## Main Difference Amu Vs Grams

The terms amu and grams are used to measure the mass of substances. Therefore, grams can be converted into amu units and amu units can be converted into grams as well. Gram is a larger unit when compared to amu, but gram is a smaller unit compared to other units used for the measurement of mass. The term amu stands for atomic mass unit and is used for the measurements of very small substances such as atoms. The amu is the unit that is used to express the atomic mass of a chemical element. The main difference between amu and grams is that **amu is used to express the mass in atomic level whereas gram is used as a metric unit of mass.**

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## Redefinition Of Si Base Units

In 2011, the 24th meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures agreed to a plan for a possible revision of the SI base unit definitions at an undetermined date.

On 16 November 2018, after a meeting of scientists from more than 60 countries at the CGPM in Versailles, France, all SI base units were defined in terms of physical constants. This meant that each SI unit, including the mole, would not be defined in terms of any physical objects but rather they would be defined by constants that are, in their nature, exact.

Such changes officially came into effect on 20 May 2019. Following such changes, “one mole” of a substance was redefined as containing “exactly 6.02214076×1023 elementary entities” of that substance.

## What Is Delta G

The energy associated with a chemical reaction that can be used to do work. The free energy of a system is the sum of its enthalpy plus the product of the temperature and the entropy of the system:

G = H TS

- The change in the enthalpy of the system minus the product of the temperature and the change in the entropy of the system is known as free energy.Delta G is the symbol for spontaneity, and these are the two factors which can affect it.

G = H TS

When delta G > 0 Its a non-spontaneous reaction.When delta G < 0 Its a spontaneous reaction.When delta G = 0 Its at equilibrium.

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## Formula Mass For Ionic Compounds

Ionic compounds are composed of discrete cations and anions combined in ratios to yield electrically neutral bulk matter. The formula mass for an ionic compound is calculated in the same way as the formula mass for covalent compounds: by summing the average atomic masses of all the atoms in the compounds formula. Keep in mind, however, that the formula for an ionic compound does not represent the composition of a discrete molecule, so it may not correctly be referred to as the molecular mass.

As an example, consider sodium chloride, NaCl, the chemical name for common table salt. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound composed of sodium cations, Na+, and chloride anions, Cl, combined in a 1:1 ratio. The formula mass for this compound is computed as 58.44 amu .

**Figure 3.**

## Calculating Moles Given Molarity

To calculate the number of moles in a solution given the molarity, we multiply the molarity by total volume of the solution in liters.

How many moles of potassium chloride are in 4.0 L of a 0.65 M solution?

\text_}=\frac_}}}

0.65 \text = \frac_\text}}

\text_\text = = 2.6 \text

There are 2.6 moles of KCl in a 0.65 M solution that occupies 4.0 L.

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## Calculating Gibbs Free Energy

In order to make use of Gibbs energies to predict chemical changes, it is necessary to know the free energies of the individual components of the reaction. To accomplish this, combine the standard enthalpy and the standard entropy of a substance to get the standard free energy of a reaction:

\Delta }^\circ= \Delta }^\circ-\text\Delta }^\circ

Recall that the symbol ° refers to the standard state of a substance measured under the conditions of 1 atm pressure or an effective concentration of 1 Molar and a temperature of 298K. The other factor to keep in mind is that enthalpy values are normally given in \frac}} while entropy values are given in \frac}\times \text} . The energy units will need to be the same in order to solve the equation properly.

The standard Gibbs free energy of the reaction can also be determined according to:

\Delta \text^\circ = \Sigma \Delta }_}^\circ-\Sigma \Delta }_}^\circ

**Gibbs Energy of Formation**: The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a compound is the change of Gibbs free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of that substance from its component elements, at their standard states.

Example Problem: Calculate the \Delta \text^0_} for the following equation using the values in the table:

\text_)} + \frac \text_)} \rightarrow \text_)}

\Delta \text^\circ = \Sigma \Delta }_}^\circ-\Sigma \Delta }_}^\circ

\Delta \text^\circ = –

\Delta \text^\circ = -257.2\ \text

## Is There A Crossover Point

The crossover point is when;*G* is zero. At this point:

0;= *H* ;*T**S*system

178 000 =;*T* x 161

*T* = 178 000 / 161 = 1105 K

So this temperature is a sort of tipping point between the reaction being feasible or not.

**Note on; H**

Throughout these calculations, we have assumed that *H* does not change with temperature. This is an approximation only, but for most reactions the change with temperature is small.

*S*system may change with temperature.;For example, if one of the reactants or products changes state this will affect *S*system. In fact, the reaction does not simply flip between feasibility and non-feasibility . If the reaction were to take place in a closed system, an equilibrium would be set up.

As a rule of thumb, reactions with *G* more negative than 60 kJ mol-1 are considered to go to completion while those with *G* more positive than +60 kJ mol-1 are considered not to occur at all. Between these temperatures, the reaction is considered to be reversible and in a closed system an equilibrium would be set up containing some of all the reactants and products concerned.

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## Temperature Dependence Of Spontaneity

As was previously demonstrated in this chapters section on entropy, the spontaneity of a process may depend upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction or the other depending upon the temperature of the substance in question. Likewise, some chemical reactions can also exhibit temperature dependent spontaneities. To illustrate this concept, the equation relating free energy change to the enthalpy and entropy changes for the process is considered:

The spontaneity of a process, as reflected in the arithmetic sign of its free energy change, is then determined by the signs of the enthalpy and entropy changes and, in some cases, the absolute temperature. Since *T* is the absolute temperature, it can only have positive values. Four possibilities therefore exist with regard to the signs of the enthalpy and entropy changes:

**Both**This condition describes an endothermic process that involves an increase in system entropy. In this case,

*H*and*S*are positive.*G*will be negative if the magnitude of the

*T*

*S*term is greater than

*H*. If the

*T*

*S*term is less than

*H*, the free energy change will be positive. Such a process is

*spontaneous at high temperatures and nonspontaneous at low temperatures.*

These four scenarios are summarized in Figure 1.

**Figure 1.**

## The Gibbs Free Energy And Equilibrium

Real reactions are more complex.;As in the simulation, the equilibrium position is governed by the intrinsic rates of the forward and back reactions. As there is usually more than one reactant and product, their proportions can vary.

**Note**

It is important here to distinguish between the overall rate of particles moving from box to box and the intrinsic rate, which is related to the probability of an individual particle moving from one box to the other.

The intrinsic rate is analogous to the rate constant of a chemical reaction while the overall rate is analogous to the observed rate.

The overall rate is the intrinsic rate multiplied by the number of particles in the relevant box.

Temperature also affects the equilibrium position. The Equilibrium mixtures simulation allows you to investigate the effect of changing the initial concentrations of reactant and products and also the temperature on some important reversible reactions.

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## How To Calculate Volume Percent Concentration Of A Solution

Volume percent is the volume of solute per volume of solution. This unit is used when mixing together volumes of two solutions to prepare a new solution. When you mix solutions, the volumes *aren’t always additive*, so volume percent is a good way to express concentration. The solute is the liquid present in a smaller amount, while the solute is the liquid present in a larger amount.

**Calculate Volume Percent**: volume of solute per volume of solution , multiplied by 100%

**symbol**: v/v %

v/v % = liters/liters x 100% or milliliters/milliliters x 100%

**Example**: What is the volume percent of ethanol if you dilute 5.0 milliliters of ethanol with water to obtain a 75-milliliter solution?

v/v % = 5.0 ml alcohol / 75 ml solution x 100% = 6.7% ethanol solution, by volume.

## What Is The Name Of The Physical Quantity That Is Given In Kj/g

The chemical potential $\mu$ of a pure phase corresponds to the Gibbs free energy $G$ divided by the amount of substance $n$:

$$ = \mu,$$

so the units of $\mu$ are $\pu.$

What do we call it when we are using the Gibbs free energy divided by the *molecular weight*? My units are $\pu,$ and I am not sure what’s that called in chemistry. Is there a name for it?

Edit that might help: I use these values to calculate the thermodynamic “likelihood” of mineral phases to occur at any given temperature and pressure. It’s something that we just learn to do, but I never really understood what it corresponds to.

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## Chemistry Is Everywhere: Sulfur Hexafluoride

On March 20, 1995, the Japanese terrorist group Aum Shinrikyo released some sarin gas in the Tokyo subway system; twelve people were killed, and thousands were injured. Sarin is a nerve toxin that was first synthesized in 1938 . It is regarded as one of the most deadly toxins known, estimated to be about 500 times more potent than cyanide. Scientists and engineers who study the spread of chemical weapons such as sarin would like to have a less dangerous chemical, indeed one that is nontoxic, so they are not at risk themselves.

**Figure 4.**

Sulfur hexafluoride is used as a model compound for sarin. SF6 has a similar molecular mass as sarin , so it has similar physical properties in the vapour phase. Sulfur hexafluoride is also very easy to accurately detect, even at low levels, and it is not a normal part of the atmosphere, so there is little potential for contamination from natural sources. Consequently, SF6 is also used as an aerial tracer for ventilation systems in buildings. It is nontoxic and very chemically inert, so workers do not have to take special precautions other than watching for asphyxiation.

**Figure 5.**

Sulfur hexafluoride also has another interesting use: a spark suppressant in high-voltage electrical equipment. High-pressure SF6 gas is used in place of older oils that may have contaminants that are environmentally unfriendly in the accompanying figure).

## What Is A Chemical Equation

**nomenclature**

A chemical equation is an expression of a chemical process. For example:

In this equation, AgNO3 is mixed with NaCl. The equation shows that the reactants react through some process to form the products . Since they undergo a chemical process, they are changed fundamentally.

Often chemical equations are written showing the state that each substance is in. The sign means that the compound is a solid. The sign means the substance is a liquid. The sign stands for aqueous in water and means the compound is dissolved in water. Finally, the sign means that the compound is a gas.

Coefficients are used in all chemical equations to show the relative amounts of each substance present. This amount can represent either the relative number of molecules, or the relative number of moles . If no coefficient is shown, a one is assumed.

On some occasions, a variety of information will be written above or below the arrows. This information, such as a value for temperature, show what conditions need to be present for a reaction to occur. For example, in the graphic below, the notation above and below the arrows shows that we need a chemical Fe2O3, a temperature of 1000 degrees C, and a pressure of 500 atmospheres for this reaction to occur.

The graphic below works to capture most of the concepts described above:

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## If H And S Are Both Positive

If H and S are both positive, G will only be negative above a certain threshold temperature and we say that the reaction is only spontaneous at ‘high temperatures.’

These four possibilities are summarized in the following table:

Ho |
---|

TS = H

It is from this last expression that undergraduate students are presented with equations that relate the freezing temperature to the H and S of fusion and the boiling temperature to the H and S of vaporization:

One could also rearrange the equation to solve for temperature which could be used to solve for a freezing or boiling point.; And for reactions in which H and S are either both negative or both positive this expression could also be used to solve for the threshold temperature below which or above which a reaction would be spontaneous.

One thing to keep in mind for calculations involving any of these equations is that G and H values are often reported in kJ/mol whereas S values are typically reported in J/K.mol.; Make sure to convert so that all units are the same before performing any calculations.; Finally, all temperatures should be in Kelvin when performing calculations.

## How Is Amu Determined

For any given isotope, the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is called the mass number. This is because each proton and each neutron weigh one atomic mass unit . By adding together the number of protons and neutrons and multiplying by 1 amu, you can calculate the mass of the atom.

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## Case : H < 0 And S < 0

If the reaction is sufficiently exothermic it can force G to be negative only at temperatures below which |TS| < |H|. This means that there is a temperature defined by \text = \frac}} at which the reaction is at equilibrium; the reaction will only proceed spontaneously below this temperature. The freezing of a liquid or the condensation of a gas are the most common examples of this condition.

## What Is The Empirical Formula Of A Compound That Contains 2727 G And 7272 G O

answer:

27.27 g and 72.72 g O?

Explanation:

1. C

answer:

What is molecular formula of this substance? Empirical Formula 1) What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 0.783g of Carbon, 0.196g of Hydrogen and 0.521g of Oxygen? Molecular Formula 4) Empirical formula of a substance is CH20.

answer:

Explanation:

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## Calculating Mass Given Molality

We can also use molality to find the amount of a substance in a solution. For example, how much acetic acid, in mL, is needed to make a 3.0 m solution containing 25.0 g of KCN?

First, we must convert the sample of KCN from grams to moles:

\text = 25.0 \text \times = 0.38 \text

The moles of KCN can then be used to find the kg of acetic acid. We multiply the moles by the reciprocal of the given molality so that our units appropriately cancel. The result is the desired mass of acetic acid that we need to make our 3 m solution:

0.38 \text \times = 0.12\text

Once we have the mass of acetic acid in kg, we convert from kg to grams: 0.12 kg is equal to 120 g. Next, we use the density of acetic acid to convert to the requested volume in mL. We must multiply by the reciprocal of the density to accomplish this:

120.0 \text \times = 114.0 \text

Therefore, we require 114 mL of acetic acid to make a 3.0 m solution that contains 25.0 g of KCN.

**Molarity vs. molality**: In this lesson, you will learn how molarity and molality differ.

## Unified Atomic Mass Unit

The **unified atomic mass unit** , or **dalton** , is a unit of atomic and molecular mass. By definition it is one twelfth of the mass of an unbound carbon-12 atom, at rest and in its ground state.

The relationship of the unified atomic mass unit to the macroscopic SI base unit of mass, the kilogram, is given by Avogadros number*N*A. By the definition of Avogadros number, the mass of *N*A carbon-12 atoms, at rest and in their ground state, is 12 gram . From the latest value of *N*A follows the latest value of the unified atomic mass unit:

- 1 u 1.660538782 × 1027 kg

Future refinements in Avogadros number by future improvements in counting large numbers of atoms, will give better accuracy of u. It is hoped that in the future the experimental accuracy of Avogadros constant will improve so much that the unified atomic mass unit may replace the kilogram as the SI base unit, see this article.

The unit u is convenient because one hydrogen atom has a mass of approximately 1 u, and more generally an atom or molecule that contains *p*protons and *n*neutrons will have a mass approximately equal to u. The mass of a nucleus is not exactly equal to *p* + *n*, because the nuclear binding energy gives rise to a relativistic mass defect.

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