that comes through it.
One of the other parts of the eye that we can see is the retina. The retina is the film that light hits, producing the vision for the brain, and is the beginning of our perception of light.
Learn more about the Nature of Light and Matter
Read Also: Molecular Geometry Ccl4