Tuesday, December 5, 2023

How Does Chemistry Relate To Cancer

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You Mentioned That Your Students Also Conduct Research At The Cfn What Role Does Hands

Organic Chemistry and Cancer Research

Gao with undergraduate students Eric Doucet and German Fuentes , who presented their research on the pH-triggered release of porphyrin for photodynamic therapy during the Department of Energy Triennial Review at the CFN on August 23, 2016. On April 8, 2017, Fuentes won first place in the New York State Collegiate Science and Technology Entry Program Chemistry I Poster Research Competition and the Dr. Henry Teoh Award for Outstanding Research Poster.

Since joining Old Westbury, Ive been actively working with undergraduates in the research laboratory. Bringing research into the classroom is an important part of my teaching philosophy. From 2016 to 2020, I was the principal investigator of a National Science Foundation Improving Undergraduate STEM Education project. My colleagues and I used two teaching sequences to develop students argumentative abilities: a writing workshop divided into four modules for conceptual learning and weekly laboratory report writing for knowledge application. The four writing workshop modules guided students through the processes of identifying key components of an argument , selecting appropriate and inappropriate justifications, constructing strong justifications and conclusions, and analyzing experimental errors. We encouraged students to design their own experiments and engage in argumentative writing in chemistry laboratories.

The Eu Is Constantly Working To Find Out Which Chemicals Cause Cancer Some Chemicals Are Known To Cause The Disease And Are Heavily Controlled By Law To Protect People Who May Be Exposed To Them

Some common things in our daily lives are known by most people to cause cancer for instance, tobacco smoke and ultraviolet rays from the sun.

Asbestos is another well-known example, which is why its use is strictly controlled. While tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, asbestos exposure is also one of the key occupational risk factors linked to developing lung cancer. But many more substances that most people have never heard of are classified by the EU as carcinogens. ;

Genetic Modifications And Gene Expression

And the science being conducted is paying big dividends. He, for example, is developing novel tools to detect nucleic acid modifications – chemical tags that alter their structure and biological function – and is a leader in studying how RNA modifications control gene expression. His team is collaborating with cancer experts, including leukemia, endometrial, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, breast and colorectal cancer, to understand how these tags differ in cancer and whether targeting them might provide a therapeutic opportunity. He and fellow Comprehensive Cancer Center member Tao Pan, professor of biochemistry and molecular biology, are leading a new Center of Excellence in Genomic Science to spur technology development for diagnostics and therapeutics that target RNA modification pathways.

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Side Effects Of Radiation Therapy

Patients receiving radiation therapy can experience a variety of side effects. For example, sterility could occur if reproductive organs are irradiated. Skin that has been irradiated can appear dry and feel itchy. Some patients will loose sensation in the irradiated area. Radiation can affect the production of white and red blood cells. A reduction of white blood cells results in immunity disorders. Red blood cell lose causes anemia. Gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea and nausea are common during radiation therapy. Some patients will lose hair as well. Lastly, dry mouth and tooth decay are prevalent during radiation treatments.

Medications are available to alleviate symptoms of radiation therapy. Narcotics can be prescribed to help alleviate intense pain. Prescription medications like zofran and phenergan can help with nausea. Special mouthwashes have been formulated to reduce dry mouth and cavities.

Zofran is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. A vial of Zofran 4 mg containing ondansetron for intravenous injection. This medicine is a controlled substance and is used for nausea. Images used with permision

Hair loss is a side effect of radiation, but only locally

Process Chemistry And Development

[JAMA Oncol] reverse: Anthracycline not Affect Cognitive ...

The final synthetic chemistry stages involve the production of a lead compound in suitable quantity and quality to allow large scale animal testing, and then human clinical trials. This involves the optimization of the synthetic route for bulk industrial production, and discovery of the most suitable drug formulation. The former of these is still the bailiwick of medicinal chemistry, the latter brings in the specialization of formulation science . The synthetic chemistry specialization in medicinal chemistry aimed at adaptation and optimization of the synthetic route for industrial scale syntheses of hundreds of kilograms or more is termed process synthesis, and involves thorough knowledge of acceptable synthetic practice in the context of large scale reactions . Critical at this stage is the transition to more stringent GMP requirements for material sourcing, handling, and chemistry.

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Known Substances That Are Carcinogenic To Humans

It can be difficult to test and classify substances as carcinogenic to humans as it;is not ethical to;test to see if something can cause cancer by exposing people to it. Therefore researchers have only been able to classify;a little over 100 substances as carcinogenic to humans.

Some of the most common substances and exposures known as being carcinogenic to humans include :

  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos and mineral substances that contain asbestos
  • Benzene
  • Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion
  • Engine exhaust, diesel
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • Human papillomavirus ;
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Iron and steel founding
  • Leather dust
  • Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated
  • MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents
  • Nickel compounds
  • Paint
  • Processed meat
  • Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite
  • Solar radiation
  • Ultraviolet radiation and ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
  • Vinyl chloride

A Type Of Colon Cancer More Deadly In Women

Colon cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed among women worldwide. In the United States, colon and rectal cancer are together the number three cause of cancer death for women and the number two cause for men. This year, more than 50,000 people are expected to die of the disease.

With WHRYs grant, Johnson is investigating downstream products of what we consume, what our hormones produce, and what bacteria reside in the colon. With this information, she is learning what may lie behind this sex difference in colon cancer risk and what can be done to prevent the worse outcomes for women.

This is the first study of its kind, said Dr. Carolyn M. Mazure, Director of WHRY. It is unique because of the innovation and the power of metabolomics and because of Dr. Johnsons expert training in this new biologic technique. We are so pleased to have her at Yale, where she was recruited specifically to develop this new technology and examine the causes of colon cancer.

Trained at Imperial College London as an analytical chemist and then at The Scripps Research Institute and The National Institutes of Health, Johnson has, through her WHRY-funded study, already begun to uncover markers of colon cancer in women and men that can aid in early diagnosis and treatment and guide strategies for prevention.

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How Is Chemistry Important In Medicine

chemistry, diagnostic tools, medicine, synthetic drugs

I guess I see chemistry as being a crucial part of medicine in two ways.

Chemistry is what I call the how and why part of science. Biology can tell us a lot about what is involved in;biological systems,;but when we look at the human body in terms of wanting to;cure disease,;we need to understand:

  • How the body works normally, so we can see what may have gone wrong.

Chemistry is involved in;modelling chemical systems in the body, to increase our understanding of how we work. For example,;the way haemoglobin ;takes up;and releases iron in the body has been studied*;and found to work using chemical oxidation and reduction processes.

  • Why something may have gone wrong, and how we might be able to fix it.

What might have gone wrong: Chemists have developed;useful diagnostic tools;used everyday in hospitals, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging and CT scanning. These techniques allow pictures to be taken so doctors can see the organs, bones;and tissue inside a patient.

Trying to fix it: Chemistry also plays a huge role in the development of synthetic; drugs such as antibiotics, antimalarials and analgesics . New research is being done on possible ways chemistry can be used to target cancer cells without killing the healthy cells around the cancer growths.

And this is where Chemistry is so important in medicine.;

Pisces Man Cancer Woman: Working Together

Understanding and controlling molecules related to cancer metastasis through chemical biology

A Pisces man and Cancer woman will be able to complement each other well when it comes to completing tasks or projects together. The Cancer woman will naturally take charge, and with a Pisces man, her leadership skills will come to the forefront. With other signs, Cancer women can try to control indirectly, but with a Pisces man, she will have no trouble overtly taking the lead.

A Pisces man will appreciate her direction. As Mutable Water, a Pisces man can lack focus. This can make it hard for him to get things accomplished. On his own, a Pisces man will have a lot of very good ideas but have a great deal of trouble executing his ideas and bringing to reality. A Cancer woman will be able to help him, and with her, he can accomplish more than he ever thought he could.

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Elements And Atoms: What’s The Difference

The atom, by contrast, is a microscopic concept which in modern chemistry relates the unique character of every chemical element to an actual physical particle.

The idea of the atom as the smallest particle of matter had its origins in Greek philosophy around 400 BCE but was controversial from the start It was not until 1803 that John Dalton proposed a rational atomic theory to explain the facts of chemical combination as they were then known, thus being the first to employ macroscopic evidence to illuminate the microscopic world.

It took almost until 1900 for the atomic theory to became universally accepted. In the 1920’s it became possible to measure the sizes and masses of atoms, and in the 1970’s techniques were developed that produced images of individual atoms.

Important Traits Of A Pisces Man In Relation To A Cancer Woman

A Pisces man is a gentle soul. He is kind-hearted and loving. Pisces is the sign that is least attached to the material world, so he tends to have little interest in practical or worldly matters. For this reason, when left to his own devices, he can have trouble with all manner of things that involve life on the ground. Pisces of either gender are famous for their flightiness. This is because it is hard for them to remember things that have no spiritual or metaphysical import.

A Pisces man needs a woman who can accept him as he is and who can ground him. He is capable of deep devotion and will be completely dedicated to his partner. He is more sensitive than most men, and he is likely to have at least some psychic ability.

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Does Benzene Cause Any Other Health Problems

Benzene is a potentially dangerous chemical. High levels of exposure can cause both short-term and long-term health effects.

Short-term effects

Breathing in high doses of benzene can affect the nervous system, which can lead to drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, tremors, confusion, and/or unconsciousness. Consuming foods or fluids contaminated with high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, and rapid heart rate. In extreme cases, inhaling or swallowing very high levels of benzene can be deadly.

Exposure to benzene liquid or vapor can irritate the skin, eyes, and throat. Skin exposure to benzene can result in redness and blisters.

Long-term effects

Long-term exposure to benzene mainly harms the bone marrow, the soft, inner parts of bones where new blood cells are made. This can result in:

  • Anemia , which can cause a person to feel weak and tired.
  • A low white blood cell count, which can lower the bodys ability to fight infections and might even be life-threatening.
  • A low blood platelet count, which can lead to excess bruising and bleeding.

There is also some evidence that long-term exposure to benzene might harm reproductive organs. Some women who have breathed in high levels of benzene for many months have had irregular menstrual periods and ovary shrinkage, but it is not known for sure if benzene caused these effects. It is not known if benzene exposure affects the fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men.

Carcinogens And The Cancer Connection

List of all Causes of Cancer

Cancer is the result of changes in a cells DNA its genetic blueprint. Some of these changes may be inherited from our parents. Others may be caused by outside exposures, which are often referred to as environmental factors. Environmental factors can include a wide range of exposures, such as:

  • Lifestyle factors
  • Naturally occurring exposures
  • Medical treatments
  • Workplace exposures
  • Household exposures
  • Pollution

Some carcinogens cause cancer by changing a cells DNA. Others do not affect DNA directly, but lead to cancer in other ways. For example, they may cause cells to divide at a faster than normal rate, which could increase the chances that DNA changes will occur.

Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time. Some clearly raise a persons risk of one or more types of cancer. But even the strongest carcinogens dont raise the risk of all types of cancer.

Substances labeled as carcinogens can have different levels of cancer-causing potential. Some might increase cancer risk after only a short exposure, but others might only cause cancer after prolonged, high levels of exposure. And for any particular person, the risk of developing cancer depends on many factors, including how they are exposed to a carcinogen, the length and intensity of the exposure, and the person’s genetic makeup.

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Chemistry For Nuclear Power

Radiochemistry, radiation chemistry and nuclear chemical engineering play a very important role for uranium and thorium fuel precursors synthesis, starting from ores of these elements, fuel fabrication, coolant chemistry, fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste treatment and storage, monitoring of radioactive elements release during reactor operation and radioactive geological storage, etc.

Chemistry: The Central Science

Chemistry can be “central” in a much more personal way: with a solid background in Chemistry, you will find it far easier to migrate into other fields as your interests develop.

Chemistry can enhance any career. Chemistry is so deeply ingrained into so many areas of business, government, and environmental management that some background in the subject can be useful in fields as varied as product development, marketing, management, computer science, technical writing, and even law.

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A Unique Study Producing Significant Results

As part of this study, Dr. Johnson and her colleague Dr. Sajid Khan from Yale School of Medicine have acquired a colorectal tumor tissue biobank with help from colleagues at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. They have obtained 3,000 tissue samples from MSKCCs unique biobank of colorectal tumors, which were individually collected during surgery and immediately flash frozen into liquid nitrogen one of the very few large biobanks available for metabolomics analysis.

After studying the samples, Dr. Johnson identified 207 that met the studys criteria. For example, her team excluded samples from patients who underwent chemotherapy before surgery, which can affect metabolite levels in colon tissue.

Her laboratory has successfully optimized the experimental procedure, extracting each sample to purify the metabolome, performing liquid chromatography to separate the thousands of metabolites within each sample, and conducting mass spectrometry to measure masses within a sample using a new, sensitive machine that requires only a small amount of each sample to determine the weight and abundance of each metabolite.

Johnson continues to analyze the data and run tests. But initial results show great promise.

The tests have demonstrated that when comparing tumor tissues from women with stage 3 right-sided colon cancer to tissues from men with stage 3 RCC, there is a difference in the production of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids .

How Is Chemistry Related To Medicine

Personalized Medicine in Cancer: What does it mean and how is it done?

An understanding of organic chemistry is integral to the study of medicine, as it plays a vital role in a wide range of biomedical processes. Inorganic chemistry is also used in the field of pharmacology.

  • Enzymes and other catalysts trigger the body’s essential processes.
  • Ions govern communication between cells.
  • Pharmaceutical science is largely the study of organic compounds and their effects on the functioning of the body. Relatively few inorganic compounds are also involved.

Chemical reactions guide many biological processes and dysfunctions in the body’s organic molecules cause many medical disorders, such as hemophilia, which stems from the lack of a specific organic compound in the blood. Poisoning is another example where chemical reactions can have adverse effects on the human body and its functioning.

The links between chemistry and medicine are complex and result in countless specific applications such as:

  • The study of covalent bonds applies to the comparison of water versus fat-soluble vitamins along with the synthesis of the drug Novacaine.
  • The study of Lewis structure rules and ionic bonds applies to the analysis of free radicals in biology.
  • Acid-base titrations aid in the study of vitamin B12 deficiency.

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Identification And Assay In Chemistry

What do the following people have in common?

  • A plant manager deciding on whether to accept a rail tank car of vinyl chloride for manufacture into plastic pipe
  • An agricultural chemist who wants to know about the vitamin content of a new vegetable hybrid
  • The manager of a city water-treatment plant who needs to make sure that the carbonate content of the water is maintained high enough to prevent corrosion, but low enough to prevent scale build-up

The answer is that all depend on analytical techniques measurements of the nature or quantity of some substance of interest, sometimes at very low concentrations.

“In the early 1900’s a chemist could analyze about 200 samples per year for the major rock-forming elements. Today, using modern tools, two chemists can perform the same type of analyses on 7,000 samples per year.”

A large amount of research is devoted to finding more accurate and convenient means of identifying substances. Many of these involve sophisticated instruments; among the most widely used are the following:

Make sure you thoroughly understand the following essential concepts that have been presented above.

  • Distinguish beween
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