Topics In Population Geography
- Demographic phenomena through both space and time
- Increases or decreases in population numbers
- The movements and mobility of populations
- Occupational structure
- The way in which places in turn react to population phenomena, e.g. immigration
Research topics of other geographic sub-disciplines, such as settlement geography, also have a population geography dimension:
- The grouping of people within settlements
- The way from the geographical of places, e.g. settlement patterns
All of the above are looked at over space and time. Population geography also studies human-environment interactions, including problems from those relationships, such as overpopulation, pollution, and others.
Auxiliary Sciences Of Social Geography
Social geography relies on other sciences and disciplines to complement its approach, drawing his knowledge from the anthropology , the sociology , the demographics , the economy and political science , to have a more holistic view of society.
In addition, it approaches the history , social communication, urbanism and philosophy to look for possible sources of interpretation and subjectivities. At the same time, you can use concepts and tools of mathematics , statistics, climatology and other branches of geography.
Aims And Purpose Of Geography:
Geography is an organic, active and dynamic science. It is an inter-disciplinary subject. Its main aim is to understand the ecological relations of human beings in the changing environment of different areas of the earth, and also is to contribute towards the prosperity of human society at the regional and local level by enhancing the utility of physical and human resources.
In brief, the aims of geography can be put into five groups:
- To describe the earth surface- It includes the external and internal structure of the earth,
- To explain the distribution of physical and human elements- It is also concerned with the temporal changes in their distribution.
- To analyze the mutual relations between natural and human elements.
- To study the integrated study of different regions, and also to explain the ecology of the environment and also to make a comparative study with other regions.
- To give effective cooperation in the formulation of the plans of resource utilization and resource appraisal for the human progress, by the optimal use of resources of each region.
It is revealed from the above discussion that geography is the study of the evolving character and organization of the Earths surface. Geographers look at the world from the viewpoint of geographic space, focus on the synthesis of ideas from different disciplines, and develop and use special techniques for the representation and manipulation of spatial information.
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The Branches Of Geography
Geography can be regarded as an interdisciplinary science. The subject encompasses an interdisciplinary perspective that allows the observation and analysis of anything distributed in Earth space and the development of solutions to problems based on such analysis. The discipline of geography can be divided into several branches of study. The primary classification of geography divides the approach to the subject into the two broad categories of physical geography and human geography.
What Is Density In Ap Human Geography
. Hereof, what is density in human geography?
Density is the number of thingswhich could be people, animals, plants, or objectsin a certain area. To calculate density, you divide the number of objects by the measurement of the area. The population density of a country is the number of people in that country divided by the area in square kilometers or miles.
Subsequently, question is, what is agricultural density in AP Human Geography? The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. Example: The US’ agricultural density is 1 farmer per square mile. The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Herein, what are the 3 types of density?
1a) Describe the three types of density used in population geography. The three types of density are physiological, arithmetic, and agriculture. Physiological density calculates the amount of people per arable square kilometer of land. Arithmetic density is the amount of people per square kilometer of land.
What is concentration in AP Human Geography?
Dispersion/Concentration– Dispersed/Scattered, Clustered/Agglomerated. Dispersion- The spacing of people within geographic population boundaries. Concentration– The spread of a feature over space. Dispersed/ Scattered- If objects are relatively far apart. Clustered/ Agglomerated- If objects are close/grouped together.
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Cultural Geography Take One: In The Beginning
Our first take follows a conventional narrative plot that begins with origins and a classical period, then unfolds in a linear narrative of ongoing progress of new, newer, and newest cultural geography. This will give the reader a sense of comfort typical with linear, progressive stories, and it will suggest that the boundaries of cultural geography are knowable, periodic, and fixed. This will be deliberately challenged in the takes that follow.
Classical cultural geography is conventionally traced back to origins in the 1920s, with the work of Carl Sauer and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, United States of America. The Berkeley School, as it would become known, embedded an understanding of culture as both cultivation to grow or rear and as way of life. Carl Sauer coined the term cultural landscape to describe the manner in which place was fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. For Sauer,
culture was the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result . Under the influence of a given culture , itself changing through time, the landscape undergoes development, passing through phases, and probably reaching ultimately the end of its cycle of development. With the introduction of a different that is alien culture , a rejuvenation of the cultural landscape sets in, or a new landscape is superimposed on remnants of an older one.
H. Ernste, L. Smith, in, 2009
S And Techniques In Geography:
Geography has many tools, techniques, and methods on which it depends. Important among them are globes, maps, diagrams, relief models and spatial analytical methods. Important methods in geography are deductive and inductive. Various statistical techniques and models are used for regional analysis and to understand spatial distribution and interaction.
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Modernization And Population Transitions
Population geography adds a spatial dimension to accounts of how modernization leads to systematic population transitions. The classic demographic transition model describes a hypothetical sequence of changes in a country’s population from a high fertilityhigh mortalitylow growth rate regime to a low fertilitylow mortalitylow growth rate stage. In postulating two intermediate phases, where mortality falls more quickly than fertility, and overall growth increases, studies have focused on the diffusion of modern sanitation and antibiotics, and processes of secularization . By regionalizing areas with similar mortality and fertility dynamics, scholars establish expected speeds of transition and draw attention to deviations from such norms. For example, noting transition disparities in societies with below replacement fertility, rapid immigration, demographic aging, where fertility has declined with no increase in economic development, and where mortality has increased to levels seen a 100 years ago, research now attends to the mediating role of population composition, including family structure, ethnicity, and age profile. Discussions of the so-called second demographic transition are located within a broader agenda considering demographic convergence. Critics point to the value-laden assumption that Western concepts of secularization and ideal family size apply universally, without reference to local culture.
C. Gibson, G. Waitt, in, 2009
Population In Geography Topic
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What Is Population Geography And Why Study It
Geographic Information System :
GIS is a computer-based data processing tool or methodology used for gathering, manipulating, and analyzing geographic information to produce a holistic, interactive analysis.
Maps have traditionally been used to explore the Earth and to exploit its resources. GIS technology, as an expansion of cartographic science, has enhanced the efficiency and analytic power of traditional mapping.
Now, as the scientific community recognizes the environmental consequences of human activities, GIS technology is becoming an essential tool in the effort to understand the process of global change. Various map and satellite information sources can combine in ways that recreate the interactions of complex natural systems.
Such visualization can help to predict what will happen to an area if it is repeatedly flooded, or what changes are expected if a particular industry is located or developed in an area.
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Alisdair Rogers Noel Castree And Rob Kitchin
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date: 29 January 2022
- A Dictionary of Human Geography
Where Have Human Geographical Knowledges Been Produced
Human geography has its own differentiated geography. It has addressed different intents and has taken place in diverse institutional contexts that all shape its character, orientation, and reception. In some academic disciplines a strong sense prevails of truly international debates and paradigms. This is not necessarily the case in human geography. Ironically, even though human geography has global aspirations and an international presence, a sense of global uniformity or consensus is remarkably absent. Perhaps it is a marker of the respect geographers pay to the crucial roles of place, context, and geographical specificity that the very notion of global consensus is unpopular.
Even by the late 1700s the idea of a coherent and universal explanation of world geography had been challenged. Jedidiah Morse was so incensed by the Anglocentrism of British geography books that he inverted the usual practice of describing Europe first in his The American Geography and dedicated 90% of its 536 pages to the New World. Similarly, William Guthrie , a Scottish writer, sought to expose how English assumptions had pervaded 18th Century geography and instead rewrote it using concepts from the Scottish Enlightenment.
Kevin Hannam, in, 2015
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A Short Definition For Population Geography
A second variant of population geography is narrower in focus, akin to spatial demography. Geographers working in this field stressed the importance of keeping close to demography, its theories and methods, and therefore concentrating more on the core demographic variables of fertility, mortality, and, to a lesser extent, migration. They applied mathematical techniques to describe, infer, and also explain population patterns past and present. A volume edited by British geographers Bob Woods and Phil Rees Population Structures and Models: Developments in spatial demography typifies this approach. Woods own specialism was the historical demography of infant mortality in Victorian Britain. Spatial demography has a strong historical component, not least among French and British geographers. By detailing the spatial variation in mortality, fertility, nuptuality, etc., geographers were able to disrupt many of the generalizations of population change and identify the significance of place.
Approaches To Study Geography:
Geography has changed its approach. The earlier geographers were descriptive. Later, geography came to be developed as analytical science. Today the discipline is not only concerned with descriptions but also with analysis as well as prediction. There are two major approaches to study geography Systematic Approach and Regional Approach.
A Short Definition For Human Geography
The study of the interrelationships between people, place, and environment, and how these vary spatially and temporally across and between locations. Whereas physical geography concentrates on spatial and environmental processes that shape the natural world and tends to draw on the natural and physical sciences for its scientific underpinnings and methods of investigation, human geography concentrates on the spatial organization and processes shaping the lives and activities of people, and their interactions with places and nature. Human geography is more allied with the social sciences and humanities, sharing their philosophical approaches and methods .
With respect to methods, human geography uses the full sweep of quantitative and qualitative methods from across the social sciences and humanities, mindful of using them to provide a thorough geographic analysis. It also places emphasis on fieldwork and mapping , and has made a number of contributions to developing new methods and techniques, notably in the areas of spatial analysis, spatial statistics, and GIScience.
What Is Human Geography
Defining human geography is especially difficult because of complicating factors like the relationship between human geography and geography the rather late professionalization of the discipline variations in human geography written in different languages and the difficulty of being able to identify definitive research questions, sequential paradigms, or key thinkers. It is tempting to define a common ground for human geography’s intellectual core , and wish to enforce this. Such a common ground might provide human geography with a sense of unity. But the reality of how human geography is practiced simply cannot sustain this. As David Livingstone so powerfully put it in The Geographical Tradition , The idea that there is some eternal metaphysical core to geography independent of historical circumstances will simply have to go.
Table 1. Contents of Progress in Human Geography, 19782007 numbers of articles by subdisciplinary themea
Chris. Gibson, G. Waitt, in, 2009
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Cultural Definitions Forpopulation Control
In reaction to the prediction by Thomas Malthus that the world’s population would soon outgrow its food supply, a movement began in the early twentieth century to limit the number of births and therefore limit the growth of the world’s population. The movement is supported by groups such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation. A number of countries have made population control a national policy. To varying extents, the methods of population control include family planning, birth control, contraception, and abortion . These policies are opposed by many groups, including the Roman Catholic Church, and are controversial.
Distribution Of The Worlds Population
Economist Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, believes that there are two reasons why the global population and extreme poverty occur where they do:
- Capitalism distributes wealth to nations better than socialism or communism
- Geography is a significant factor in population distribution in relationship to wealth
For example, the population tends to be lower in extreme environments such as arid climates, rainforests, polar or mountainous regions. Another example is a nation that has a large body of water within its boundaries or has large mineral deposits or resources that are likely to have more wealth and a larger population.
Humans only occupy five percent of the Earths surface because oceans, deserts, rainforests, and glaciers cover much of the planet . The term for areas where humans permanently settle is ecumene. Population growth and technology dramatically increase the ecumene of humans, which affects the worlds ecosystems.
Additionally, regions that are too cold pose problems for large population clusters and food production. The cold Polar Regions have a short growing season, and many of the Polar Regions have limited amounts of moisture because they are covered by high- pressure systems . Thus, cold polar regions are defined by temperature and lack of moisture, despite access to snow, ice, and glaciers. Mountainous and highland regions lack population clusters due to steep slopes, snow and ice cover, and short growing seasons.
What Is Population Geography
Population Geography is the study of the demography from a geographical perspective. Population Geography helps to understand the various facets pertaining to the spatial variation in the distribution of the human population across the Earth with reference to the physical, cultural and socio-economic environment.
Post World War II there was increasing availability of population data which made it possible to map the demographic attributes with respect to the different regions of the world. In the twentieth century, there was a growing awareness among the people about the effects of population expansion on the economic development in a particular region. The larger part of the world population lives in the developing or the underdeveloped countries hence the greater contribution to the population came from these regions itself. With the onset of the industrial revolution and the rising economic instability, many developing and the underdeveloped countries began to experience a shift of the greater population from the rural to the urban areas. The settlement of the working class in the urban areas led to the formation of numerous cities which were without doubt accompanied by their uncountable problems which compelled geographers to focus their research into the many facets of population distribution.