Friday, May 20, 2022

What Does Brics Stand For In Geography

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Behind The Brics Front Divisions Rising

How India And China Broke Out From The BRICs

For most coalitions and especially so when they involve developing countries there are usually doomsayers predicting its premature death. The BRICS has been subject to such scepticism for many years now, driven partly by the many disparities among the members. The grouping, after all, did bring together a mix of democratic and authoritarian regimes, with very different societal structures, resource bases, developmental trajectories, and historical traditions. The current pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing differences amongst the BRICS. And while the differences are multiple across the various dyads, the most pertinent at this point are those between the most powerful member of the BRICS China and the others. I highlight these below.

South Asia At A Crossroads Looking Into The Future

Khilji in her analysis of what the future holds for South Asia refers to the expected high level of growth both economically and demographically . She indicates that an optimistic version of 2050 scenarios for BRIC countries predicts that India is likely to overtake the U.S.A. as the worlds second largest economy behind China . Other South Asian economies are also expected to show solid economic growth. Goldman Sachs list of Next Eleven countries suggests that Bangladesh and Pakistan have high potential of becoming, along with BRIC, the worlds largest economies in the twenty-first century . This is likely to raise important issues about the role of South Asia in the worlds fiscal and monetary policy. In terms of population, currently South Asia is home to 24% of the worlds population . However, by 2045 India is likely to overtake China as the most populous country. Pakistan and Bangladesh are expected to follow in fourth and seventh place, respectively . Already South Asia is home to a large percentage of the young global population , which will continue to grow. Consequently, by 2045 when some of todays developed countries will no longer have enough workers because of an aging population, qualified and educated South Asians would be able to constitute a significantly larger share of the global workforce.

Rajesh Kumar, in, 2014

A Solid Brics Wall Against The Pandemic

The life of Brazil, Russia, India and China as an acronym began in a Goldman Sachs study by Jim ONeill in 2001. The reactions of the original four at the time were mixed: There was delight in Russia, bafflement in China, cynicism in Brazil and indifference in India. Within a few years though, this motley group had decided to band together. The four BRIC leaders met as guests at the G8 Summit at Hokkaido in Japan in 2008. In 2009, the first official leaders level summit of the BRIC was held in Yekaterinburg. Since then, the group has continued to meet regularly, not only at the leaders but also ministerial levels . It has developed an official track , plus further tracks involving other members of their societies . In 2011, the BRIC grouping grew into BRICS with the entry of South Africa. A variety of initiatives, including the establishment of the New Development Bank, led several analysts to view the BRICS as a potentially serious driver for a parallel order.

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Closure Of Goldman’s Brics Fund

Growth in the BRICS economies slowed down after the global financial crisis and the oil price collapse that began in 2014. By 2015, the BRICS acronym no longer looked like an attractive investment venue and funds aimed at these economies either shut down or merged with other investment vehicles.

Goldman Sachs merged its BRICS investment fund, which was focused on generating returns from these economies, with the broader Emerging Markets Equity Fund. The fund had lost 88% of its assets from a 2010 peak. In an SEC filing, Goldman Sachs stated that it did not expect “significant asset growth in the foreseeable future” in the BRICS fund. Per a Bloomberg report, the fund had lost 21% in five years.

BRIC is now used as a more generic term. For example, Columbia University established the BRICLab, where students examine foreign, domestic, and financial policies of BRIC members.

List Of Brics Summit Attendees

What Does the Acronym BRICS Stand For?

This is a list of representative leaders of BRICS states at each BRICS Summit since the group’s inception in 2009. The group consists of the five countries, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. BRICS holds an annual summit, which each state or government leader attends. Each year the heads of government take turns assuming the presidency, whose job it is to set the agenda for, and host, the annual summit.

The group was formed as BRIC, including all of today’s members minus South Africa. South Africa joined in the third year of the group’s existence, 2011, forming BRICS.

Summit

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What Will Be The Key Influences On The Future Of Copyright

If we have to hazard a guess, it is, first, that the future of copyright will not be in the hands of the current protagonists. While Hollywood and the music industry will continue to represent their interests strongly and clearly, the political balance of power may shift to new industries. The balance sheets of the new portals, search engine and social network providers may sway votes in Congress.

Third, three groups have the potential to change the impact of copyright for us all: legislators, the Executive, and the courts. Legislators may continue to recognize the 300-year-old concept of copyright, but may shift its locus through the narrowing of its application. One way this may come about is by an extension of fair dealing/fair use. In 2012, the UK Government was proposing to speed up changes to the law by giving the relevant government minister the power to make new regulations to add or remove exceptions to copyright by secondary legislation, without a full Act of Parliament.11

The Executive may also change by using its power as funder and consumer of copyright. Professor Dame Janet Finchs report in June 201212 suggested that the UK could adopt an open access publishing model, by the UK making taxpayer funded research available free of charge, providing for the costs through public funding. The prospect of a gold open access model to be adopted was broadly welcomed by UK publishers.13

Stefano Gatti, in, 2018

After The Brics Are The Mints But Can You Make Any Money From Them

    The former Goldman Sachs economist Jim O’Neill will forever be associated with the term BRIC, which he coined as an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India and China . The term caught on and has been common parlance for a decade now. And now O’Neill, though no longer with Goldman, has a new one: the MINT countries.

    Mint? This term refers to Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey, and O’Neill’s premise is that these will be the next economic powerhouses. They are bound by a few key themes: young populations, useful geographical placement, and by being commodity producers.

    Personally I have mixed feelings about the MINTs, and also think that any use of this idea as an investment theme ought to take into account just what’s happened to the BRICS in recent years. But we’ll come back to that.

    Mexico, too, is increasingly the Latin American market that investors like most. It is increasingly common for investors to say they like Mexico “because it isn’t Brazil”, and although that remark is naturally a bit flippant, there is some truth in it: whereas Brazilian companies have tended to be sluggish and mired in state policy, Mexico’s benefit from market-friendly reforms and a sense of national momentum under President Enrique Pena Nieto, expected to attract steady increases in foreign investment.

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    Brics Impact On Global Financial Institutions

  • The financial crisis of 2008 was one of the major reasons behind the formation of BRICS. The dollar-dominated monetary market collapsed after the subprime mortgage crisis and raised questions about its reliability and sustainability.
  • The reform of Multilateral Institutions was established by BRICS in order to make changes in the structure of the World Economy, thus increasing the part emerging economies play in the world economy.
  • These reformations of institutions resulted in the formation of the International Monetary Fund quota reform after BRICS managed to push for it in 2010, further reducing the financial crisis due to western laws. BRICS ended being the agenda settlers in multilateral institutions after this.
  • To know more about other important summits and their venues, visit the linked article.

    Bric Countries Background Key Facts News And Original Articles

    13th BRICS Summit: Leaders cover Afghanistan crisis, pandemic in speech | Narendra Modi | World News

    The BRIC countries label refers to a select group of four large, developing countries . The four BRIC countries are distinguished from a host of other promising emerging markets by their demographic and economic potential to rank among the worlds largest and most influential economies in the 21st century . Together, the four original BRIC countries comprise more than 2.8 billion people or 40 percent of the worlds population, cover more than a quarter of the worlds land area over three continents, and account for more than 25 percent of global GDP.

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    Growing Bric Middle Class

    The rapid economic growth and demographics of China and India are expected to give rise to a large middle class whose consumption would help drive the BRICs economic development and expansion of the global economy. The charts below depict how the increase in the middle class population of the BRIC countries is forecasted to more than double that of the developed G7 economies.

    The Mint Countries: Next Economic Giants

    In 2001 the world began talking about the Bric countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China – as potential powerhouses of the world economy. The term was coined by economist Jim O’Neill, who has now identified the “Mint” countries – Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey – as emerging economic giants. Here he explains why.

    So what is it about the so-called Mint countries that makes them so special? Why these four countries?

    A friend who has followed the Bric story noted sardonically that they are probably “fresher” than the Brics. What they really share beyond having a lot of people, is that at least for the next 20 years, they have really good “inner” demographics – they are all going to see a rise in the number of people eligible to work relative to those not working.

    This is the envy of many developed countries but also two of the Bric countries, China and Russia. So, if Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey get their act together, some of them could match Chinese-style double-digit rates between 2003 and 2008.

    Something else three of them share, which Mexican Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Meade Kuribrena pointed out to me, is that they all have geographical positions that should be an advantage as patterns of world trade change.

    For example, Mexico is next door to the US, but also Latin America. Indonesia is in the heart of South-east Asia but also has deep connections with China.

    I think so, though it may take 30 years.

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    What Is The Brasilia Declaration

    The Brasilia Declaration was signed by the BRICS members at the 11th BRICS Summit in Brasilia. This declaration reaffirms the members commitment to upholding the UN Charters purposes and principles, advocating multilateralism, and finding a political settlement to serious issues.

    • The Brasilia Declaration will be advocating and supporting
    • Multilateralism
    • The major role of the UN in international affairs
    • Mutual respect for international Law
  • Reforming Multilateral Systems
  • The three major international organizations need to be strengthened and reformed in order to address the issues faced by the developing nations of the world.
  • Supporting multilateralism
  • The US-China trade war has a significant impact on the global economy.
  • Multilateralism will allow emerging economies and developing countries to protect their own interests.
  • BRICS UPSC Notes:-

    Bric Countries Path To 2050

    What Does the Acronym BRICS Stand For?

    A countrys population and demographics, among other factors, directly affect the potential size of its economy and its capacity to function as an engine of global economic growth and development. As early as 2003, Goldman Sachs forecasted that China and India would become the first and third largest economies by 2050, with Brazil and Russia capturing the fifth and sixth spots. The chart below shows a more recent forecast of the world ranking of the biggest economies in the year 2050.

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    Next 11 Emerging Markets

    Many analysts and commentators have suggested expanding the original group of four BRIC nations to include other emerging markets. Goldman Sachs has resisted conferring BRIC status on other developing countries on the grounds that their demographics and economic characteristics do not hold the potential for them to rival the economic size or influence of the BRIC countries or todays leading economies .

    In a nod to the interest in other emerging markets, Goldman Sachs identified another group of economically dynamic and promising developing countries creatively labeled the Next 11 in its 2005 Economics Paper No. 134 How Solid are the BRICs? The Next 11 consists of a broader group of emerging markets with the potential to play significant roles in the global economy, including: Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey and Vietnam.

    What Is Brazil Russia India And China

    BRIC is an acronym for the developing nations of Brazil, Russia, India, and China – countries believed to be the future dominant suppliers of manufactured goods, services, and raw materials by 2050. China and India will become the world’s dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become similarly dominant as suppliers of raw materials. As of 2010, South Africa joined the group, which is now referred to as BRICS.

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    So What Does Brics Stand For

    BRICs in simple terms refer to countries that financial analysts all over the world believe offer excellent opportunity for long-term economic growth and development.

    These countries are Brazil, Russia, India and China. The small s is sometimes included to refer to South Africa this will be explained later.

    These economies are regarded as leading emerging markets coming into the new century. One of the major criteria used is population size since the four countries alone accommodate about 40 percent of the worlds population .

    Writing a report analyzing the significance of emerging markets in 2001, Jim ONeill , in a order to reduce repeating the names of these countries over and over came up with this short form.

    The title of the report was The World Needs Better Economic BRICs indirectly comparing them with the Asian Tigers. He stated that by the year 2050 the BRIC nations will be the dominant force in world economics.

    However, the meaning of the term BRICs has since been broadened to include another emerging market believed to be equipped with great internal economic growth potential based on population and also openness to outside investments.

    This fact was established in December 2010 when China asked South Africa to join the group of BRIC nations. ONeill however contends that South Africa population and economy is far too small to be regarded as a BRIC nation.

    Em Equity In Two Decades: A Changing Landscape

    What Are The BRICS Countries

    According to a 2010 report from Goldman Sachs, China might surpass the United States in equity market capitalization terms by 2030 and become the single largest equity market in the world. By 2020, America’s GDP might be only slightly larger than China’s GDP. Together, the four BRICs may account for 41% of the world’s market capitalization by 2030, the report said. In late 2010, China surpassed Japan’s GDP for the first time, with China’s GDP standing at $5.88 trillion compared to Japan’s $5.47 trillion. China thus became the world’s second-largest economy after the United States.

    According to The National Institute of Economic and Social Research based on International Monetary Fund figures, in 2012 Brazil has become the sixth-biggest economy in the world by overtaking United Kingdom with $2.52 trillion and $2.48 trillion, respectively. In 2010, the Brazilian economy was worth $2.09 trillion and UK with $2.25 trillion. Significant increase is caused by Brazilian economic boom on high food and oil prices. Since the beginning of the Great Recession, in Q3 2013 economy of Brazil contracted by 0.5 percent from the previous quarter as the first contraction since Q1 2009.

    Based on a March 2011 Forbes report, the BRIC countries counted 301 billionaires among their combined populations, exceeding the number of billionaires in Europe, which stood at 300 in 2011.

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    Different Economic And Social Measures Of Development

    Development relates to the progress of a country in terms of economic growth, the use of technology and human welfare.

    Development levels vary around the world and we can study this on a local scale, and consider with our own community how different groups of people on one estate might be wealthier and have a better quality of life than others. We could look at development a national scale, and consider how health and wealth change across the British Isles . The last scale we can look at is globally, because there are huge differences between the quality of life between countries and continents. There are 3 very broad groups of countries

    Low income country countries that have a GNI per capita of $1,035 or LESS according to the World Bank. These are poorer countries that have mainly primary jobs such as farming and mining. Countries include Bangladesh and Mali.High income country – a country that has a GNI per capita of $12,535 or above according to the World Bank. These are richer countries that have lots of industry and service jobs such as the UK and Japan.Newly Emerging Economies – Countries that have begun to experience high rates of economic development, usually with rapid industrialisation. They differ from LICs in that they no longer rely primarily on agriculture, have made gains in infrastructure and industrial growth, and are experiencing increasing incomes and high levels of investment. E.g. Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa .

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